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Full text of "Wiltshire archaeological and natural history magazine"

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THE 



WILTSHIRE 
Archaeological & Natural History 

MAGAZINE. 

Published under the Direction of the Society 

Formed in that County A.D. 1853. ^ 

Edited by Canon E. H. Goddard, F.S.A., Clyffe Vicarage, Swindon. 

VOL. XLVI. 
Nos. 157—161. December, 1932— December, 1934. 




DEVIZES: 
C. H. Woodward, Exchange Buildings, Station Road. 



December, 1934. 




ERKATA IN VOL. XLVI. 

p. 117, 1. 19 from bottom. For xi + 21, read xi + 217. 

p. 134, 1. 3 and 4. For Sir Francis Burnett and Sir Robert Burnett, 

read Burdett. 
p. 167, 1. 20 from top. For Kempston, read Kempton. 
p. 168, 1. 28 from top. For Mildenhill, read Mildenhall. 
p. 184, 1. 2 from botttom. For Jo. Tilke, read Jo. Filke. 
p. 232, 1. 9 from top. For Frances read Francis. 
p. 357, 1. 26 from top. For Netherby, read Netherbury. 
p. 430, 1. 5 from bottom. For Bishop Osborne, read Osmund, 
p. 431, 1. 6 from bottom. For Robert Poore, read Richard Poore. 
p. 520, 1. 15 from bottom. For Rev. C. Morgan Jones, read C. Morgan 

Gale. 
p. 538, 1. 11 from top. For two sons, read a son. 



CONTENTS OF VOL. XLVI. 



No. CLVIT. December, 1932. 

The Demolition of Chisenbury Trendle : By Mrs. M. E. 

Cunnington, Hon. F.S.A. Scot 1— 3 

Chisbury Camp : By Mrs. M E. Cunnington, Hon. F.S.A. Scot. 4— 7 
Notes on the Larmer, Wermere, Ashmore, and Tollard Royal 

Ponds : By Herbert S. Toms 8— 15 

The Gorges Monument in Salisbury Cathedral : By Canon 

J. M. J Fletcher, F.R. Hist. Soc 16— 34 

Notes on Erchfont Manor House : By H. Rivers Pollock ... 35 — 49 

William Gaby, His Booke. 1656. [Extracts and Notes by 

Edward Coward 50— 57 

Notes on the Flora of the Salisbury District : By Mrs. Campbell 

and Miss B. Gullick, B Sc .,= 58— 63 

Wiltshire Politicians (c. 1700) : By the Marquess of Lansdowne 64 — 85 
The Seventy-Ninth General Meeting of the Wiltshire Archaeolo- 
gical and Natural History Society, held at Malmesbury, July 

26th, 27th, and 28th, 1932 86— 93 

Notes— Basalt Weapon-head from Rotherley Down, Rushmore. 
The Great Bedwyn Mint. Index of Architectural Records. 
Ruth Pierce, Coroner's Inquisition. Bathynella found at 
Corsham. Note to Antiqua Monumenta of Bedwyn— By 
G. M. Young. Skeletons found at Old Sarum, August, 1931. 
The Catalogue of the Sturge Collection of Flint Implements 
in the British Museum, by Reginald A. Smith, 1931. Mar- 
den Circle. Roman Coins from Wootton Bassett. A Saxon 
Mint at Chippenham 1 Square Earthwork at Russley Park, 
S. of Baydon. Roman Remains at Burderop Racecourse. 
Roman Hypocaust at Chiseldon. St. Catherine's Chapel, 
Wanborough. An Iron Sword from Baydon. A Pottery 
Button from Upham. Lyneham Register. Roman Bronze 
Statuette from Ashton Keynes. Bronze Dagger from 
Ashton Keynes. A Wiltshire Surveyor's Measuring Wheel. 
Parish Register restored to Bremhill. Bromham Pebbles. 
Great Stone Cannon Balls in Wilts. Neolithic Pottery of 
Wiltshire. The Gorges Monument in Salisbury Cathedral ; 
— The Gifts of the Spirit. Catalogue of Air Photographs 
exhibited by the Ordnance Survey at the International 
Congress of Prehistoric Archseology. From Documents 
preserved in the Vestry of Box Parish Church. Downton 
Mace. Roman Sculptured Stone Figure of Atys found at 
Froxfield, now in the British Museum. Brass of Elizabeth 

Kington 94—109 

Wilts Obituary 110—116 

Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles 116 — 144 

Additions to Museum and Library ,..., , , ,,.,. 145 — 146 



IV CONTENTS OF VOL. XLVI. 

No. CLVIII. June, 1933. 

Wiltshire in Pagan Saxon Times : By Mrs. M. E. Cunnington, 

Hon F.SA. Scot 147-175 

Parliamentary Surveys of the Crown Land in Braden Forest 

(1651) : Transcribed by Canon F. H. Manley 176 -184 

Some Domestic and Other Bills of the Wyndham Family 

(Salisbury): By C. W. Pugh, M.B.E 185-197 

Excavations in Yarnbury Castle Camp, 1932 : By Mrs M. E. 

, Cunnington, Hon. F.S.A. Scot 198-213 

Report on Three Skeletons from Yarnbury Camp : By M. L. 

Tildesley 214—217 

A Middle Bronze Age Urnfield on Easton Down, Winterslow : 

By J. F. S. Stone, D.Phil 218—224 

Excavations at Easton Down, Winterslow, 1931 — 1932: By 

J. F. S. Stone, B.A., D.Phil 225—242 

Report on the Birds of Wiltshire for 1932 : Edited by the Rev. 

M. W. Willson, 59, Vicarage Street, Warminster 243 — 258 

Old Sarum Pottery : By F. Stevens, O.B.E., F.S.A 259-269 

Roman Remains from Easton Grey : By A. D. Passmore 270 -272 

Wilts Obituary 273—280 

W iltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles 280 — 295 

Additions to Museum and Library 296 

Accounts of the Society for the Year 1932 297-300 



No. CLIX. December, 1933. 

The Wiltshire Hundreds : By H. B. Walters, F.S A 301-311 

Notes on the Records and Accounts of the Overseers of the Poor 

of Chippenham, 1691 — 1805: By F. H. Hinton... 312—335 

William Gaby, His Booke. 1656 [II.] : By Edward Coward... 336-349 
Evidence of Climate derived from Snail Shells, and its Bearing 

on the Date of Stonehenge : By Mrs. M. E. Cunnington, 

Hon. F.S.A., Scot 350—355 

A Subscription Book of the Deans of Sarum (1662 — 1706) : By 

Canon F. H. Manley 356-360 

The Eightieth General Meeting of the Wiltshire Archaeological 

and Natural History Society, held at Winchester, July 31st, 

August Ist and 2nd, 1933 361—365 

A, Tecriar of the Common Fields belonging to Broad Town & 

Thornhill in the County of Wilts. 1725 : Transcribed by 

■ ■ Canon E. H. Goddard, F.S.A 366—379 

The Giant's Caves Long Barrow, Luckington : By A. D. Passmore 380 — 386 



CONTENTS OF VOL. XLVI. V 

Notes —Skeleton found in a Barrow at Idmiston. Skeleton 
found on Boscombe Down East. Chessmen in Salisbury 
Museum. Saxon Sculptured Angel. Ruined House at 
Chute. Camp Hill Reservoir, Salisbury, 1933. Saxon 
Brooches found at Coleshill (Berks). Recent Air Discoveries. 
Sheila na Gig Figure on Oaksey Church. The Great 
Bustard. Folk Lore, Shrewton. The " Pelican " Portrait 
of Q. Elizabeth, A Saxon Saucer Brooch from Mildenhall. 
Bromham, Quaker Burial Ground and Meeting House. 
Chitterne All Saints Churchwardens' Accounts, Extracts 
from, 1732 onward. A Second Stonehenge " Altar " Stone ? 387 — 397 

Wilts Obituary 398—400 

Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles 401—414 

Additions to the Library , 415 — 416 



No. CLX. June, 1934. 
The Monasteries of Wiltshire : Presidential Address by Sir 

Harold Brakspear, K.C V.O., F.S A. 417-432 

Ivychurch Priory ; By Sir Harold Brakspear, K.C.V.O., F.S.A. 433-440 
The Wilton Hanging Bowl : By Frank Stevens, Q.B.E , F.S A. 441—444 
Three " Peterborough " Dwelling Pits and a Doubly- stockaded 
Early Iron Age Ditch at Winterbourne Dauntsey : By 

J. F. S. Stone, B.A., D. Phil 445-453 

Report on the Birds of Wiltshire for 1933 : Edited by C. M. R, 

Pitman, 39, Rampart Road, Salisbury 454—474 

A Lawyer's Lumber Room : By B. Howard Cunnington, F.S. A., 

Scot., Hon. Curator, Wilts Archaeological Society 475 — 477 

Wiltshire Words. Addenda : By the late Rev. C. V. Goddard and 

Canon E. H. Goddard, F.S.A 478-519 

Notes— Brass of Elizabeth Kington, died 1597. The Longford 
Yews, The Font replaced in Great Cheverell Church. 
Legend of King Lud's Hunting Box in Conolt Park. Altar 
in Southwell Minster from a " Church near Devizes." 
Briefs in Stapleford Church Books. Bronze Implements. 
A Stone from Stonehenge in Salisbury Museum. The 
Death's Head Hawk Moth {Acherontia atropos) and other 

Moths in 1933. The Wiltshire Hundreds 520—526 

Wilts Obituary , 527—531 

Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles 532—544 

Additions to Museum and Library 545 — 547 

Accounts of the Society for the Year 1933 548-551 

List of Members 552—562 



VI CONTENTS OF VOL. XLVI. 

No. CLXI. December, 1934. 

A Case of Bronze Age Cephalotaphy on Easton Down, Winter- 
slow : By J. F. S. Stone, D. Pbil 563—567 

Notes on the Early History of Box : By George Kidston 568—578 

"The Highfieid Pit Dwellings," Fisherton, Salisbury, Excavated 
May, 1866, to September, 1869 : By Frank Stevens, O.B.E., 

F.S.A 579-624 

Bishop Giles of Bridport, 1257—1262 : By Canon J. M. J. 

Fletcher, F.R. Hist. S 625-636 

De Vaux College, Salisbury. Founded by Bishop Giles of 

Bridport : By Canon J. M. J. Fletcher, F.R. Hist. S 637—651 

Wilts Obituary 652—653 

Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles 654 — 658 

Additions to Museum and Library 659—661 

Index to Vol. XLVI ., 662—722 



Illustrations. 

Chisenbury Trendie — Air Photo, 2. Pottery from Chisbury Camp, 6. 
Wermere, 10. Arms of the Marchioness of Northampton and Snachen- 
berg Arms, 33. Erchfont Manor House— South Front; East Front; 
West Front ; East Front (from an old picture) ; The Staircase ; The 
Dining Room (previously the Entrance Hall), 40 — 48. Black Basalt 
Implement found on the site of Rotherley Romano British Village, 94. 
Iron Sword, cir. 1400, found at Baydon, 102. Fig. 1 — Pottery Button 
from Upham, in Aldbourne. Fig. 2 — Bronze Dagger from Ashton Keynes, 
in Devizes Museum. Fig. 3 — Roman Bronze Statuette and Cock from 
Ashton Keynes. Fig 4— Stone Figure of Atys in the British Museum, 
found at Rudge, in Froxfield, 108—109. Yarnbury Castle Camp Exca- 
vations, 1932, Plates I to XVII, Plans and Sections, Flint Curbing, 
Postholes, Bone Implements, Chalk objects. Pottery, 202. Middle Bronze 
Age Urnfield on Easton Down, Winterslow, Plates I to III, Plan and 
Sections, Urns, 218. Excavations at Easton Down, Winterslow, 1931 — 
1932. Plates 1 to IX, Sections of Pitshaft and workshop fioor, Plans of 
Neolithic Houses, Pottery from Dwelling Pits, Bronze Age Urn and 
Whetstone, Flint Implements, Rostro-carinate Hand-axe, Plan of Pit 
Dwellings, 234. Old Sarum Pottery. Plates I to VII, 266. Roman 
Sculpture found at Easton Grey, 270. Head of Roman figure with cross 
incised on cap, found at Easton Grey, 272. Map of Wiltshire showing 
Hundreds and Parishes, 302, Plan of the Giant's Caves Long Barrow, 
Luckington I, 381. Plate I— Luckington Giant's Caves Long Barrow, 
West and East Chambers. Plate II, Fig. I— West Chamber excavated, 



CONTENTS OF VOL. XLVI. vii 

looking North. Plate II, Fig. II— West Chamber looking North. Plate 
Plate III— Fig. I— West Chamber excavated, looking South. Plate III, 
Fig. II— East Chamber looking North. Plate IV, Fig. I— Looking North 
through South Chamber, after excavation. Plate IV, Fig. II— South 
Chamber excavated, looking South, 384—385. Plan of Camp Hill 
Reservoir, Salisbury, 390. Saxon Bronze Saucer Brooch, Mildenhall, 393. 
The larger of the two Sarsens at Berwick S. James. The smaller of the 
two Sarsens at Berwick St. James. Two Sarsen stones at the junction of 
the by-road with the street at Berwick St. James, 396—397. Plan of 
Ivychurch Priory, 436. The Wilton Hanging Bowl, 442. " Peterborough " 
Dwelling Pits at Winterbourne Dauntsey. Plates I — 4, Plan of Ditch 
and Pits, Plan and Section of Pit 3 and Flint Axe, Pottery from Dwell- 
ing Pits, Plan and Sections of Ditch, 448. Flint Implement from Easton 
Down, Wiltshire, 565. Plans and Sections of Pits and Trenches at High- 
field, Salisbury, Pottery wares, Bone and antler objects, animal bones, &c.. 
Figs. I— TX, 580—620. Tomb of Giles de Bridport, Bishop of Salisbury, 
1257—1262, 634. Plan of Site of De Vaux College, Salisbury, 649. 
East Front of De Vaux College, Salisbury, 650. 



M 



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No. CLVII. DECEMBER, 1932. Vol. XLVL 



THE 

WILTSHIRE 

Archaeological & Natural History 

MAGAZINE, 

Published under the Direction of the 

SOCIETY FOEMED IN THAT COUNTY 
A. D. 1 8 5 3, 



EDITED BY 

CANON E. H. GODDARD, F.S.A., Clyffe Vicarage, Swindon. 

[The authors of the papers printed in this " Magazine" are alone responsible for all 
statements made therein.] 




DEVIZES 
Printed foe the Society by C. H. Woodward, 
Exchange Buildings, Station Koad. 

Price 8s, Members, Gratis, 



NOTICE TO MEMBEKS. 

TAKE NOTICE tliab a copious Index for the preceding eight 
vohimes of the Magazine will be found at the end of Vols, 
viii., xvi., xxiv,, and xxxii. The subsequent Volumes are 
each fully indexed separately. 

The annual subscription is 15s. 6<i., the entrance fee for new 
Members is 10s. ^d. Life Membership £15 15s. 

Members who have not paid tlieir Subscriptions to the Society for 
the current year, are requested to remit the same forthwith to 
the Financial Secretary, Mr. David Owen, Bank Chambers, 
Devizes, to whom also all communications as to the supply 
of Magazines should be addressed. 

The Numbers of \j\\\q Magazine vj'iWhQ diQYivQVQdi gratis, as issued, 
to Members who are not in arrear of their Annual Subscrip- 
tions, but in accordance with Byelaw No. 8 " The Financial 
Secretary shall ^ive notice to Members in arrear, and the 
Society's publications will not be forwarded to Members whose 
Subscriptions shall remain unpaid after such notice." 

All other communications to be addressed to the Honorary Secre- 
tary : Canon E. H. Goddahd, F.S.A., Clyfte Vicarage, Swindon. 

THE SOCIETY'S Py^LICATaONS. 

To be obtained of Mr. :D. OWEH, Bank Chambers, Devizes. 

THE BRITISH AND ROMAN ANTIQUITIES OF THE NORTH 
WILTSHIRE DOWNS, by the Rev, A, 0. Smith, M.A. One Volume, Atlas 
4to, 248 pp., 17 large Maps, and 110 Woodcuts, Extra Cloth. Price £2 28. 
One copy offered to each Member of the Society at £1 Is. Od. 

THE FLOWERING PLANTS OF WILTSHIRE. One Volume, 8vo, 
504 pp., with Map, Cloth. By the Rev, T. A. Preston, M.A. Price to the 
Public 16s. ; but one copy offered to every Member of the Society at half-price. 

CATALOGUE of the STOURHEAD COLLECTION of ANTIQUITIES 
IN THE SOCIETY'S MUSEUM, with 175 Illustrations. Part I. Price Is. 6d. 

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and 38. 6d. (except in the case of a few numbers, the price of which is raised). 
Members are allowed a reduction of 25 per cent, from these prices. 



I 



WILTSHIRE 
Archaeological & Natural History 

MAGAZINE. 



No. CLVIL DECEMBER, 1932. Vol. XLVI. 



Conknts. page. 

The Demolition of Chisenbury Trendle ; By Mrs. M. E. 

Cunnington, Hon. F.SA. Scot 1— 3 

Chisbury Camp : By Mrs. M. E. Cunnington, Hon. F.S.A. Scot. 4— 7 

Notes on the Larmer, Wermere, Ashmore, and Tollard 

Royal Ponds : By Herbert S. Toms 8— 15 

The Gorges Monument in Salisbury Cathedral : By Canon 

J. M. J. Fletcher, F. R. Hist. Soc 16— 34 

Notes on Erchfont Manor House : By H. Rivers Pollock... 35 — 49 

William Gaby, His Booke. 1656. [Extracts and Notes by 

Edward Coward] 50 — 57 

Notes on thk Flora of the Salisbury District : By Mrs. 

Campbell and Miss B. Gullick, B.Sc 58— 63 

Wiltshire Politicians (c. 1 700) : By the Marquess of Lansdowne 64 — 85 

The Seventy-Ninth General Meeting of the Wiltshire 
Arch^ological and Natural History Society, held at 
Malmesbury, July 26th, 27rH, and 28th, 1932 86— 93 

Notes. — Basalt Weapon-head from Rotherley Down, Rushmore. 
The Great Bedwyn Mint. Index of Architectural Records. 
Ruth Pierce, Coroner's Inquisition. Bathynella found at 
Corsham. Note to Antiqua Monumenta of Bedwyn— By 
G. M. Young. Skeletons found at Old Sarum, August, 1931. 
The Catalogue of the Sturge Collection of Flint Implements 
in the British Museum, by Reginald A. Smith, 1931. Mar- 
den Circle. Roman Coins from Wootton Bassett. A Saxon 
Mint at Chippenham ? Square Earthwork at Russley Park, 
S. of Baydon. Roman Remains at Burderop Racecourse. 
Roman Hypocaust at Chiseldon. St. Catherine's Chapel, 
Wanborough. An Iron Sword from Baydon. A Pottery 
Button from Upham. Lyneham Register. Roman Bronze 
Statuette from Ashton Keynes. Bronze Dagger from 



Ashton Keynes. A Wiltshire Surveyor's Measuring Wheel. 
Parish Register restored to Bremhill. Bromham Pebbles. 
Great Stone Cannon Balls in Wilts. Neolithic Pottery of 
Wiltshire. The Gorges Monument in Salisbury Cathedral. 
— The Gifts of the Spirit. Catalogue of Air Photographs 
exhibited by the Ordnance Survey at the International 
Congress of Prehistoric Archaeology. From Documents 
preserved in the Vestry of Box Parish Church. Downton 
Mace. Roman Sculptured Stone Figure of Atys found at 
Froxfield, now in the British Museum. Brass of Elizabeth 
Kington 94—109 

Wilts Obituary 110—116 

WiLTSHiEE Books, Pamphlets, and Articles 116—144 

Additions to Museum and Libr.4ry 145 — 146 



ILLUSTRATIONS. 

Chisenbury Trendle— Air Photo 2 

Pottery from Chisbury Camp 6 

Wermere 10 

Arms of the Marchioness of Northampton and Snachenberg Arms 33 

Erchfont Manor House— South Front ; East Front ; West Front ; 
East Front (from an old picture) ; The Staircase ; The 
Dining Room (previously the Entrance Hall) 40 — 48 

Black Basalt Implement found on the site of Rotherly Romano- 
British Village 94 

Iron Sword, cir. 1400. Found at Baydon 102 

Fig. 1 — Pottery Button from Upham, in Aldbourne. Fig. 2 — 
Bronze Dagger from Ashton Keynes, in Devizes Museum 
Fig. 3— Roman Bronze Statuette and Cock from Ashton 
Keynes. Fig 4. — Stone ficjute of Atys in the British 
Museum, found at Rudge, in Froxfield 108—109 



Devizes : C. H. Woodward, Exchange Buildings, Station Road. 



THE 

WILTSHIRE MAGAZINE. 



MULTORUM MANIBUS GRANDE LEVATUR ONUS."— OWc?. 



No. CLVII. December, 1932. Vol. XLVI. 

THE DEMOLITION OF GHISENBUKY TEENDLE. 
By Mrs. M. E. Cunnington, Hon. F.S.A., Scot. 

In June, 1931, it was represented on behalf of the Royal Air Force, that 
night flying from the Upavon aerodome was not possible with the latest 
type of fighting aeroplane in certain winds, because the bank of Chisenbury 
Trendle presented a dangerous obstacle to landing. 

As the bank of the enclosure was already in a very ruinous condition, 
and the site was not one of outstanding importance from an archaeological 
standpoint, it was felt that no serious opposition to the levelling of the bank 
could be sustained on archaeological grounds, in view of the danger it con- 
stituted to the personnel of the R.A.F. 

The Chief Inspector of Ancient Monuments (H.M. Office of Works) con- 
curred in this view, and stated that no opposition to levelling the bank 
would be made on condition that opportunity for inspecting the site during 
the work was afforded to Mr. B. H. Cunnington, or someone representing 
our Society. To this the authorities of the R.A.F. readily agreed, and every 
facility was given for visiting the site both before and during the progress 
of the work of levelling. On the suggestion being made, photographs from 
the air were taken before the work was begun, and these now form a valu- 
able record of the earthwork as it was. 

These photographs were taken in July, 1931, when the site was covered 
with a crop of growing corn, a time that should be most favourable to 
showing up any differences in growth of the crops over filled-in pits or other 
ancient excavations, but nothing of the kind appears on the photographs. 

Chisenbury Trendle, roughly circular in shape as its name suggests, was 
situated on the Downs a mile north-east of East Chisenbury, in the parish 
of Enford (Wilts 6in. maps, 47 N.E.). It was described by Hoare (An. Wilts, 
I., 192) as " the remains of a circular earthen work, vulgarly called Chisen- 
bury Trendle. Its area contains about five acres, its circumference 594 
yards, and the depth of its rampart 16ft. There are vestiges still remaining 
VOL. XLVI. — NO. CLVII. B 



2 21ie Demolition of Chisenhitry Trendle^ 

of an outwork to the south, on which side I imagine was the entrance. In 
form and sitwation this work bears strongly the marks of one of those 
circles appropriated in ancient times either to religious or judicial purposes." 
A footnote adds " We find many circular earthen works having the name of 
Trendle, which is derived from the Saxon word trendle, signifying a globe, 
sphere, or circle." 

Before the final demolition there was only a small section of the enclosing 
bank on the northern side that had not been partially levelled and ploughed 
over, and even this section had been much dug into, and the ditch almost 
entirely filled up. 

Hoare, as he often did, exaggerated the size of the bank, for its vertical 
height, measured during the demolition at the highest and best preserved 
section, rarely exceeded 5ft. and nowhere reached 6ft. The site does not 
seem to have been under cultivation in Hoare's time, as it has for many 
.years since, but it must be doubted if the bank was ever anything like 16ft. 
in height. In reference to the neighbouring work of Lidbury Camp, Hoare 
made the impossible statement that the " depth of the vallum was 40ft„" but 
in excavation it was shown that the vallum was rarely much more than 3ft. 
in vertical height, or the ditch more than 5ft. deep, and this work had not 
been touched since Moare saw it (W.A.M.^ xl., 28, Pis. iii. and iv.). 

It must also be doubted if this irregularly shaped and comparatively 
large enclosure was designed for " religious or judicial purposes." Without 
further evidence derived from an examination of the interior it seems more 
likely to have served as a place of habitation, or even as an enclosure for 
cattle. 

Nothing could be seen on the ground of the outwork on the south side 
referred to by Hoare, but the whitish patch on the photograph from the air 
on the south-east corner may perhaps be due to its levelling at this spot. 

Fortunately, quite a considerable quantity of fragmentary pottery was 
found in the old surface layer under the bank during the work of levelling, 
making it possible to fix approximately the date of the erection of the earth- 
work. 

In all some hundreds of sherds were found, some of the most characteristic 
being so large and well preserved that it is hardly possible that they could 
have lain long exposed on the surface before the bank was thrown up over 
them, so that the period of the deposit of the pottery and the erection of 
the bank must have been contemporary, and the character of the pottery 
shows this to have been in the early Iron Age, probably between 400 and 
200 B.C. 

The finer quality pottery consists of fragments of black polished ware, 
and of red haematite coated bowls, similar to those found at All Cannings 
Cross, and the coarser wares without exception are such as might have come 
from that site, including pottery ornamented with finger-tip impressions. 

Of the the red-coated bowls, fragments of those of the cordoned type are 
the most numerous, one piece showing a chevron pattern incised after 
baking in the manner characteristic of this type of bowl as found at All 
Cannings Cross and elsewhere. {All Cannings Cross, pi. 28, figs. 3, 4 ; pi. 
33, figs. 1—6.) 






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By Mrs, M, E. Cunnington, Ron. F.S.A., Scot. 3 

Haematite coated bowls ornamented with horizontal furrowing such as 
were common at All Cannings Cross were not represented among the frag- 
ments. Several other Wiltshire sites have yielded sherds of the haematite 
coated cordoned type and not of the furrowed bowls, and there is reason to 
believe that the cordoned bowls as a type are rather later than those 
ornamented with horizontal furrows. It appears, therefore, that the erection 
of the Trendle was contemporary with the later part of the occupation of 
the village at All Cannings Cross rather than with the earlier, and that it 
is comparable in age with Lidbury and Figsbury Camp. {W.A.M., xliii., 
61, note.) 

A piece of a loom weight of burnt chalk, three worked discs of chalk, a 
bone " counter," ^ and a human lower jaw, were found together with the 
pottery. 

Two " hearth sites" consisting of a quantity of charcoal and burnt flints 
were exposed under the bank ; they were both roughly circular, some 4ft. 
in diameter and six to eight inches in depth. 

The pottery and the other objects found have been placed in the Society's 
Museum at Devizes, 

That the shape, or plan, of an earthwork is not always a very sure guide 
as to its date has been shown in the case of Chisenbury Trendle and 
Lidbury Camp, two small earthworks on the down within about a mile of 
each other. The pottery from these two earthworks shows that they are 
much of the same date, and therefore the work of the same people, but 
Lidbury is an approximately rectangular and rectilinear enclosure, while at 
the Trendle all the lines were curved and the shape roughly circular. 



' The " counter " is inscribed with the figure of a cross and is almost 
identical in size and shape with one similarly inscribed found at All Cannings 
Cross, pi. 6, fig. 31. 

B 2 



CHISBUKY CAMP. 
By Mrs. M. E. Cunnington, Hon. F.iS.A. Scot. 

Chisbury Camp is in the parish of Little Bedwyn, and was described by 
Hoare as "among the finest fortified camps in our country, though its out- 
line and plan are much disfigured by a large farm house and offices built 
within its area, and by the trees that grow amongst its ramparts." 'He 
computed its area as about 15 acres, and suggested that here an "ancient 
British fortress" had been reconstructed by the Saxons, but this latter 
suggestion cannot now be accepted. 

The ramparts are partly double and partly triple ; as to the number or 
character of the original entrances without excavation nothing can be said ; 
a road intersects the camp roughly from north to south, and the course of 
this road may have been determined by then existing gaps in the ramparta 
representing original entrances. 

The Excavations. 

In connection with a new water supply for Bedwyn and district, a 
reservoir and connecting trenches were dug within the area of Chisbury 
Camp, in the spring of 1932. The pipes were carried through the road on 
the southern side, and the earthworks that are scheduled under the Ancient 
Monuments Act were not interfered with ; H.M. Office of Works raised na 
objection to the scheme on condition that facilities were afiforded for 
arcbseological observation. 

The subsoil consists of gravel with considerable deposits of clay, apparently 
forming a fairly uniform layer beneath the gravel ; though the reservoir 
was some seven to eight feet deep the underlying chalk was not reached. 

Several fiUed-in storage pits were shown in section in the cuttings. The 
contractors allowed several of these to be further explored, and pottery was 
found in them that affords evidence of the date of the occupation of the 
site. It is not possible to say exactly how many pits were exposed, because 
some of the patches of dark soil resembling pits in section, were proved to 
be only places where large trees had once stood, and no doubt under natural 
conditions this gravelly area would have been thickly wooded ; of the ten 
dark patches tested five proved to be pits and five tree sites. 

Altogether some eighty fragments of pottery were found, but not a 
particle of bone, no doubt owing to the soil being unfavourable to its preser- 
vation, and in addition to the pottery the only relic found was a well-made 
stone spindle whorl. 



An. Wilts, II., 13 30. 



Chishury Cairfp, 5 

The Date of the Earthwork and of the Pottery. 

The pottery seems to be all of one period, and to be of first century A.D. 
date. As it was not found in direct association with the earthworks, it 
cannot be said definitely to date them, but it gives a valuable clue, and it 
is at least highly probable that the earthworks are of the same date as the 
pottery. Had the works been of an earlier date, or the site been occupied 
earlier, it is probable that some sherds of an earlier type would have been 
found. 

It appears probable, therefore, that the site was fortified not very long 
before the Roman occupation, perhaps between the period of Caesar's 
invasions and the Claudian conquest, and the site seems to have been 
abandoned not very long after that event. 

Though the pottery consists only of broken fragments, and it is not 
possible to reconstruct any one vessel, the sherds are so characteristic that 
they leave no doubt as to the type of vessel to which they belonged. They 
are mostly those of wheel-turned bead rim bowls, and others are fragments 
of vessels such has have been found elsewhere, associated with these bowls 
in the county, notably at Uasterley Camp,* and at Withy Copse, (Oare), just 
outside the ramparts of Martinsell Camp.^ 

Types of Pottery {See page 6). 

Fig. 1 shows a typical wheel-turned bead rim bowl, based on actual frag- 
ments, with a girth groove below the shoulder, and what is more unusual 
two incised lines above. The ware of these bowls is hard and well baked, 
often slightly sandy and mixed with crushed brick or potsherds, and charred 
vegetable matter that shows in the grey paste as black specks. 

Fig. 2 shows a more or less conjectural restoration from actual fragments 
of a well-known type of vessel, usually described as barrel or butt-shaped, 
ornamented with girth grooves and cordons. It is wheel-turned, of some- 
what soft and sandy grey paste, with buflf surface, poorly fired. Imported 
or made locally 1 

Fig. 3 is a more or less conjectural reconstruction of several fragments of 
fine red ware found in one of the pits, resembling that usually known as 
Samian. These fragments were sent to the British Museum for an opinion 
as to their probable date, and Mr. Hawkes reports that they appear to be of 
south Gaulish manufacture of the 1st century, about 40—60 A.D., the 
earlier date being the more probable. On the upright rim is a band of 
*' roulette " or " runnering " ornament. 

This pottery was evidently imported just before, or just after, the Roman 
conquest. Discoveries on various town sites, such as Silchester and Veru- 
1am, and in Wiltshire at Casterley and Withy Copse (Oare), have shown that 
pottery and other luxuries from Italy and Gaul were being imported at the 
beginning of the Christian era, so it is not improbable that this ware found 
its way to Chisbury before the Roman occupation of the country. It is, 

^ Wilts Arch. Mag., vol. xxxviii , 53. Catalogue of the Museum, IL, p. 104. 
* Wilts. Arch. Mag : vol. xxxvi, 125. Museum Catalogue II., p. 96. 



6 



Chisbury Camip. 



indeed, being more and more realised that southern Britain had been sub- 
jected to Roman influences by a process of peaceful penetration for some 
time before the actual conquest. 

Fig. 4. Vessel of brownish-grey sandy paste fumed black ; an impressed 
wavy line around the shoulder ; polished above this line, dull matt surface 
below. Vessels of similar form from Colchester and Silchester are attributed 
to the first half of the 1st century, A.D. See May, Silchester, PI. 78, Type 
4 ; Colchester, PI. 75, I. 

Fig. 5. Straight-sided bowl of brownish-black ware. For similar vessels 
see Hengistbury Head Report, PI. 19, Nos. 8—9. 

A fragment of thick creamy-coloured ware seems to be that of an amphora, 
or witae jar (not illustrated). 





Pottery from Chisbury Camp . 



By Mrs. 3L E. Cunnington, F.S.A., Scot. 7 

The Names Chisbuey and Chisenbury. 

The syllable "chis" enters into a number of Wiltshire place names, such 
as Chisbury, Chisenbury, Chiselbury, Chiseldon, etc. Ekblom suggests 
that in the case of Chisbury, it is derived from the Saxon proper name Cissa.* 
In Chiseldon, on the other hand, he derives it from a west Saxon word cisil 
or cysel, meaning gravel or shingle, as in Chesil Beach. 

The gravelly subsoil in and around Chisbury makes the latter derivation 
quite appropriate to the site, and the suggestion is here made, that that is 
the true derivation of the name. 

The same derivation is equally suited to Chisenbury, a hamlet on the 
river Avon, j from which the Trendle gets its name as being situate on the 
down attached to Chisenbury. 

A similar! derivation would suit Chidbury Camp, or Sidbury as it is now 
called, in the parish of North Tidworth, a hill top covered with gravelly 
deposits. 

In the same pages Hoare spells Chisbury in three different ways, Chis- 
bury, Chidbury, Cheesebury. 



The Place Names of Wiltshire^ Upsala, 1917. 



NOTES ON THE LAKMER, WERMERE, ASHMORE, AND 

TOLLARD ROYAL PONDS. 

By Herbert S. Toms. 

The report on " Chettle Down Earthwork," in the Proceedings of the Dorset 
Natural History and Archaeological Society^ vol. 51, will have revealed my 
interest in the subject of ponds. 

That interest was considerably heightened when, some time since, I 
gathered from Mawer and Stenton's Place-names of Sussex, that several 
village names in Sussex end in " mer," " mere," " more," and " mare " (all 
these suflSxes meaning " pond " or " pool ") ; the inference being that the 
Early English grouped their settlements round what seem to have been 
pre existing ponds and named each settlement accordingly. 

Examples near Brighton are :— " Falmer," the dark pond ; " Stanmer," 
the stone pond ; and " Balmer," the pond by the burgh. 

I then noted that other villages, not named after ponds, but with either 
Saxon elements in the place-name or pre-Norman features in the church, 
have the village pond in close proximity to the church (as is also the case 
at Falmer and Stanmer mentioned above) ; the suggestion being that these 
ponds, too, are of equally ancient origin. 

Very naturally my thoughts subsequently turned to the place-names with 
similar suffixes in the Tollard Royal district of Cranborne Chase : Ashmore, 
Bridmore, Larmer, and Rushmore. I remembered, too, that the late 
General Pitt Rivers had made an attempt, in his Short Guide to the Larmer 
Grounds, dec, to get at the derivation of the name " Larmer." In the more 
recent Handbook to the Pitt Rivers Museum, Farnham, 1929, pp, 7 — 8, I 
found what is practically an abbreviated version of the General's attempt, 
and as follows : — 

" The word ' larmer ' has been said to mean ' rush boundary ' ; maere 
is a boundary and laefer (O.E. a rush) is the suggested etymology for 
the first part of the word, although there are no rushes within miles to 
bear this out. The word Levers, however, was used for the yellow flag 
and its leaves- . . . Larmer was first mentioned as far back as the 
10th century, according to the discovery of Mr. Ward, in an Anglo- 
Saxon charter of Eadwig, King of Wessex and Northumbria, 955 — 9, 
where it is spelt La/resmere, and its mention is followed by reference to 
the Mearctreowe or boundary tree (Old English, about A.D. 700 — 1100, 
mearc : a mark or boundary, c.f. landmark)." 
The above quotation prompted a reference to the map of Cranborne Chase, 
1618, by Thomas Aid well, which is reproduced in the frontispiece of General 
Pitt Rivers' volume on " King John's House, Tollard Royal, Wilts, 1890.'' 
Here I noted the name " Lauermere Gate " on the site of the present 
Larmer Grounds ; also small concentric circles in the neighbourhood of 
Ashmore Fields, and Ashcombe, with " Sandpitt " written near them. 
Obviously such concentric circles indicated an excavation or artificial pit. 



Larmer, Wermere, Ashmore, and Tollard Royal Ponds, 9 

RuDDing my eye over the map, I also observed similar circles to the north- 
east of Bridmore (formerly spelt Bridmere or Britmere), near which were 
two names :— " Wermere " above, and " Lauermere " in smaller letters 
below. Here indeed was a second " Lauermere " on the same map and 
apparently acting as an alternative name to " Wermere " ; each name, too, 
having the suffix " mere," indicating a pool or pond. 

Having failed to obtain, either from the Ordnance Survey or from the 
Pitt Rivers estate office, a map which would show the features of the Larmer 
and surroundings before 1880, when General Pitt Rivers converted the 
woods into pleasure grounds, I decided to spend my holidays at Tollard 
Royal in quest of the derivation of " Larmer " and the location of 
" Wermere " ; and the following are brief notes on my activities in that 
district during August, 1931. 

The Wermere. 

Comparing Aldwell's 1618 map with the six-inch Ordnance Surveys, I 
imagined that the Wermere should lie north of or on the Ridgeway some- 
where in the neighbourhood of Bigley Buildings, in Alvediston parish. 

On my copy of the 1900 revise of the O.S. quarter-sheet Wiltshire, 
LXXIV., N.E., a fairly large pond is shown, as a simple circle, 150 yards 
N.E. of Bigley Buildings, and nearly immediately west of the "753 " feet 
point on the road down from Bigley Barn to Alvediston ; the latter village 
being situated about a mile to the north. 

Visiting this pond on August 22nd, 1931, I found a basin-shaped catch- 
ment having a lip diameter of about 200 feet, and the central hollow occupied 
by a pond of water about 30 feet in diameter. From the water-level to the 
rim of the catchment the vertical height was from 20 to 23 feet. 

My first impression was that this large amphitheatre-like structure bore 
an air of antiquity, and I concluded that I must be on the site of the 
Wermere. This was subsequently confirmed by Mr. O. G. S. Crawford, 
F.S.A., who informed me he had long been interested in the Wermere, and 
that the name " Wermere " had been again attached to this pond on the 
1926 edition of the above-mentioned quarter-sheet. 

The accompanying plan is from a rapid survey which I made of the 
Wermere and its surroundings. The style of lettering employed for the 
title and sub-title roughly simulates that which is seen by the pond on 
Aldwell's map. As to the derivation of the name " Wermere," Mr. Craw- 
ford hazards a very rough guess that " Wer " may be a corruption of O.E. 
ora : an edge, the pond on the escarpment. He also informs me that it is 
spelt " Warmer " in a set of perambulations copied from Wake Smart by 
Mr. Heywood Sumner, F.S.A. 

The apparently alternative name " Lauermere " is evidently a later form 
of " Lafresmere," " Rush Pond." The name is still very appropriate, for, 
in the pond (3 on plan) the Soft Rush, Juncus e^usus, is still growing. 

There are east and west entrances to the pond, down the tracks marked 
1 and 5 on plan. Other remains of trackways are at 6 and 10 ; 7 represents 
the hard modern road leading down to Alvediston ; 4 marks the position of 
a slight ditch or runnel which seems to have acted in comparatively recent 



10' Larmer, Wermere, AshmoTCj and Tollard Royal Ponds: 



We r me re 



\ 






Mm 



''".? /"'' 



V > 



l^dgeway ot Ox J) rove 




10 p SO o 



10 o 

-J — 



HEDGE 



ZOO 



SCALE OF FEET 



BICLEY 
BARN 





^S 


i 





By Herhert S. Toms. II 

years to drain rain-water into the pond from roads 6 and 7 ; 2 is the highest 
point of the lip of the catchment. 

The irregular excavation enclosing 8 and 9, adjoining the south-west edge 
of the larger structure is interesting. It has an oval-shaped depression 8, 
filled with water in which the same kind of rush, Juncus effusus^ is grow- 
ing thickly and vigorously. To the east of this water-hole 8, and near 9, a 
hole, dug in recent years, has white and yellowish sand, with some gravel, 
lying by its side. An interview with three harvesters drew the information 
that this recent digging had revealed sands with yellowish and white clays. 

Subsequently the landlord of the Alvediston Inn told me that some years 
ago this water-hole was surrounded by bushes and was sufficiently filled 
with water to serve as a dipping hole for the adjoining cottages which are 
now uninhabited and modified to serve as farm buildings. He said that the 
presence of this supply of water in the water-hole gave rise to the idea that 
a spring existed in its immediate vicinity, and a water-diviner was engaged 
in recent years to find the spring. The diviner 'traced water along a line 
extending several hundreds of feet east and west of the water-hole, along 
the crest of the ridge. A hole, the one referred to above, was then dug 
near 9 on plan, and the soils exposed were : — 

(1)— Yellow sand which turned white on exposure ; 

(2)— A bed of clay ; 

(3)— Chalk and flint rubble. 

Evidently the clay sub-stratum acts as a reservoir for the catchment area 
of the irregular excavation enclosing 8 and 9, and probably for water which 
also filters through its sandy sides from surrounding higher levels. That 
the supply of water rarely, if ever, fails, is witnessed by the very vigorous 
growth of rushes in the water-hole 8. The depth from the rim of this 
irregular excavation to the water-level in the water-hole is, on an average, 
about 10ft. 

The two names attached to one pond on Aldwell's map raise a question 
which well merits attention ; and, in this connection, I asked Mr. Crawford 
if the second and seemingly alternative name " Lauermere " had also been 
included on the 1926 edition of the Ordnance Survey. 

Mr. Crawford replied, " No, only Wermere, I suspect that the alternative 
Lauermere is due to some confusion, either of the transcriber or of identifi- 
cation ; but cannot prove it. It seems most improbable that the pond 
should have two names, one of which (Lauermere : Larmer) does actually 
occur close by." 

But, as will have been gathered from my details, given above, the two 
names most curiously fit the present features: " Wermere" for the pond, 
and " Lauermere " (where mere may be taken to mean either pool or pond) 
for the rush-filled water-hole. 

The important query is, when was the water-hole first made 1 If of 
Saxon or earlier date, then the existence of the two names would be quite 
clear. And, should Mr. Crawford's suspicion as to confusion either in 
transcription or identification be unfounded, it is quite possible that the 
two names indicate the existence in Saxon times of twin ponds, or pools, 
on the site, the features of which may have received subsequent alteration 



12 Larmer, Wermere^ Ashmore, a7id Tollard Eoyal Ponds. 

or modification ; for it is equally problematical whether the catchment 
basin of the pond itself was as deep and extensive when it first received the 
name of Wermere. 

Twin ponds (that is, two ponds whose basins are separated by distances 
of from about 25 to 100 feet) are to be found on the Sussex Downs. At 
least five of such twins occur within a six-mile radius of Brighton, and I 
have suspicions that some of these may prove to be as old as the Wermere. 

The tenant of the Wermere area is, I learn, Mr. T. H. Sims, of the Manor 
Farm, Alvediston. 

The Larmer. 

My interest in the Larmer Grounds was concentrated on the Dell ; for I 
imagined that this might have been the site of a pond which gave rise to 
the old name, Lafres mere^ or Rush Pond. 

Having failed to obtain maps which would show the features of the Dell 
before they were modified by General Pitt Rivers in 1880, I determined, if 
possible, to get some description of the site from persons who were acquainted 
with it in their younger days. 

I first interviewed Mr. Charles Hayter, of Farnham, aged 67, who re- 
membered playing in the Larmer Dell when he was a boy. " It was then 
overgrown with brambles, hazel, <fec., and sand was occasionally obtained 
by digging on the northern side." Hayter remembers one old man digging 
a shallow well-like excavation for this sand. 

" In the centre of the Dell there was red, blue and white clay (not ex- 
cavated from but adjoining the sand deposit) the surface of which formed 
a puddle. This puddle held rain, the whole forming a small round pond. 
At that time the keeper habitually hid in a neighbouring yew tree to shoot 
pigeons which came to drink at the pond. During the laying-out of the 
Larmer Grounds by General Pitt Rivers, the old pond was lengthened to 
its present area and the adjoining scarps modified." 

Mrs. John Higgs, aged 67, of Tinkley Cottages, Rushmore, confirmed 
Hayter's statements. When ten years of age she was living at Farnham 
Farm and then frequently played in what is now the Dell at Larmer. She 
says there was always a wet puddle, if not water, in the centre, and that sand 
was sometimes dug from the side of the Dell. 

Mr. G. Bealing, of Tollard Green, informed me that he took part in 
drawing sand from the side of the Larmer Dell about, or prior to, the year 
1879. 

Mr. G. Ferrett, of Tollard Farnham, also supplied a useful note, to the 
effect that his father had informed him how, between 1850 and 1860, a man 
was drawing sand from the Larmer Dell when the full load, with horse 
attached, slipped back into the Dell, and that the horse had to be taken 
out of the shafts and the sand removed from the cart before the latter could 
be got out of the Dell, 

These notes, therefore, indicate that clays form the lower strata of the 
Dell, and that, above these, there was a deposit of sand. In his " Short 
Guide," General Pitt Rivers says " the Dell was originally dug for brick- 
earth " ; but I have been unable to obtain confirmation of this statement. 
A brick-kiln was formerly situated just under half-a-mile to the south-west 



By Herhert S. Toms. 13 

of Larmer Lodge. It was still working about 1876 ; and I gather that the 
bricks for Rookery Farm, in the vicinity, were made at this kiln. 

The facts which strike one are, first, that before its modification in 1880, 
the Larmer Dell must have resembled the catchment basin of the Wermere 
both in area and depth ; and, secondly, that at each site sand and clays 
have been exposed. 

" Incidentally ' Lafres mere ' is quite suflScient evidence in itself for a 
pond name." This is a quotation from one of Mr. Crawford's letters. Mr. 
Crawford also very kindly drew my attention to mention of this spot in 
" The Saxon Land Charters of Wiltshire," by G. B. Grundy, M.A., D. Litt, 
in Arch. Journ , vol. 77 (1920), pp. 20, 21. 

p. 20. " Thonne andlang Weges to Tilluc's Leage . . ." 

p. 21. "And thanne west to Lafres Mere"; "And then west to the 
Pond (where the Yellow Flag grows ?) " " The names of the last two land- 
marks survive, Lafres Mere in the name of Larmer Grounds . . . and 
the Tiliuces Leah in the much diluted name of Tinkley Bottom." 

As noted above, the 1929 Short Guide to the Pitt Rivers Museum, Farn- 
ham, observes, on p. 8, that there are no rushes within miles to bear out the 
suggestion that the first component of the word Larmer means a rush. 

My comment on this is that I distinctly remember rushes growing in one 
of the Rushmore ponds between 1893 and 1896 ; also that last August (1931) 
there were a few rushes still growing in the water's edge of the pond at 
Home Farm, near the North Lodge, Rushmore. This, too, is interesting 
from the fact that Rushmore was formerly spelt " Rushmere," the meaning 
of the latter obviously being " Rush Pond." 

But the original pond which gave the name to Rushmore may have dis- 
appeared. In this connection it may be mentioned that, at Winfritb, South 
Dorset, the name " Rushpond " is given to a line of three cottages, near 
" Claypits." There has been no actual pond in the vicinity within living 
memory, but a small low-lying withy bed, obviously the site of the old pond 
which gave rise to the place-name " Rushpond," adjoins the back of the gar- 
dens on the other side of the road opposite the cottages. Piushes are still 
abundant in the wet ditches and wet ground in the near neighbourhood. 

In General Pitt Rivers' Short Guide it is stated that the word ** Levers '^ 
was used for the Yellow Flag and its leaves which grow in woods and 
hedgerows. This habitat for the Yellow Flag is an error, which has been 
repeated in the more recent Handbook to the Pitt Rivers Museum ; for the 
Yellow Flag loves watery situations, such as ditches, marshes, and the sides 
of rivers and ponds. It is the Foetid Iris which prefers the dryer situations 
of woods and hedgerows, although I am told on good authority that the 
Foetid Iris has also been observed growing in a pond. 

On looking up "Laefer " in an Anglo-Saxon dictionary, one finds that 
the word served as a kind of generic term for the rush, reed, iris, and 
gladiolus, much in the same was as the word " rush " is now used by the 
country folk to include irises, rushes, and sedges. 

If, as the evidence seems to suggest, there was an ancient pond at the 
Larmer which gave rise to the old English form of the name, then one may 
assume that there were true rushes growing in it, as in the Wermere and 



14 Larmer, Wermere, Ashmore, and Tollard Royal Ponds. 

its water-hole to-day. The old Larmer pond, if on the site of the Dell, 
would have had to rely on its own catchment area for the supply of rain- 
water, the surrounding levels affording no indication that the pond, was, or 
could have been, near a road which would have served as a supplementary 
catchment. And, so far as I am able to ascertain, the Yellow Flag but 
rarely grows in ponds of this description. It prefers situations through 
which there is a more or less perceptible flow of water. 

Ashmore and Tollard Royal Ponds. 

Last August, when visiting Ashmore (the village which lies matnly within 
the 700 feet contour in North Dorset, and about 42 miles, as the crow flies, 
south-east of Shaftesbury), I was shown by Mr. Tom Coombs, the Ashmore 
blacksmith, an excellently written book entitled " A&hmore, Dorset : A 
Hi&tory of the Parish,'' by E. W. Watson, M.A., D.D., 1890, and apparently 
privately printed. 

I was particularly interested to find that Mr. Watson hints that the large 
pond, round which Ashmore is so picturesquely situated, may have existed 
in Roman times. He says (p. 3), " The great pond, from which Ashmore 
takes its name (for Ashmore is a corruption of Ashmeer, little more than 
300 years old ; Ashmeer occurs in a will of 1698), sixteen feet deep opposite 
the Rectory, has nothing to equal it among the chalk downs of the neigh- 
bourhood, nor in all the down country of Wiltshire and Dorsetshire. . . . 
It rarely fails, though it is only fed by rain water. Perhaps, on an average, 
it is dry once in twenty years ; and then the villagers, by ancient custom, 
hold a feast. Cakes are baked and eaten round the margin and in the bed 
of the pond ; and the farmers haul out hundreds of cart-loads of mud which 
have accumulated on the bottom and lay them on their land. By curious 
coincidence, the pond happened to be dry and the feast held in 1887, the 
Jubilee year." On p. 4 is the statement that " W^hen the land became 
English and Hundreds were arranged, Ashmore attained its greatest im- 
portance. One of the Dorset hundreds of Long Barrow (* Langeberga ' as 
it appears in the Inquisitio Gheldi of 1084) had Ashmore for its head and 
one of the barrows near for its meeting place." 

Mr. Tom Coombs also informed me that he had been told by old 
inhabitants, now deceased, how, at the above-mentioned feasts, it was 
customary to light bonfires on the dry bed of the pond. Over these fires 
were suspended large boilers in which puddings and apple-dumplings were 
cooked for the feast. Mr. G. Bealing, of Tollard Green, gave confirmation 
of this. His father had described to him how, on one occasion, certain 
naughty boys had decamped with apple-dumplings which had been set aside 
in readiness for consumption. 

According to Mr. Tom Coombs, the pond at Ashmore was last dry in 1922, 
when, during the clearage, remains of the previous charcoal fires were found 
on the bottom of the pond.^ 

^ I gather that the water has been '* laid on " at Ashmore and that all 
overflow drains into the pond. This means that the pond will not dry up 
again to give occasion for a repetition of the feasts and fires. Hence the 
record I obtained should be valuable. 



By Herhert S. I'oms. 15 

From Mr. E. Coombs I learnt of a very similar custom relating to the 
village pond at ToUard Royal, in the neighbourhood of Ashmore, but in 
Wiltshire. At the last clearage of this pond, which also happened in 1887, 
bread and cheese were given to the children who assembled, and a nine- 
gallon cask of ale was brought in a waggon to the centre of the dry pond. 
The village fiddler was requisitioned, his duty being to sit by the barrel 
and discourse sweet music during the distribution of the ale. Several 
individuals added to the festivity by bringing other liquors in bottles and 
jars, one result being that some of those who had helped in the pond clear- 
age became inebriated. An amusing incident was that a village character, 
of very pronounced political views, became so intoxicated that he was left 
sleeping face downwards on the side of the pond with a poster attached to 
his back, the poster extolling the virtues of the political party to which the 
sleeper did not belong. 

In the case of Tollard Royal, I learn on good authority that it was the 
farmers who sent horses and carts for the pond clearage, and that they also 
supplied the food and ale consumed on completion of the work. 

Now the above are the only instances I have so far obtained of fires and 
feasts at pond clearages. If similar customs were, or continue to be, 
observed at other villages in Wilts and Dorset, it would be most interesting 
and valuable to have the same placed on record ; for, in the Ashmore and 
Tollard Royal festivities, there is just a suspicion that they may originally 
have been connected with some pagan ceremony. On the other hand, the 
feast may merely represent recognition of work gratuitously performed. 
But, be this as it may, further information and additional research can but 
add interest to the archseologically important but little known subject of 
our village ponds. 

As a final note, Mr. G. Bealing, of Tollard Green, also described to me 
the sandpits at Ashmore. In these, yellow sand ranges down to about 
twenty feet from the surface, and then comes a pure white clay as sub- 
stratum, the latter holding water. 

Now, in the foregoing notes, it has been shown that both at the Wermere 
water-hole and the Larmer Dell, a similar substratum of clay, under sand, 
served to hold water. We also learn that the Ashmore pond is, on the side 
nearest the Rectory, some sixteen feet deep ; and the query arises whether 
this unusual depth may have been due to the necessity of excavating to 
this depth in order to reach a water-holding clay. 

I regret that I have so far had no opportunity to consult the geological 
maps and memoirs of the district in order to ascertain the period to which 
belong the sands and clays mentioned in this report. 



16 



THE GOEGES MONUMENT IN SALISBURY CATHEDRAL.^ 
By Canon J. M. J. Fletcher, F. R. Hist. Soc. 

The Gorges Monument at the east end of the north choir-aisle of Salis- 
bury Cathedral has, for close on three centuries, occupied the place where, 
for upwards of three hundred and twenty years, from the time of its con- 
secration in 1226 until its demolition by the iconoclasts in the reign of 
Edward VI., the altar of St. Peter and the Apostles formerly stood. 

It is a memorial to Sir Thomas Gorges, of Longford Castle, who died in 
1 610, and to his lady, Helena, nee Snachenberg, or Suavenberg, better known 
as the Marchioness of Northampton from her first marriage, who died in 
1635, in which year this monument was erected at the cost of their eldest 
son, Sir Edward Gorges, Bart., Baron of Dundalk in Ireland. 

The Gorges were an ancient family, who derived their name from a ham- 
let in Lower Normandy, a few miles from Carentan, about midway between 
Cherbourg and (Jaen, whence their ancestor is said to have come to England 
in the time of William the Conqueror. 

Some generations later, Ralph, son of Ivo de Gorges of Tamworth, by 
his marriage with Alianor, daughter and heiress of Ivo de Morville, Lord 
of Bradpole, in Dorset, acquired considerable possessions, including the 
Manor of Wraxall in Somerset, which became the family seat, and so con- 
tinued for several centuries. But with the death of his grandson. Ralph, 
the male line became extinct ; and the property passed through his sister, 
Alianor Gorges, to her husband, Sir Theobald Russell, of Kingston Russell, 
in the county of Dorset. Their younger son, Theobald, assumed the name 
of Gorges, the maiden name of his mother, and carried on the line of Gorges 
of Wraxall. 

Edmund Spenser, the great Elizabethan poet, in the dedication of his 
Daphnaida {ddited January 1st, 1591), of which I shall speak again, states 
that he finds the name of Gorges " by many notable records to be of great 
antiquity in this realm ; and such as have ever borne themselves with hon- 
ourable reputation to the world, and unspotted loyalty to their Prince and 
country." 

Thomas Gorges, whose eflSgy is on the tomb, was the fifth son by his 
second wife (Mary, daughter of Sir Anthony Poyntz) of Sir Edward Gorges 
of Wraxall. His grandmother, the wife of Sir Edmund Gorges, K.B., was 
the Lady Ann Howard, daughter of John, 1st Duke of Norfolk. 

Thomas was born at Wraxall in 1536. It is stated (though I have not, so 
far, been able to find authoritative evidence of this) that in early life he 

^ This paper, the substance of which was delivered as a lecture by the 
author in Salisbury Cathedral, April 26th, 1932, is here reprinted with 
additions and references, from l%e Wiltshire Gazette^ May 5th and 12th, 
1932. 



The Gorges Monument in Salishury Cathedral, Tl 

served with distinction in Ireland ; but when we hear much of him, he held 
a post of honour in the household of Queen Elizabeth, and was evidently- 
high in favour with her. Until the time of his death, in 1610, he held 
various offices in the Royal Households — " Groom of the Queen's Privy 
Chamber," "Gentleman of Her Majesty's Wardrobe of robes," "Gentleman 
Usher of the King's (James I.) most honourable Privy Chamber," etc. 

The other effigy is that of his widow, the Lady Helena, Marchioness of 
Northampton, who died at an advanced age in 1635. By birth she was a 
Swede, daughter of Herr Wolfe Snachenbergh (alias B°at, (&ic) Anglice 
Boat, whence probably their crest), or Suavenberg, of Fillingroome, in 
Ringroome, in Ostergetland, in Sweden, who was lineally descended from 
two noble and illustrious families of that kingdom. In her will she gives 
her mother's name as Agneta Lilly. She was born in 1550,' and in 1565, 
when only 15 years of age, was lady in waiting to the Princess Cecilia, 
daughter of Gustavus Vasa, King of Sweden. 

Although Queen Elizabeth remained unmarried until the day of her death, 
the Virgin Queen had many suitors for her hand and aspirants to share 
with her the throne, amongst whom were the Kings of Sweden, of Denmark, 
of Portugal, of France, and of Spain. 

Most persistent of these was the King of Sweden. Before the death of 
Queen Mary, and whilst the Princess Elizabeth was, to all intents and pur- 
poses, still a prisoner at Hatfield, King Gustavus I. had been earnestly 
pressing the suit of his eldest son, Eric. And for more than a year after her 
accession to the throne, the Swedish Ambassador had been in England with 
the design of urging the marriage. In October, 1559, Gustavus was himself 
here, as the guest of William Parr, brother of Queen Katharine Parr, King 
Henry VIII.'s widow, who had, not long before, been restored to the 
Marquisate of Northampton. 

Upon the death of his father in the following year, 1560, Eric became 
King ; and his brother John was sent to England on an embassy, with the 
hope of arranging a match. But Elizabeth played with him as she did with 
her other suitors, for, judging, I suppose, by his brother, she assumed that 
the manners of " the barbaric King of Sweden " would be repugnant to 
her — " How," she asked,^ " could we ever have agreed with such a difference 
in manners, for, however I might accommodate myself, it is greatly to be 
feared he would never give up his habits ? " 

Still Eric persevered. He next enlisted the help of his sister Cecilia, who, 
not long before, had been married to the Margrave of Baden. She had for 
some time past been earnestly desirous of seeing Queen Elizabeth, of whom 
she had heard so much, and for four years had been diligently studying 
English. 

Travelling in those days was much slower and more hazardous than it is 
to-day. Sweden and Denmark were at variance. The journey was not 

^ (British Museum) Lansdowne Roll, 9. 
' Queen Elizabeth and some Foreigners, Letters from Archives of Haps- 
burghs. Edited by Victor von Klarwill. London, 1928. pp. 86, 94, 194—5. 
VOL. XLVI. — "^0. CLVII. C 



18 The Gorges Monument in Salisbury Cathedral. 

made, as it would have been to-day, mainly by sea ; though the Margravine 
and her suite, one of whom was Helena Snachenberg, starting from Stock- 
holm seem to have travelled for a time northwards by water, and then to 
have crossed over to Finland. 

There is in the British Museum the MS. of James Bell* which gives a 
contemporary account of the journey. Sometimes they passed through 
friendly countries ; at other times through the territories of those who 
were not so well disposed. Nearly 400 miles journey by water was followed 
by 750 miles passage over ice, when they were conveyed by sledges drawn 
by horses. The first start had been made on September 18th, 1564, but 
they were obliged to put back by stress of weather, and the real journey 
began on November 12th. Christmas they spent at Renall, the first place 
they reached in Finland, and had to wait until a passport for Poland could 
be obtained. Here their tiring journey on the ice began. It ended at 
Cowyne, the last place in Littowe (? Lithuania). Easter was spent at 
Tylzey (Tilsit) in Prussia. They passed on to Dantzic and thence through 
Pomerania, Macklenberg, the county of Bremme( Bremen), Oldenberg, East 
and West Friesland, Brabant, and Flanders, and thus through Antwerp 
and Bruges to Calais. 

At Calais they waited for favourable winds ; twice they started and had 
to return to Calais ; but at last, though the passage was very rough, and 
they suffered badly from the effects, at their third essay they reached Dover 
early in September, and passing through Canterbury, Rochester, and 
Gravesend, finally reached London on September 11th, where Bedford 
House, in the Strand, was prepared for the Princess. Four days later a 
child was born to the Princess. He was christened on the 1st of October, 
and on the 14th took place the " purification" of the mother,' and at the 
same time the confirmation of the child. 

•' Six ladies," said the chronicler, came over with the Princess Cecilia. 
" One only remained— the lovely Helena Snakenberg." Perhaps the trials 
of the journey were more than she cared to face again. But England 
became the land of her adoption, and so far as we know, she never returned 
to her native land. Here she remained until, 70 years after she had landed, 
her body was laid to rest under this tomb. 

Although Queen Elizabeth was in no way attracted by the King of 
Sweden, she was evidently much taken with the charm and loveliness of 



^ Royal MS,, 17 C. xxxix.; see also IVansactions of Royal Historical 
Society. New series, vol. xii., pp. 181 — 224 (1898) ; and Queen Elizabeth 
and a Swedish Princess^ ed. Seaton, London, 1926. 

James Bell was Fellow of Trinity College, Oxford, and Prebendary of 
Wells. He resigned his Fellowship in 1556. See D,N.B. 

2 It was the custom at that time, if a Bishop was present, for a child to 
be confirmed immediately after his or her baptism. Both Queen Mary and 
Queen Elizabeth were baptised and confirmed when three days old. See 
Lives of the Queens of England^ by Agnes Strickland, vol. iv., p. 145, and 
vol. vi., pp. 3 — 5 \'B\ng)i'dt.m!s Antiquities of the Christian Church, XII., i., 2. 



By Canon J. M. J. Fletcher, F. R Hist. Soc 19 

this young Swedish maiden, whom she kept with her in England and ap- 
pointed as one of her Maids of Honour. Indeed, so much was the Queen 
fascinated by her,' that she treated her with all the intimacy of a friend, 
made her frequently her bedfellow, and before long appointed her " Chief 
Lady of the Privy Chamber." We are told that there were six of the Maids 
of Honour, who were not salaried officers, but girls of good birth for whom 
the Court served as a finishing school of good manners. They attended the 
Queen in public, sat^ and walked with her in the Privy Chamber and the 
Privy Garden, and kept her entertained with the dancing which she 
delighted to witness. 

More than thirty years afterwards there is a record in one of the MSS. 
that " the Lady Marchioness dances bravely," and that in comparison, in 
the country dances which, with Lord Cobham as her partner, she danced at 
Mrs. Walsingham's, Lady Sheffield whose partner was the Lord Chamberlain, 
" had not a leg to stand on." 

We have seen that, when King Gustavus visited England in 1559, he was 
the guest of the Marquis of Northampton. It might be expected that when 
a member of the Swedish Royal Family with her suite paid a visit to this 
country some few years later, they should make themselves known to him. 
He had only a few months before lost his wife ; and seven months after 
her arrival in England he made this lovely Swedish girl, who was barely 
sixteen years of age, his bride, the Queen being present at their wedding,* 
on April 29th, 1566. He died, however, five years later, in 1571, and was 
buried in the Choir of St. Mary's, Warwick, the funeral expenses being 
paid by the Queen. 

The honourable positions which I'homas Gorges and the young widowed 
Marchioness held at the Court of the Qaeen no doubt threw them much 
together, and a mutual attachment was developed between the handsome 
courtier and the beautiful young widow. In 1580, nine years after the 
death of her first husband, they were married. Hoare, the Wiltshire 
historian, quoting from a MS. at Longford, compiled in 1678 by the Rev. 
Mr. Pelat, Chaplain to Lord Coleraine, who succeeded the Gorges at Long- 
ford, states * that the Queen committed Gorges to prison for marrying 
without her consent ; and yet, according to the same authority, he had 
learnt from Her Majesty that he had a prospect of being successful if he 
pressed his suit. The confinement, however, was not of long duration- 
doubtless he owed his speedy release from it to the Queen's afi'ection for 
his bride. 

Since 1326, the Longford estate had belonged to the Cervingtons ; but 
John Cervington, the last of his name, by his extravagant habits and his 



* Pelat's MS., quoted in Hoare's Modern Wilts, Cawden, p. 28 ; see also 
Lansdowne Roll^ 9. 

^ E. K. Chambers' Elizabethan Stage, Vol. I., p. 45. 

3 Chambers' Op. Git., Vol. IV., p. 86. 

* Pelat, Op. Cit., pp. 26, etc. 

C 2 



20 The Gorge's Monument in Salisbury Cathedral. 

gambling losses was obliged to mortgage the property. In 1573, John 
Webbe, of Salisbury, who held the deeds, " foreclosed on him," ^ and in the 
following year sold the estate to Thomas Gorges, on whose charity the 
former owner, John Cervington, for some time subsisted. 

The old Manor House was pulled down, and, in 1578, plans for the new 
mansion were prepared by John Thorpe, whose sketches are still to be seen 
in the Soane Museum in Lincoln's Inn Fields. It is said that it was by the 
request of the Lady Helena that the Castle was built in its original 
triangular form^ to represent the ancient symbol of the Holy Trinity, 
[Which request seems to imply that the marriage of Thomas Gorges and 
the Lady Helena was contemplated two or three years at least|before it 
was solemnised.] Pelat had the idea, which recent investigation has proved 
to be incorrect, that Longford Castle was erected after the design of the 
Castle of Uraniberg in the Island of Hveen, lying between Sweden and 
Denmark, of which Tycho Brahe was the architect. 

The Lady Helena, by her first marriage, was allied to the Pembrokes. 
It was the celebrated Countess Mary, the wife of her nephew, 
" The subject of all verse 
Sidney's sister, Pembroke's mother," 
later on buried in our own Cathedral, just in front of the sanctuary, who at 
this time reigned at Wilton. Pelat says^ that it was the wish of the 
Marchioness to vie with the pleasures of Wilton and to surpass them ; and 
that she gave out that " her principal reason for building Longford was that 
Her Majesty might have a more comfortable lodge than Wilton, when she 
came to Clarendon Park. The late Lady Padnor, in her interesting volume 
of reminiscences,"* says that there is no official record of Queen Elizabeth's 
residence at Longford, but the old plans show "The Queen's Chamber"; 
and Lord Coleraine in his Longford Inventory, dated 1694, writes of 
" The third Pound Tower (most used, though least) 
Haveing two Bedchambers (the house's best). 
Where the two happiest Queens which e'er did reign. 
The first and second Elizabeth hath layn." 

The second Elizabeth was Elizabeth, Queen of Bohemia, to whom Mary 
Gorges, daughter of Sir Edward Gorges, Baron of Dundalk (son of Sir 
Thomas), was Maid of Honour. 

But it was 13 years before the Castle was completed (1591), and it proved 
to be a costly undertaking. So great had been the expense of driving in the 
piles, etc., that the new owner of the estate is said to have sunk nearly the 
whole of his fortune in its erection. 



^/6irf.,pp. 26, 27. 
2 Country Life, Vol. LXX., p. 648 ; Doran Webb in Dorset N.H. and A. 
Field Club's Proceedings, Vol. XXIL, pp. Ixxii— Ixxiv.; Jackson's Edit, of 
Aubrey's Wiltshire Collections, p. 207 (n). 

3 Hoare, Op. Cit., pp. 28, 29. 
^ Helen Countess of Radnor, From a Great-Grandmother's Arm Chair, 
p. 172. 



By Canon J. M. J. Fletcher, F. R. Hist. Soc. 21 

" It is an ill wind that blows no one good." The war with Spain, the 
dread of an invasion, the coming of the Spanish Armada, which threatened 
both the faith and the liberty of the nation, proved to be of great pecuniary- 
benefit to Sir Thomas, who had been knighted in 1586. One lucrative post 
after another was bestowed upon him. He was made Governor of Hurst 
Castle. A Spanish galleon was wrecked close by, and his lady begged for 
the hull from the Queen. It was so full of treasure, bars of silver, etc., etc., 
that the proceeds were not merely sufficient to relieve Sir Thomas of his 
difficulties with regard to the completion of the house at Longford, 
but also served to enrich both himself and his steward. Sir Richard 
Grobham, whose tomb is such a prominent feature on the north side 
of the chancel of Wishford Church. Longford Castle was completed 
in 1591. It is the " Castle of Amphialeus " of Sidney's Arcadia. We can 
only hope that Sir Philip Sidney did not characterise the Marchioness as 
Cecropia, for " that wicked person " was the mother and not the wife of 
Amphialeus. 

Shortly after Sir Thomas had been knighted, when the plot against 
Queen Elizabeth's life by Babington and his associates had been discovered, 
it was decided that Mary, Queen of Scots, who was privy to the plot, should 
be removed from Chartley to Tixall and thence eventually to Fotheringhay. 
Sir Thomas Gorges was commissioned with the task. 

J. A. Froude, the historian of the last four Tudor monarchs, shall tell 
the tale* : — 

" The fate of the conspirators was certain, and the proceedings with 
them simple and straightforward. It was more diffcult to determine 
how to act towards the person in whose interests the plot had been 
conceived. It was easy to arrest and accuse her, but the object was to 
separate her from her papers, to charge her suddenly, cut her off from 
communication with her secretaries and servants, and preclude the 
possibility of her secreting or destroying anything. 

The Queen consulted Paulet, who suggested that he might take her 
out hunting ; she could be met in the iBeld, charged then and there with 
the conspiracy and carried under a guard to some neighbouring house ; 
while he himself, at the instant of the challenge would ride back to 
Chartley, seize and separate Nau and Curie, and take possession of her 
closets and cabinets. 

Mary Stuart, flushed with the excitement of her new hopes, was in 
high spirits, and when Paulet, one bright August (1586) morning, 
suggested that they should kill a buck at Sir Walter Aston's Park, she 
caught at it with delight. Tixall, the place to which they were going, 
was nine miles off. It was a long ride, and the more welcome from its 
rarity. Most of her own people were of the party, the two secretaries 
among the rest. The cavalcade had almost reached the gates of the 
park when a company of horse were seen waiting in the road. Mary 

^ J. A. Froude, Elizabeth (Dent's Edit.), Vol. V., p. 262 ; A. Strickland, 
Queens of England, Vol. VII., p. 32 ; P. R. Gal, Dom.Ser. Elizabeth, 1586, 
Sept. 10. 



22 The Gorges Monument in Salisbury Cathedral. 

Stuart's first thought must have been that Babington was come. Ife 
could hardly have been otherwise. She had told him to be on the 
watch for her on an expedition precisely of this kind. But if it was so 
she was swiftly undeceived. Sir Thomas Gorges, a gentleman of the 
Court, rode forward, and touching his cap with grave ceremony, pre- 
sented an order from the Queen for the arrest of Nau and Curie, and 
her own immediate removal to Tixall. 

She saw at once that all had been discovered. Desperate, .... 
she raged and stormed, and showered invectives on Gorges and his 
mistress. She bade her servants draw their swords, if they were men, 
and fight for her. But it could not be. They were but a handful and 
submitted to be disarmed. The secretaries were carried to London, 
and she herself was led as a prisoner to Tixall." 

Meanwhile Paulet, with secretary Wade, who had accompanied 

Gorges down, galloped back to Chartley, where all her papers were 

secured. Everything was packed together, sealed, and taken to London 

to be examined by the Council. 

The following extract from one of the State Papers' seems to refer to 

this : — 

" 1586, Sept. 10. A warrant to Sir Thomas Heneage, Knight, 
Treasurer of Her Majesties Chamber : — To deliver unto Thomas Gorge, 
Esq.,^ one of her Majesties gromes of her Privy Chambre, for rydinge 
with expedition (beinge accompanied with Mr. Stanley and fourteen 
others) unto Chartley whence he was emploied in the remove of the 
Queen of Scots to Fodringhay Castle, and thence returned back againe 
with like expedicion the somme of forty five pounds." 

An important office^ conferred upon Sir Thomas was that of a Vice- 
Admiral of the Counties. It was an office created about this time for the 
protection of the rights of the Monarch and of the Lord High Admiral in 
the matter of wrecks, etc.; for the registration of available ships and men, 
their inspection, and the insuring that they were properly equipped before 
going to sea. It was supposed also to be a check upon piracy. The post 
was one of influence and of considerable pecuniary benefit ; and was for the 
most part held by peers or by members of untitled county families. There 
are a large number of entries, in the Public Records, of instructions given 
to Sir Thomas in this matter, and of reports of what he had done, at Plymouth 
or elsewhere. 

The following extracts from these records give some idea of his work : — 
^ 1587, July 1st. " Instructions given by the Lords of her Majesty's 
Privy Council to Sir Thomas Gorge, Knight, Edward Carey, Alderman 
Billingsley, and John Hawkins, Esquires : — You shall at your first re- 
pair, and delivery of our letters to Sir Francis Drake, acquaint him 

1 P. R. Dam. Ser. Elizabeth, 1586, Sept. 10. 
^ Sir Thomas Gorges had only quite recently been knighted. Cf. W. G. 
Metcalfe, Book of Knights, Lond., 1885, p. 221. 

^ Victoria Hist, of ScmerseU Vol. I., p. 253. 
^ P, R, Cal. Dom. Ser. Elizabeth, under these dates. 



Btj Canon J, M. J. Fletcher, F, R. Hist. Soc. 23 

with the contents of these your instructions. You shall require to see 
the bills of lading of the several merchandises and commodoties that 
are in the prizes taken by him. And being by means thereof acquainted 
with the several kinds and quantities of the said commodoties, you 
shall then consider what is fittest to be conveyed hither by land, what 
by sea, and what to be vented there in those parts. You shall consider 
how that which you shall find meet to be brought up hither by land, or 
by sea mail, be conveyed with safety. You cause all such coffers and 
boxes, as you may judge, or do know to have in them gold, jewels, and 
other such like precious things to be opened before Sir Francis Drake 
and others with yourselves. You shall for your better assistance in 
the execution of these directions call unto you Sir John Gilbert, and 
Sir Francis Godolphin, Knights." 
After seeing what wants and defects there were in the ships, and pay- 
ment of wages, all unnecessary mariners were to be discharged, such only 
to be retained as were needed to bring the ships home, the weak and infirm 
to be removed and their places supplied by others. 

On • October 2th, 1587, according to a brief inventory made, the value of 
the goods brought home by Sir Francis Drake in " The Spanish Caracke " 
was £108,049 13s. lid. And in July, 1602, the cargo of a carrack taken in 
the mouth of the river at Lisbon (Sir T. Gorges being a Commissioner) 
was discharged into six ships to be transported to London, and consisted 
of white and ebony wood, pepper, ordnance, etc., etc. 

On ^ July l6th, 1595, Sir Thomas Gorges writes to Sir Robert Cecil from 
Plymouth : — 

" Since my arrival on the 12th I have viewed most of the ships which 

I find to be in very good sort. Sir John Hawkins is an excellent man 

in these things, and sees all things done orderly. Sir Francis Drake 

has been but little in the town, being so busy about provision in the 

country for the speedy despatch of their voyage, as Sir Thomas Basker- 

ville has not come but he is daily expected. My coming greatly 

amazed them at first, they fearing that I had been sent to stay them. 

When they knew the contrary none were so joyful as they, that her 

Majesty had sent someone down to see their bravery. I doubt not but 

my going down will be to great effect in the business her Majesty has 

sent me about." 

A month later, ^August 11th, he was engaged in finishing the forts at 

Plymouth, setting men to work about "making the gates of the drawbridge 

and finishing the S. W. wall. . . . that there might be some restraint in 

passing into the fort," etc. 

As far back as in March, 1585,^ the Privy Council Records allude to " Mr, 
Thomas Gorges of Her Majesty's Privy Council." 

In 1593 ^ the Queen granted to him the new but lucrative office of writ- 
ing and engrossing writs of sub poena in the Court of Chancery 

^ P.jR. Gal. Dom. Ser. Elizabeth, under these dates. 
^ Privy Council Records, 1585. 
3 P.R. Cal. Dom. Ser. Elizabeth, p. 400 ; Hatfield MSS., Vol. XV., p. 375 



24 21ie Gorges Monument in Salisbury Cathedral. 

In 1596, Sir Thomas was a pall bearer, with Sir Edward Dyer and Sir 
George Carew, at the funeral of Lady Cecil, wife of Sir Robert Cecil, after- 
wards Earl of Salisbury. 

[In The Family of Gorges^ by Thorne George, it is stated that he was a 
pall bearer at the funerals of Queen Mary and of Queen Elizabeth, but I 
have been unable to verify this statement.] 

In 1597^ the Queen bestowed upon him the Keepership of Richmond 
House and Park. 

In 1603,^ upon the death of Queen Elizabeth, he was appointed one of 
the Commissioners who were to make a special inventory of all her jewels. 

As they had been high in the Queen's favour, a considerable number of 
manors, lands, and tenements were granted to Sir Thomas and (or) Lady 
Helena. 

Queen Elizabeth, as the historian Hallam tells us, was always envious of 
the happiness of lovers. Her unkindness to her relative, the Lady Catherine 
Grey, on account of her marriage, as the Hertford Monument always re- 
minds us, is well known. And, as we have seen, she actually imprisoned 
Sir Thomas Gorges himself for marrying without her permission. Bearing 
this in mind, it does seem strange that the Queen should appear in the role 
of a matchmaker for one of his children. But so it was, for on September 
26th, 1596, the Queen wrote with her oivn hand to Mr. Griffin, of Dingley, 
as follows^ :— 

" Sir Thomas Gorges, gentleman of the robes, proposes a marriage 
between your son and his daughter. We know that others may offer 
more money with their daughters than he can do ; and (we) do not 
usually interfere in our servants' domestic affairs; but considering his 
long service, and that of the Marchioness, his wife, a lady of the privy 
chamber well favoured by us, we may remind you that in settling a 
child there are things to be more considered than money, as the gentle- 
man's birth, nearness to those in our service, and favour borne him by 
us. We hope, therefore, that you will consider these things : we do 
not wish to use authority, but will take your compliance as a mark of 
respect. You may consider our writing to you strange, considering 
that we were estranged from you on account of your proceedings in 
matters of religion, but we have lately had a good report of your 
loyalty and conformity, and think this alliance would confirm you in 
the course you have begun. . . . The alliance would be very 
beneficial, the gentleman offering no incompetent sum. Our writing 
with our own hand is an argument of our oblivion of anything past 
amiss in you. We demonstrate our satisfaction with you by moving 
this match, and your compliance will not be done to a Prince who will 
forget any occasion of serving you." 



' P.R. Gal. Dom. Ser. Eliz , Aug. 16th, 1597. 
'^ Ihid., May 26th, 1603. 
3 Ibid., Sept. 26th, 1596. 



By Canon J. M. J. Fletcher, F, R. Hist, Soc. 25 

But in spite of the strongly expressed wishes of the Queen, and that the 
letter was in her own handwriting, nothing came of it, for eventually the 
three daughters of Sir Thomas were also otherwise settled. Elizabeth^ was 
married to Sir Hugh Smith, Frances in 1599 to Sir Thomas Terringham, 
and Bridget in 1602 to Sir Robert Phillips. 

Children in those days had little or no choice in the matter of their 
matrimonial arrangements, though the marriages of quite young children 
were in effect more of the nature of binding betrothals, the child wife re- 
maining for a time in her mother's home. 

In the summer of 1597, Francis Gorges," the eldest son of Sir Thomas and 
the Lady Helena, who himself cannot have been more than 16 years of age, 
was married to his cousin Ambrosia, a child eight-and-a-half years of age, 
daughter of Arthur Gorges, the poet, and Douglas (Howard), daughter and 
heiress to Henry Howard, second Viscount Byndon ; but Francis died 
eighteen months later, during the Continental tour which followed the 
taking of his degree at Oxford, leaving behind him his little widow just ten 
years of age. 

And more than a decade later, on August 13th, 1608,^ Sir Thomas wrote 
from Longford to the Earl of Salisbury, Secretary of State, to say that Sir 
Edward Estcourt of Salisbury was on his death bed, and asking for the 
wardship of his son, whom he wisrhed to match with his own grandchild. 
They were evidently quite young children. 

Sir Thomas died on March 30th, 1610, and was buried, as our Register 
shows, on the 12th of May following. His will,'' which had been made ten 
years before his death, was proved June 7th, 1610. The holder of various 
lucrative appointments, he had accumulated a considerable amount of 
property, and was the possessor of large manorial estates in Hunts, Somer- 
set, Devon, and Wilts, etc. The greater part of these he bequeathed to his 
wife, together with the Manor of Richmond, in Surrey, the right in Sheene 
House and grounds and park, and " the pastures and grounds called 
Tottenham near Marrabone Park." The Lady Helena was also *' to inherit 
and enjoy " his best coach, all his carriage horses, and her " woman's riding 
saddle." The eldest son, Sir Edward, was to live at Longford ; Tibbott 
(Theobald) was to have Ashley (Wilts) ; and Robert, Ban well, in Somerset. 
The sub pcena office which he held was to be divided between them. He 
bequeathed to his " lovinge oulde servant Sir Richard Grobham, Kn* " (of 
Wishford) his "second best gelding with his furniture." Other legacies 
were £50 to the Mayor of Sarum to be lent to five industrious persons to 



^ Elizabeth married (2) her cousin. Sir Ferdinando Gorges, the distinguished 
military and naval Commander, and American Coloniser. See D.N.B. 

^ H. E. Sandison, Arthur Gorges^ Spenser's Alcyon and Raleigh's Friend^ 
in " Publications of Modern Language Association of America," Vol. XLIIL, 
pp. 652, 653 ; Lansdowne Roll, 9, etc., etc. 

3 p,E, Cal, Dom. Ser. Elizabeth. 
' P. C. C. Wingfield, 64. 



26 21ie Gorges Monument in Salishuri/ Cathedral. 

trade with ; £Z0 in stock to keep the poor of Sarum at work ; £b to the 
gaol at Fisherton ; and ^5 to the Town gaol at Sarum. 



I have already spoken of the Swedish descent of the Lady Helena, of 
Queen Elizabeth's great afi'ection for her, and Of her first marriage to Queen 
Katharine Parr's brother, the Marquis of Northampton. She was evidently 
a very great lady, and according to Edmund Spenser, the author of the 
" Faerie Queene," she was, after Elizabeth, the greatest Lady in the Land. 
It was to her that he dedicated the Dapknaida^ his elegy upon the death 
of Douglas Howard, who, as you will remember, was the daughter of Henry 
Howard, Viscount Bindon, and wife of her husband's nephew, Arthur 
Gorges, who died January 1st, 1591-2. 

And in Colin Clout's Come Home Agai?i,^ the poem written on his return 
from Ireland, in which he praises the beautiful ladies of the Court, he 
speaks of the Lady Helena, whom he terms Mansilia, as follows : — 

" Ne lesse praise worthie is Mansilia, 
Best known by bearing up great Cynthia's traine, 
That same is she to whom Daphnaida 
Upon her neece's death I did complaine, 
She is the paterne of true womanhead, 
And only mirrhor of feminitie : 
Worthy next after Cynthia to tread, 
As she is next to her in nobilitie." 

Cynthia is the Queen. Mansilia is the Lady Helena. Hunter in his 
Chorus Vatum questions why she should be called Mansilia. Perhaps from 
her gentle charm, Mansueta or Mansues would suit her well ; and amongst 
the nymphs Stella, Charillis, and Amaryllis, she might appropriately be 
named Mansilia.^ 

Every New Year's Day her name figures at the head of the ladies who 
gave their etrennes to the Queen. Usually her present was some exquisite 
piece of jewelry, though sometimes it took the form of a lovely robe. The 
Queen's New Year's gifts invariably seem to have been pieces of gilt plate. 
It is, perhaps, needless to add that the intrinsic value of the presents made 
to the Queen was considerably greater than that of those received from her 
in return. 



^Poetical Works of Edmund Spenser (Bell and Daldy's Aldine Edition) 
Vol. v., 256. 

^ Ibid., p. 102, lines 508—515. 

3 Cf. Times Literary Supplement, Sept, 8th, 1927 ; Addit. MS., 24488, 
pp. 98, 107. 

4 Nichols' Progresses, Vol. I., p. 323 ; Vol. IL, pp. 67, 82, 90, 498 ; Vol. 
III., pp. 2, 3, 16, 21, 26, 446, 460, 466. 



By Canon J. M. J. Fletcher, F. B. Hist. Soc. 27 

The Queen used to speak of her^ as "the good Lady Marquess" and 
often used her as her deputy ; e.g., as when in October, 1602,^ she acted as 
her proxy as Godmother to the Earl of Northumberland's son when he was 
christened at Essex House. And again, in the following December,^ the 
" Lady Marchioness " acted as the Queen's deputy as sponsor at the bap- 
tism of the French Ambassador's child. Miss Strickland commenting on 
this says * : — " The Queen honoured the French Ambassador by standing 
godmother to his infant daughter, but performed this office by proxy 
as it would have scarcely been consistent with her absolute prohibition of 
the rites of the Church of Kome if she had assisted in person at a Koman 
Catholic ceremonial." I doubt, however, whether the service was a Roman 
Catholic one. The number and names of the godparents are a sure proof 
that the baptism was according to the English rite and not the Roman one. 
The reason of the Queen's absence in person was no doubt her failing health. 
It was not very long before her last illness and death. It is quaintly stated 
in one record of this baptism^ that "the Queen christened the French Am- 
bassador's daughter by her deputy the lady Marquesse, the Countess of 
Worcester and the Lord Admiral being her assistants." 

In 1617, October,^ there is a record that the King, the Lord Chancellor, 
and (the) old Marchioness of Northampton were sponsors to Sir John 
Egerton's son. 

At the funeral of Queen Elizabeth ^ on April 28th, 1603, the Marchioness 
of Northampton was chief mourner, when she was assisted by the Lord 
Treasurer (Lord Buckhurst)and the Lord Admiral (the Earl of Nottingham), 
her train being carried in the procession by two Countesses and Sir John 
Stanhop, the Master Vice-Chamberlain. In addition to these train-bearers 
she had as her assistants two Earls and fourteen Countesses, who were 
followed by other Countesses, Ladies of Honour, and Viscountesses, etc. 

In Veiusta Monumenta are some number of plates illustrating the pro- 
cession. On plate 24 is a picture of the Marchioness in her position as 
principal mourner. A cloak, open in front, covers her head and reaches to 
the ground. It is edged with crepe and the skirt of her dress seems to be 
of the same material. In her right hand she holds a handkerchief. 

Sir Thomas Gorges survived the Queen by seven years, and the Mar- 
chioness lived on for 25 years after the death of her husband. She died in 
her 86th year on the 1st of April, 1635, and was buried in our Cathedral on 
the 14th day of May. 



^ Lansdowne Roll, 9. 
" P.R. Bom. Ser. Elizabeth, October 15th, 1602 
^ Ibid., December 23rd, 1602. 
* A. Strickland, Lives of the Queens of England, Vol. vii., p. 286. 
^ Nichols, Progresses, &c,, Vol. IIL, p. 262. 
^ P.R. Dam. Ser. Oct. 1617. 
' Vetusta Monumenta, Vol. iii., Plate 4, Nos. 25, etc , etc. ; Nichols' Pro- 
gresses, Vol. III., pp. 625, etc. 



28 llie Gorges Monument in Salishury Cathedral. 

The following are the entries in the Cathedral Register : — 
Burials— 1610. May 12. Sir Thomas Gorges, Knight, y' 12, 

1635, May 14. The Lady Mary Helen or Hellena Marqesse of 
Northampton was buried y* 14. 

[The word " Mary " is erased, and " Helen or Hellena " 
written in its place.] 

In her will,* which was dated November 6th, 1634, about five months 
before her death, she left directions that she was to be " carried awaie to be 
buried in our Lady Church in Salisbury by (her) deere and late husband, 
Sir Thomas Gorges Knight.'^ Her body was " to be shrouded and chested 
without ripping, embalming or spicery." She was to be buried at night 
"in the most reverend manner as is ordained by the Church and as all 
Xr'ian people ought to have without any further ceremony or solemnization 
only desiring a sermon to be preached at a dale convenient shortly after." 

But, although, in her will, she had expressed a wish that there should be 
no further ceremony than the church service, she evidently wished that a 
large number of people should be present at the memorial service, and that 
they should be in mourning for her. It is computed that at least .£500 was 
to be laid out on " blackes," which were to be worn by her " own household 
staff " ; by three men and one woman belonging to each of her six surviving 
children ; and by " so many poore women as (she would) have lived years 
at time of decease " ; to each of whom she bequeathed " 3 yards of black 
cloth at 8s. the yard, and one ell of holland at 3s. the ell." Presumably 
these 86 poor women would come from the neighbourhood of Salisbury, for 
she left an additional sum of £40 to be distributed amongst such "poor 
women as shall have gownes, and such other poor women as shall voluntarily 
be at the said sermon." 

The relative costs of "blackes" is interesting. For each of her three 
gentlemen (ushers) it was to be £6, whereas each of her two gentlewomen 
was to have 20 marks (£13 6s. 8d.) for dress ; each of her two chambermaids 
and her " old laundresse " £12. The butler, the coachman, and each of the 
other servants, both men and maids, were to have i;'2 10s. These sums 
were merely for " blackes." All received other legacies varying in value 
from £100 to £5. Her domestic chaplain was to have £20 for " blacke " 
and for preaching her funeral sermon. She left £lOO for the poor of Salis- 
bury ; other gifts to Bruton, Wincanton, Charlton Musgrave, Burnham, 
and Shepton Montagu; besides i:*100 for the poor of Wraxall where her 
husband was born. To the Dean and Chapter of Salisbury she bequeathed 
£20. 



The Gorges Monument. 

And now, in conclusion, we turn to this monument of stone " curiously 
wrought," which, as we learn from the inscription on the west face of the 
base, was erected in 1635 on the death of the Marchioness, by her eldest 

1 P. C.C., Sadler, 42(1635). 



By Canon J. M, J. Fletcher, F. R. Hist. Soc. 29 

son Lord Edward Gorges, -who in 1620 had been created Baron Gorges of 
Dundalk in the peerage of Ireland, and who by his father's will was to make 
his residence at Longford Castle. The size of the monument was presum- 
ably suggested by that of the Hertford Monument, on the other side of the 
Cathedral, which had been erected just 14 years before. Its position had 
already been settled by the burial there of Sir Thomas Gorges, twenty-five 
, years previously. 

The monument consists of a broad base, on either side of which, as well 
as at the west end, are heraldic insignia and inscriptions. Upon the base 
lie, with their hands uplifted in prayer, the effigies of Sir Thomas Gorges 
and his wife. The knight is clad in armour, with trunk hose and the ruff 
of the period about bis neck. He is bare-headed, but his helmet lies be- 
neath the cushion on which his head rests. Over his right shoulder is a 
sash which is attached to the top of the scabbard of his sword. At his feet, 
though they do not rest upon it, is a horse. The lady, who lies on his 
right-hand side, wears a long robe reaching to her feet, with crepe edgint', 
crepe turn-over collar, and a ruff. Round her head is a whimple. At her 
feet, though they do not rest upon it, is a dog. 

Over both figures is a canopy — the entablature being supported at each 
corner by a twisted Corinthian column and by two fluted pilasters. Above 
are obelisks, urns, and astrolabes ; and at the corners are figures representing 
the four cardinal virtues. At the summit, at the centre of arches springin^^ 
from opposite corners, is a large urn surmounted again by a larger astrolabe, 
on the urn being inscribed the words ab urna ad cetherem. The horse and dog 
at the feet of the eflSgies may refer to their position as custodians of Rich- 
mond Park ; while the astrolabes' might allude to Sir Thomas' naval ap- 
pointment of Admiral of the coast — at the same time, being intended to 
J lead the thoughts heavenwards. 

W. 

On the west side of the monument is, at the top, a Latin inscription, of 
•which the following is a translation : — 

'• Stay, passer by, and think of the change, our flesh being mortal is 
suddenly reduced to ashes. May be, this monument will last for ages ; 
but, when the Lord comes in glory, it will perish, but (our flesh) will 
live again for ever." 

At the base : — 

" Edward, Lord Gorges, Baron of Dundalk, their most dutiful son 
has erected this sleeping place for his dearly beloved parents. A.D. 
1635." 

On this side are three shields of arms : — 

(I) At the top, Gorges, a coat of six quarterings, impaling Snachenberg. 



* Hutchins, History of Dorset, Vol. III., p. 348, states that the Gorg( 

milv TOPrfi intp.rpsf.pfl in Qafrnlncrv 



family were interested in astrology. 



30 Tlie Gorges Monument in Salishiiry Cathedral. 

On the base, on either side of the inscription, (2) Gorges, in an oval 
shield ; and (3) Snachenberg, in a lozenge, surmounted by a coronet— all en- 
closed in an oval shield. 

Above which are two helms and crests, viz., (a) on a knight's helm a 
greyhound's head collared (Gorges) ; and (b) on a knight's helm over a 
coronet, a boat (Snachenberg). 

The quarterings of the Gorges coat ' are : — 

1. Lozengy or and azure a chevron gules (Gorges). 

2. Argent on a chief gules three bezants (Russell). 

3. Argent a gorge (or whirlpool) azure (Gorges, ancient). 

4. Or five fusils conjoined in fesse gules on each an escallop of the 

field (Newmarch). 

5. Per pale azure and purpure a lion rampant ermine (Oldhall). 

6. Argent a chevron sable between three weavers combs ermine 

(Eglowen 1). 
Snachenberg. As the divisions of the fields and the charges thereon of 
this foreign coat cannot be described in terms of English heraldry, it is 
figured on the plate. It contains eight quarterings. 

N. 

On the north side are three shields of arms : — 
At the top. (1) Gorges, a coat of six quarterings. 

On the base. (2) Gorges, the same as above, in an oval shield. (3) 
Gorges impaling Snachenberg in a circular shield surmounted by a coronet. 
Above (1), two crests; (a) Greyhound's head collared for Gorges; (b) 
maiden's head for Parr ; with motto— Constans et fidelis. 

Under the shield of arms at the top (1) is the inscription (Latin) :— 

" Cunning and swift he follows the prey: Constant and faithful he 
gains the reward." 

And at the base between the shields (2) and (3) : — 
" In this monument lies buried the body of Sir Thomas Gorges of 
Longford in the neighbourhood of Salisbury, fifth son of Sir Edward 
Gorges of Wraxall in the County of Somerset, who, after the greater 
part of his life spent faithfully in the service of Queen Elizabeth and 
King James, both monarehs of blessed memory, as Gentleman Usher 
of the Privy Chamber {in sanctiore penetrali), he resigned his soul into 
the hands of his Redeemer, on the 30th day of March, 1610, in the 74th 
year of his age." 

S. 

On the south side are :— 

Above, (1) The arms of Snachenberg in a lozenge. 

On the base, (2) Northampton, impaling Snachenberg, surmounted by 
the coronet of a marquess, on an oval shield. (3) Gorges, impaling 
Snachenberg, on an oval shield. 



Cf. E, SymoncCs Diary, 1644 (Camden Society, 1859), p. 133. 



By Canon J. M. J Fletcher, F. R. Hist. Soc. 31 

Snachenberg. See note relative to the eight quarterings of this shield 
in description of west side of the monument. 
Northampton. Shield of eleven quarterings— impaling Snachenberg :— 

1. Argent two bars azure within a bordure engrailed sable (Parr). 

2. Or three water bougets sable (Roos). 

3. Gules three chevronels interlaced vaire a chief or (Wyvill). 

4. Barry of eight argent and gules a fieur de lis sable (Staveley). 

5. [ ] a bend [ ] between six crosses (Flory). 

6. Barry of six argent and azure on a bend gules three martlets or 

(Grey). 

7. Vaire a fesse gules (Marmion). 

8. Barry or and azure an eagle displayed gules (Garnegot). 

9. Or two chevrons gules a chief vaire (St. Quintin). 

10. Azure three harts tripping or (Green). 

11. Gules a chevron or between three crosses flory, in chief or a lion 

passant guardant [ ] (Mablethorpe). 

Beneath the shield of arms at the top (1) is inscribed (Latin) : — 

" The world is the sea, Life is the ship, whoever sets sail Death is 
the port, Heaven is the fatherland, The faithful enters (it)." 
And on the base, between the shields (2) and (3) :— 

" Here were placed the remains of Hellen Snachenberg, of Sweden, 
who, attending the Lady Cecilia, daughter of Eric, King of Sweden, into 
this Kingdom, on account of the beauty and modesty by which she 
was distinguished giving pleasure to Queen Elizabeth, was appointed 
by her one of her Maids of Honour and Ladies of her bedchamber, and 
bestowed in marriage to William Lord Farr of Kendall, Marquis of 
Northampton, who dying without issue, she married Sir Thomas 
Gorges to whom she bare 4 sons and 3 daughters ; after whose death 
she lived piously for 25 years a widow, and departed this life on the 
first day of April, 1635, sged 86 years." 
Though not so stated on her tomb, it is recorded elsewhere^ that she left 
98 descendents — children, grandchildren, and great grandchildren. 

Beneath the entablature, on the ceiling of the canopy, is a broad border 
in which are eight panels— three on each side and the others at the east and 
west ends. On the western one is the description of the others : Septem 
dona Spiritus Sancti (the seven gifts of the Holy Spirit). On the other 
panels are delineated representations of these seven gifts. Two of them, 
viz., those marked 4 and 1, below, are not difficult to decipher : — 

On the eastern panel : The Spirit of Ghostly Strength is represented by 
Samson slaying the Philistines with the jawbone of an ass {Judges xv„ 15), 
and on the south side the Spirit of Wisdom is seen in the Judgment of 
Solomon (I. Kings iii., 16—28). 

But the other subjects are puzzling, and I don't think that a satisfactory 
solution has yet been found. Taking them, however, in order, the following 
suggestions are made :— 



^ Lansdowne Boll, 9. 



32 The Gorges Monume7it in Salisbury Cathedral. 

South Side— 

1 (west end). Judgment of Solomon. 

2 (centre). Manoah at the altar {Judges xiii., 16 — 23). A clothed figure, 
prostrate on the ground, looking up at a smoking altar in front of the 
building. 

3 (east end). The sacrifices of Cain and Abel {Genesis iv., 3—5). Two 
naked figures, each kneeling before an altar — on the one the flame, or 
smoke, ascending heavenwards ; on the other, it is blown downwards. 

East Side— 

4. Samson slaying the Philistines with the jawbone of the ass. 

North Side— 

5 (east). Jacob and his sons {Genesis xlv , 25—26). Possibly ths Spirit 
of Counsel. Six figures on a raised platform, and four below. Seated is a 
turbaned figure, with hand held out as though he is speaking authoritatively. 
The six figures on the platform, the sons of Leah. The four below, the 
sons of the concubines ; the boy, Benjamin (Joseph being in Egypt). 

6 (centre). Esther {Esther v., 2). Possibly the spirit of the Fear of the 
Lord. A crowned figure seated in a tent door, holding out a sceptre which 
a female figure touches ; another female stands by. 

7 (west). A crowned figure seated in a tent door ; a boy standing in 
front to whom he is speaking ; two figures are at his side and one behind. 
It has been suggested that this represented Phurah, the servant of Gideon 
{Judges vii., 9—11, etc.). But I don't know in what way. If so, why the 
crown ? and was Phurah a boy 1 It is a puzzle ; and I do not really know 
to which special gifts of the Holy Spirit {Isaiah xi., 2, 3) to assign some of 
the other representations. 



The monument has been variously described : By Britton, as "one of the 
most irregular and whimsical buildings of a capricious age " ; by Hoare, 
the historian of our county as "a richly decorated tomb of singular archi- 
tecture (with) the eflSgies recumbent thereon under a rich canopy." The 
writer of the letterpress descriptive of the " Ichnographical Plan of the 
Cathedral," published about the year 1733, but better known perhaps by its 
reproduction on a reduced scale in J. D. Chambers' Divine Worship in 
England, etc., speaks of it as " a beautiful monument of white stone " ; 
whilst ^ Fuller, who wrote in 1662, said : " Amongst the many monuments 
in Salisbury Cathedral, that of Edmund, Earl of Hertford, is most magni- 
ficent: that of Helen Suavenberg, a Swede (the relict of William, Marquess 
of Northampton, and afterwards married to Thomas Gorges) is most com- 
mended for its artificial plainness." 

This elaborate monument can hardly, I think, be characterised as a plain 
one, whatever the qualifying adjective "artificial" may imply. And, 
unfortunately, it almost entirely hides from view much of the very inter- 
esting ancient glass which is in the window immediately behind it. 



Worthies, Nichols' Edit., Vol. II., p. 437. 



By Canon J. M. J. Fletcher, F. B, Hist. Soc. 



33 





VOL. XLVI. — NO. CLVII. 



34 The Gorges Monument in Salisbury CathedraL 

Whatever we may think of its appearance, or of the incongruity of a 
spurious Classical erection when placed in our lovely Early English 
Cathedral, the Monument itself is of considerable interest. It has, too, 
the merit of "balancing," to a certain extent, the corresponding huge 
memorial, that of the Marquis of Hertford and his wife, the Lady Catherine 
Grey, which is of about the same date, at the east end of the south choir 
aisle. And it may be said to have preserved from oblivion the memory of 
two interesting people. 



Note. In the Museum of the Wilts Archaeological Society, at Devizes, 
are the following illustrations of the Monument : — 

In the Volume I. (" Collections for Wilts ") are two water colour drawings 
of the monument (taken respectively from the W. and N. sides), and one 
*' Internal view of the Cupola over the figures of Ld. Gorges and Lady," 
also in water colour. Name of artist not given. 

In Vol. O : an unfinished pen drawing of the tomb taken from W. end, 
and below it two small rough sketches in pencil of the animals " at the foot 
of the lady " and " at the foot of Ld. Gorges " ; some unfinished pen sketches 
of various details of the sculpture of the monument and decorations of the 
canopy ; two water colour drawings of the canopy, very similar to that in 
I. ; a line engraving of the figures of Hellena Snachenberg and Sir Thomas 
Gorges, " Trotter del. H. Moses scS published for Sir H. C. Hoare 1832 " ; 
and two engravings of different views of the tomb, " Buckler del., H. Moses 
scS" also done for Hoare in 1832. 

The line engraving of the two figures, drawn by Trotter and engraved by 
H. Moses, is given in Sir H. C. Hoare's Modern Wilts, Cawden Hundred, 
p. 32 ; and the engravings of the north and west sides of the tomb, drawn 
by J. C. Buckler and engraved by H. Moses, are given after page 30 of the 
same volume. 

An etching of the south side of the monument is given in Britton's 
History and Antiquities of the Cathedral Church of Salisbury , p. 97. 



35 



NOTES ON ERCHFONT MANOR HOUSE. 
By H. Rivers Pollock. 

The exact year of the building of Erchfont Manor House is uncertain but 
there can be little doubt that it was during the last quarter of the seven- 
teenth century, and there is fairly conclusive evidence to place it in the 
decade between 1678 and 1688. The house is typical of that transitional 
period in English domestic architecture when the many-angled and gabled 
buildings (whose outer walls usually enclosed only the breadth of a single 
room) of Elizabethan and early Jacobean times, were giving way to the 
broader and more spacious houses with hipped roofs, the transition cul- 
minating in the completely classical style of the Georgian period. Such 
houses are to be found as early as the middle of the seventeenth century, 
and even earlier, but the break with the older tradition did not spread 
rapidly from London until after the Restoration. When the house at Erch- 
font was built it was probably regarded by the local folk with considerable 
suspicion, as a new-fangled departure, influenced by foreigners and particu- 
larly the French ; but, however much England hated France, English 
aristocrats affected the fashions of the court of Louis XIV. and loved to 
build their houses, and to lay out their gardens, in the new Renaissance 
style which spread to England from Italy, largely through France and 
Holland. Inigo Jones had, of course, imported it direct early in the seven- 
teenth century. Even in the privacy of their homes the nobility and gentry 
seemed to prefer to act, rather than to live, their lives, and their houses and 
grounds tended to have that curious theatrical charm, with scenes and 
prospects and the appropriate exits and entrances, There are several houses 
in Devizes illustrative of the same period, and in each of the neighbouring 
villages of Easterton and West Lavington there is a smaller house in the 
same style, solid and thick-walled, with hipped roof, similar windows and 
stone fireplaces of like design. 

As the house stands today it has been little changed in main essentials 
since the time it was built, and there have been no additions of any conse- 
quence. It is constructed of 2iin. brick, and the general shape is that of a 
thick-limbed L, measuring 73ft. on the east front and 68ft. on the south 
front (with a maximum depth of 43ft.) the angle forming, with outbuild- 
ings, a small courtyard at the back. The outer walls are 2ft. 3in. thick, 
and the main or " ground " floor * is raised about 4ft above the actual ground 
level, the whole house being built over a stone-flagged basement, 4ft. below 
the ground, with a narrow area between its outer wall and the earth. This 
basement constituted roomy accommodation for cellarage and storerooms 
of every kind, and there is a massively built system of brick drains, along 
which it is possible for a man to crawl without much difficulty. The win- 
dows are numerous and stone-framed ; and, with the exception of the five 
chief windows in the central feature of the east front, all originally had 

' i.ff. the floor immediately above the basenient.'i^ ^ ■;::.. - 

D 2 



36 Notes on Erchfont Manor House. 

lentral mullions and transomes. The latter still remain except on the south 
front, and reference will be made to these later. The windows on the east 
front have, in addition, stone entablatures and pediments, with their archi- 
traves returned down the jambs on to the sills, but on one side of this 
front a group of four windows has been blocked (though without interfering 
with the stone work) possibly owing to the window tax, but more probably 
to secure greater warmth. The walls have stone quoins at all the angles, 
and a htone string-course surrounds the whole house at a level with the top 
of the main-floor windows. The roof is massive and steeply pitched ; and 
towards the eaves the pitch is reduced by means of sprocket pieces, giving 
a pleasant concave curve to its appearance. Beneath the eaves runs a 
heavily moulded wooden cornice, and the original rain gutters, cut out of 
solid wood, were only removed within living memory. The chimneys have 
moulded stone caps at their tops, and string courses lower down, near the 
ridge of the roof, but unfortunately most of their brick-work has been 
cemented and the addition of pots now spoils their properly balanced ap- 
pearance ; the chimney of the old kitchen was originally all of stone, but, 
having become cracked, was rebuilt and cemented twenty-five years ago. 
The old entrance front of the house faces east, and it is here that the chief 
architectural features have been displayed. The central portion of this 
front stands out 2ft. from the main wall in the form of a pedimented block, 
extending to the full height of the house and faced with specially made 
bricks of superior quality which are laid in a thin joint of putty. This 
block dominates, and is intended to dominate, the whole building ; it is, how- 
ever, well-proportioned, both in itself and with the rest of the house, being 
handsome and dignified and yet with the restraint necessary in a moderate- 
sized building. The pediment is massive and is enriched with a bold cor- 
nice of moulded stone work, with carved stone modillions ; within the 
pediment is a square stone window with two smaller oval windows on each 
side. There has been a suggestion that this pedimented feature was added 
at a later date (perhaps because of the different bricks used on its face, 
though this was not an uncommon practice) but this suggestion may be 
dismissed, since all the evidence is against it, as is also the opinion of such 
an authority as Mr. A. K. Powys, of the Society for the Protection of 
Ancient Buildings. In the middle of the pedimented block, on the main 
floor and at the top of a flight of steps, is a beautiful door-way composed of 
two Corinthian columns, with delicately carved capitals, standing im- 
mediately in front of two pilasters of similar design. Above a frieze of 
stone panels is a slight cornice, with small carved modillions and other 
ornamentations, and above this again is a bold curved pediment whose cor- 
nice has similar enrichments and in which is a scrolled and embossed shield 
bearing a monogram comprising the letters W and P. 

The main alteration to the original building consists of the removal of the 
mullions and transomes from the fourteen chief windows on the south front ^ 
there is also evidence to show that the plain brick arches over the main- 
floor windows on this front take the place of stone ornamentations similar 
to those on the main wall of the east front ; and it is certain that all these 
windows on the south front were slightly enlarged by lowering the sills, at 



By H. Rivers Pollock. 37 

the time when the mullions and transomes were removed, in order to replace 
the casement windows by sash windows ; the latter always work better 
when the height of the sliding sash is greater, or at least not much less, than 
its width. This alteration took place towards the end of the eighteenth 
oentury. Another change was the probable substitution of red tiles on the 
roof instead of large stone tiles ; the heavy oak timbers inside the roof 
seem intended for a great weight and there are still the remains of stone 
roofing on the older outbuildings. 

The interior of the house also retains most of its original features. There 
is a fine staircase, broad and with easy treads, having spiral balusters rising 
from a handsome string and terminating in a wide handrail ; on the wall side 
is a dado with large panels in moulded frames ; at its foot is a pair of the 
original five-panelled doors leading into the centre room on the south side 
of the house. The original entrance hall (the largest room in the house), 
which is contained in the middle of the pedimented block previously men- 
tioned, is panelled from floor to ceiling with large raised panels in bolection 
mouldings surmounted with a classical cornice ; the fireplace, as in most of 
the principal rooms, is framed in heavily moulded stone with a stone over- 
mantel. Above the fireplaces in several of the rooms are oil paintings on 
wood (let into the panelling and probably contemporary) representing scenes 
after the style, but hardly with the merit, of Claude of Lorraine— gardens 
or rural prospects with ruins, statues and distant palaces ; but among these 
are two exceptions to the conventional subjects of the period, one being a 
snow scene, executed in a vigorous and convincing manner, and the other a 
detailed picture of the east front of the house. If one may judge by the 
dresses of the figures and by other details, this was painted when the house 
was built, or possibly from the plans before the house was actually finished ; 
it certainly contains useful corroboration of evidence obtained from other 
sources as to the house itself and the lay-out of the grounds, the garden 
walls and the summer-house. In the foreground of the picture is a formal 
pond, approached by stone steps and containing a number of swans ; on the 
further side are three King Charles' spaniels. Receding in accurate per- 
spective, but probably enlarged in length, is a rectangular garden with grass 
strips alternating with gravel walks, along which are arranged three pairs 
of orange trees in scarlet vases mounted on high stone pedestals. On 
the outer edge on each side is a row of cypress trees, forming together a 
miniature avenue ; on the right is a domed summer-house and on the left, 
in the air, are two rather improbable birds. In this dignified, if somewhat 
strained, setting may be seen four couples, in the dress of the period (the 
men wearing full-bottomed wigs and carrying swords) ; they appear to be 
occupied either in discussing proposals of marriage or in pointing out the 
somewhat insistent beauty of their surroundings, while two elderly ladies 
are discreetly placed behind one of the stone pedestals and two others are 
walking towards each other in the distance from exact relative positions, 
resembling a pair of vases on a mantelpiece. In the background rises the 
east elevation of the house, with a sense of shameless importance but with 
fair accuracy of detail, though it is made to appear somewhat higher than 
the reality. Whether the garden was ever as elaborate as that portrayed is 



38 Notes on Erchfont Manor House. 

to be doubted ; this may have been only an inspiration, but the remains of 
the summer-house were found within living memory and also of the wall 
running southwards (to the left of the picture) ; a large cypress tree, felled 
about seventy years ago, may have been the last of the avenue already re- 
ferred to. The gabled building on the right was probably the door-keeper'a 
cottage ; later on it was used as a brew-house and it is still in existence to- 
day. 

The only alteration which aflfected the interior of the house to any extent 
was carried out by Mr. Simon Watson-Taylor, when he came to live at 
Erchfont about the year 1850; finding the accommodation insufficient for 
his requirements, he converted the roomy basement into servants' quarters. 
This enabled him to secure the whole of the main floor as " masters' rooms "^ 
with the exception of an ante-room, situated next to, and on the north of, 
the large entrance hall on the east front ; this he was obliged to sacrifice in 
order to get sufficient height for his new kitchen. By removing the floor of 
this ante-room, the new kitchen thus rose from the floor of the basement 
to the floor of the second storey, making a room of over twenty feet in 
height. He was compensated for the loss of this principal room by con- 
verting the old kitchen (on the main floor of the west side of the house) 
into an entrance hall, the old entrance hall then becoming available as a 
large dining-room measuring 30ft. by 20ft. As will be seen, the back of 
the house thus became the front, the old east front became a garden front, 
and the back entrances were concentrated in the courtyard in the angle on 
the northerly side of the house. These changes involved making a new 
drive in a south-westerly curve from the new front door on to the 
Lavington road, the original entrance having been effected from a lane 
which runs northward from that road into the village. Various minor 
alterations in the house, and particularly the disappearance of the ante- 
room referred to above, led to a good deal of oak panelling being taken out 
and redistributed in casual positions for partition purposes ; oak panelling 
was already going out of favour when the house was built and remained 
unpopular for several generations. This panelling is still in the house 
(covered with paint or canvas) and it is hoped that it may be possible one 
day to extricate it and re-erect it in a suitable position.' 

^This part ot his alterations has since been changed by abandoning the 
basement for living purposes and converting to domestic use the old brew- 
house and other outbuildings on the ground level. 

2 The writer is indebted to Mr. Robert Crook (the oldest male inhabitant 
of Erchfont) for much of the above information and for other information 
about the house and village ; and his version of the facts has been corro- 
borated by circumstantial evidence, where the latter was available, thus 
constituting a tribute to his long and accurate memory of what he himself 
has seen and what he has been told in his childhood. His father and 
mother were both in the service of Mr. Simon Watson-Taylor, he himself 
was in the service of the latter's son, Mr. G. S. A. Watson-Taylor, and his 
own son and grandchildren are to-day in the service of the present owners of 
Erchfont Manor, The family of Crook can be traced in the records of thfr 
village for over three hundred years. 



By H. Rivers Pollock. " 39 

Having described the house itself we will return to its building and give 
some account of the people who lived there. It has been mentioned that, 
over the old entrance, there is an embossed shield with a monogram com- 
prising the letters W and P. These are the initials of William Pynsent, the 
son of William Pynsent of London and Ann, the daughter of one John 
Lancelott. The Pynsents were an old-established Devon family but early in 
the seventeenth century some of them, at least, were seeking their fortune in 
London; and they seem to have varied, and occasionally to have combined, 
the pursuit of the law with the gentler and no less lucrative pursuit of 
wealthy heiresses. William Pynsent (afterwards the first baronet) whose 
mother, Anne Lancelott, was an heiress, was himself an only son and was also 
the heir of his uncle John Pynsent, who is described as a prothonotary of the 
Court of Common Pleas ; William Pynsent was himself a barrister, having 
been called to the Bar at Lincoln's Inn in 1667, and he married Patience, the 
daughter of Alderman John Bond. His aunt (Grace Pynsent) married 
William Tothill of Bovey in Devon and their son, Robert Tothill, married 
Olive Matthews, who is said to have been an heiress of Erchfont. These 
last two had no children, but William Pynsent can hardly have had any per- 
sonal expectations from these cousins who were much younger than himself. 
However this may be, we find him buying land in Erchfont as early as 1678, 
and he was pricked as sherifi" for Wiltshire for 1688 — 9, though his name 
was replaced by that of John Wyndham on the arrival of the Prince of 
Orange ; whether, having been made a baronet by James II. in 1687, he felt 
some delicacy in openly supporting the Revolution must remain uncertain, 
but in any case he soon trimmed his sails to the new breeze for we find him 
sheriff in 1693—4, after having been member of Parliament for Devizes in 
1689—90. 

It is difficult to ascertain the exact extent of the original Pynsent pro- 
perty in Erchfont, but it seems fairly clear that it did not include the 
manor or great farm, nor the lordship of the manor itself ; and William 
Pynsent, finding no suitable residence on his recently acquired property, 
determined to build a house in the new style with which no doubt he had 
become familiar during his life in London. Even if he had owned it, the 
original manor house near the church (now known as the Manor Farm) was 
old-fashioned, probably in a bad state of repair, and would have been re- 
garded as quite unsuitable for one who was a smart and wealthy Londoner ; 
this house was almost entirely rebuilt during the eighteenth century, but 
has a very fine set of farm buildings, including the great barn, the fifteenth 
century framework of which is still in existence. The site for the new 
house' was chosen just outside the actual village, near a piece of land known 
as " the Upper Green " about half a mile from the church, the building to 
face east towards the village and south towards Goosehill, the name given 
to the slope which rises to one of the highest ridges of Salisbury Plain, 
thereby aflfording a very pleasant outlook for a mile on that side of the 

^ There is some, but insufficient, evidence for supposing that the new 
house was erected on the site of an older building. If so, the latter must 
have been almost completely demolished. 



40 Notes on Erchfont Manor House, 

house. According to an ancient tradition the bricks for the house were 
made from clay dug in a field close behind Church Farm ; this field is still 
known as "Brick Plot" and certainly bears the mark of having been ex- 
tensively excavated, which would indeed have been a necessity for a matter 
of four hundred thousand bricks. We may be sure that the building took 
some time to complete, but can assume that this was done, at latest, before 
Pynsent was pricked for sheriff in 1688 ; we may also assume that Sir 
William spent the greater part of his time at his new house, in fact that 
he retired there after it was finished. It seems that it was then known as 
" Erchfont House," though this name is not mentioned in any deeds, where 
it is always referred to as "the capital mansion." Sir William died there 
in 1719 and was buried in Erchfont Church. It may be mentioned here 
that there has been some confusion in previous accounts as to the identity 
of the various William Pynsents, due to the fact that there were no less 
than four of them in direct descent ; the first and second baronets are most 
frequently confused, and the son of the second baronet has been mistaken 
for his father whom he did not survive. 

On the death of Sir William Pynsent (the first baronet) in 1719 he was 
succeeded in his title and estates by his eldest son, William, though some 
provision was made for his two younger sons (who are both buried at 
Erchfont) and his daughters. William Pynsent, the second baronet, who 
was born in 1679, married Mary, the widow of Edmund Star and co-hsiress 
of her father, Thomas Jennings of Burton in Ourry Ilivell ; it was through 
her that there came to the Pynsent family the Burton estate which was 
later known as Burton Pynsent. During the lifetime of his father he lived 
for some years at West Lavington, his son and three daughters having been 
baptised there between the years 1707 and 1711 ; but later he moved to 
Somerset (possibly when his wife came into her property there) and was 
member of Parliament for Taunton from 1715 to 1722, His wife died in or 
before 1719 and so he was left a widower at forty years of age or less. On 
succeeding his father he must have been a man of very considerable wealth, 
but his wealth does not seem to have brought him either happiness or 
peace of mind ; from all accounts he was a man of considerable character 
and wit, with a strong vein of eccentricity, though it would perhaps be 
hardly safe to pay much attention to Horace Walpole's imputations against 
his morals " which, if true, would induce us to suspect him of a disordered 
mind." Sir William was a staunch Whig in politics but, as his party had 
been driven from power shortly before he entered Parliament, he could do 
no more than vote in a minority against the final stages of the treaty of 
Utrecht. He probably retired altogether into the country in 1722 and to 
Burton rather than Erchfont, as he was sheriff for Somerset in 1741. But 
his personal connection with Erchfont was not entirely broken ; his brother 
Robert (deputy clerk of the Crown) was buried there in 1738 and his brother 
John in 1748 ; and in 1753 he erected a handsome memorial in the Church 
there to his father's first cousin, Robert Tothill (senior clerk of the Privy 
Seal) and the latter's wife Olive (n6e Matthews) of whom mention has been 
made above. Sir William, a substantial beneficiary once more, describes 
himself thereon as "kinsman and executor" of Robert Tothill, sets out in 



By H. Rivers Pollock, ,41 

full the honours and distinctions of the deceased without adding any word 
of eulogy and, having placed life-sized busts of his relatives on a large urn 
let into the wall, leaves them in charge of two complacent marble boys, one 
holding an hour-glass with philosophic resignation, and the other brushing 
away a perfunctory tear. It may well be that he visited Erchfont fairly 
frequently, and even that he spent the greater part of his latter years there. 
We may picture him as an ageing and quick-tempered old gentleman, dis- 
liking and disliked by his relations, careless both of his appearance and 
reputation, and wandering about his garden at Erchfont with brooding 
thoughts on what he regarded as the disgrace of his country. This was not 
the kind of life that his father had envisaged for those who were to live in 
the graceful house that he had built at Erchfont, and to make things worse 
he is said to have quarrelled with his only son (the last of the William 
Pynsents) because the boy had married a woman much older than himself. 
This young man, who had been born at West Lavington in 1710, went to 
live at Winkfield near Trowbridge, where he built a house and died childless 
in 1754. Sir William's other children (three daughters) also predeceased 
their father. 

But a ray of light came into the old man's life with the rise of William 
Pitt and he watched with approval, and even enthusiasm, the increasing 
influence of the Great Commoner who was finally swept to triumph as the 
popular and spirited leader of his country in her victorious wars. Pitt's 
power had risen to a great climax, but the climax was short and the accession 
of George III. in 1760 soon altered the situation, for in 1762 Pitt was in 
disfavour and Lord Bute held sway over the young king. No doubt Sir 
William Pynsent's feelings were stirred, though Macaulay's account of the 
incident which follows (presumibly taken from Horace Walpole's Memoirs) 
may be somewhat fanciful. 

However this may be, in 1763 Sir William made a will leaving practically 
the whole of his considerable property " to the Right Honourable William 
Pitt Esq." Macaulay, explaining this bequest in his essay on the Earl of 
Chatham, says ; — 

" He (Sir William Pynsert) now thought that he perceived a close 
analogy between the well remembered events of his youth and the 
events he had witnessed in extreme old age ; between the disgrace of 
xVIarlborough and the disgrace of Pitt ; between the elevation of Harley 
and the elevation of Bute ; between the treaty negotiated by St. John 
and the treaty negotiated by Bedford ; between the wrongs of the 
house of Austria in 1712 and the wrongs of the house of Brandenburg 
in 1762. This fancy took such possession of the old man's mind that 
he determined to leave the whole of his property to Pitt." 

But the explanation may be simpler. Sir William was in his eighty- 
fifth year, a lonely old man whose life had stretched into the reigns of no 
less than eight monarchs, and whose only surviving child was an elderly 
unmarried daughter (already largely provided for by the Tothills). Re- 
viewing a life of disappointment behind him, he observed on the horizon of 
his thoughts a group of relations, for whom he had at least no affection. 



4^2 Notes on Erchfont Manor House. 

awaiting with interest, and no doubt discussing in privacy, the coming par- 
tition of his property ; if not commendable, it was at any rate only human for 
him to use his only remaining power, or to indulge his particular whim, by 
disappointing his gossiping kinsmen and gaining in his death some of the 
attention that was denied him in his life ; this he could do, and this he 
did, by leaving his wealth to his political hero to whom, by the way, he 
was quite unknown. Well aware of the discord and heart-burning that his 
will would arouse, with the consequent efforts to set it aside, he signed 
every sheet with his own hand and is said to have had the whole of it read 
out in the presence of the witnesses. Sir William did not die until nearly 
two years later, and there is a story (which rings true enough) that on 
several occasions he attempted to make his way into Pitt's house to tell him 
what he had done, but was turned back by the servants on account of his 
disreputable appearance. 

Pitt knew nothing of the will until Pynsent died in January 1765 and» 
as we shall see, his good fortune must have hung upon a slender thread, 
which might well have been severed when the old baronet was thrust away 
from his door-step without ceremony and maybe with a ribald joke. London 
was soon full of the news and the letters which Horace Walpole sent to his 
friends give the full flavour of the times. Writing on 13th January 1765 
to Sir Horace Mann he says : — 

"Tis the marvellous, the eccentric, that characterises Englishmen. 
Uome, you shall have an event in the genuine taste, and before it has 
been pawed and vulgarised in the newspapers. It is fresh this very day. 
There is somebody dead somewhere — strong marks of novelty you see 
— in Somersetshire or Wiltshire, I think, who has left two hundred 
thousand pounds to Mr. Pitt, to Mr. William Pitt, to the Mr. Pitt . . . 
somebody called Pinsent or Vincent — the town and I are not sure of the 
name yet ; but it is certain he never saw the said Mr. Pitt— I hope 
that was not the best reason for the legacy ! The parson of the parish » 
who made the will, has sent word to Hayes that it is lodged in the 
housekeeper's hands, who has command from the defunct not to deliver 
it but to the legatee, on order. Unluckily Mr. Pitt is in bed with the 
gout in his hand, and cannot even sign the order ; however, Lady 
Chatham has sent for the will, and it is supposed her order will suffice. 
You may depend on all the latter part ; I had it but two hours ago from 
Lady Temple, whose lord has been to Hayes this morning on this affair.'^ 
Writing a week later to the Earl of Hertford he says : — 

" You have heard, to be sure, of the great fortune that is bequeathed 
to him (Pitt) by a Sir William Pinsent, an old man of near ninety, who 
quitted the world on the Peace of Utrecht ; and, luckily for Mr. Pitt, 
lived to be as angry with its pendant, the Treaty of Paris. I did not send 
you the first report, which mounted to an enormous sum : I think the 
medium account is two thousand pounds a year and thirty thousand 
pounds in money. This Sir William Pinsent whose fame, like an aloe, 
did not blow to near a hundred^ was a singularity. The scandalous 
chronicle of Somersetshire talks terribly of his morals. . . . Lady 
North was nearly related to Lady Pinsent, which encouraged Lord 



'^By H. Rivers Pollock. 43 

North to flatter himself that Sir William's extreme propensity to him 
would recommend even his wife's parentage for heirs ; but the uncome- 
liness of Lady North and a vote my lord gave against the Cider BilL 
offended the old gentlemen so much that he burnt his would-be heir in 
effigy." 
And again a week later, writing to the same friend, he says : — 

" Do you know that Sir William Pinsent had your brother ' in his 
eye ? He said to his lawyer, I know Mr. Pitt is much younger than I 
am, but he has very bad health ; as you will hear it before me, if he 
dies first, draw up another will with Mr. Conway's name, instead of Mr. 
Pitt's, and bring it down to me directly." 
It is interesting to observe the variations of this story which appeared 
later in the same writer's Memoirs : — 

" About the same time happened the following extraordinary event. 
Sir William Pinsent, a baronet of Somersetshire, died and left his whole 
fortune to Mr. Pitt, no ways related, nor personally known to him- 
Nor, as it appeared, was this great legacy so much the reward of his 
illustrious services as of his opposition to General Warrants. Sir 
William Pinsent, at his death, was aged eighty-six, had formerly served 
in Parliament, and had voted against the Treaty of Utrecht; his princi- 
ples being zealously and unalterably Whig. He is said to have had 
parts and humour . . . Lord North had married his next relation, 
had courted him and stood fair to be his heir ; till, having voted for the 
tax on cider, Sir William, who had long lived retired on his estate, had 
not only quarrelled with his cousin North, but had encouraged the mob 
to burn him in effigy. He then became enamoured of Mr. Pitt ; is said 
to have cast some inconsequent glances towards Wilkes, and immed- 
iately before his death had indubitably given orders to his lawyer to 
draw a new will entirely in favour of General Conway, but it was not 
prepared in time. Mr. Pitt, therefore, found himself in possession of 
real and personal estates worth above forty thousand pounds, without 
regret of losing a friend, without the imputation of having flattered his 
benefactor, for he never saw him, without injuring a family, for Sir 
William had no very near relatives, and not one that expected his for- 
tune ; and with the satisfaction of owing such a public mark of esteem 
to his virtue and merits." 
The value of the estate left to Pitt must have been between £50,000 and 
j£60,000 (which at to-day's valuation would be worth four or five times that 
sum) ; the estate at Erchfont can hardly have been worth more than that 
at Burton, and the former was sold by Pitt a year or two after the bequest 
for £26,000. But the Pynsent relations did not submit without an effort ; 
both Sir William's nephew, Robert Pynsent," and his cousin, Henry Daw 

^ Henry Conway, afterwards Field Marshal. 
' The Rev. Robert Pynsent, the last holder of the baronetcy, who died in 
1781. According to Cockayne's Complete Baronetage the baronetcy became 
extinct in 1765 and was only '* assumed" by Robert Pynsent. 



44 Notes on Erchfont Manor House. 

Tothill, prosecuted a suit (Tothill v. Pitt) to set aside the will on the grounds 
of inability to alienate, and also of insanity. This suit failed in the court 
of first instance, was successful (but only to the extent of ^15,000) on appeal 
to the Lords Commissioners, but failed again completely on a final appeal 
to the House of Lords. If it had not been for the untimely death in 1763 
of Pynsent's last surviving daughter (Leonora Anne) this sum of £15,000 
would have escaped passing into the old man's vast estate and have returned 
to the Tothills. Robert Tothill, the elder, previously mentioned as senior 
clerk of the Privy Seal, had left some money to Leonora Anne direct, apart 
from a further amount to come to her on her father's death. He also seems 
to have had anxiety about his will, for he gave directions that his diamond 
ring, his gold repeater watch, his plate and his books were to be locked up 
at his death "till it is apparent who should, by virtue of my will, have a 
right to my estate." This may have been done to show that there was no heir 
in the ordinary sense. These matters were all discussed in the case of Tot- 
hill v. Pitt, but the principle of English law that a man may leave his money 
as he pleases is not easily set aside, and in his last testament a man is taken 
to mean what he says unless there is strong evidence to the contrary. Sir 
William Pynsent had left small amounts to various indigent relatives, 
enough to show some family feeling, not to mention a thousand guineas to 
the notorious John Wilkes, a thing which any sane Whig might have done, 
and which others actually did. 

Though his wife had been made a baroness in her own right twelve years 
earlier, William Pitt was not created Earl of Chatham until 1766. He was 
very glad of this windfall, nor was it the first of its kind, as (some 40 years 
earlier) the aged Duchess of Marlborough had left him £10,000, probably as 
much to mark her detestation of Robert Walpole as to show her admiration 
of Pitt. He is said to have used a part of his new estate to buy back his 
house at Hayes in Kent, where he pulled down many neighbouring build- 
ings, the occupants of which disturbed his quiet. At Burton Pynsent he 
erected an impressive and dignified stone column to the benefactor he had 
never seen, nor ever heard of, until the latter died. This monument is now 
known as the Burton Steeple or Parkfield Monument. It stands on the 
spur of a hill, commanding a magnificent view of the surrounding country, 
though it may be taken for certain that his gout prevented Pitt from ever 
ascending the hundred and fifty odd steps to its summit. On the side of 
the column appears the simple inscription :— 

Sacred to the memory of 
Sir William Pynsent 

Hoc saltern fungar 
inani munere 

a modification of line 8S6 in the sixth book of Virgil's Aeneid, and not alto- 
gether apt in its context as Virgil is speaking of the death of the young 
Marcellus, after a short life of great promise, and the gifts he refers to are 

lilies ! 

The bequest to Pitt was made the subject of much libellous ridicule by 



By H. Rivers Pollock, 45 

his enemies, especially when in the year following it he chose, not un- 
naturally in view of his health, to accept a peerage. As Dr. Johnson said, 
'* Pitt was a minister given by the people to the King," and up to that time 
the Great Commoner had been the idol of the populace. On the expecta- 
tion of his return to power in 1766, preparations were made in the city for 
a banquet and a general illumination to celebrate the event, but the festivi- 
ties were at once countermanded when it was learnt that Pitt had been 
made an Earl. In Waylen's History of the Devizes a mean and scurrilous 
pasquinade entitled " Pynsent's Ghost " is given in full, the ghost of the 
dead baronet (who is described as insane) being made to visit Chatham " at 
the silent midnight hour " and to address him {inter alia) as follows : — 

Villain repent — repent, though late, 

Thy broken oaths and vows, 
And give me back my lost estate, 

Since shame hath stripped thy brows. 

How could you say the Cause was good, 

And yet that Cause forsake 1 
How could you say you sought not gold, 

Yet gold on all sides take ? 

Mow could you swear your country's love 

Did o'er your breast prevail ? 
And why did I, old doting fool, 

Believe the lying tale ? 

Sir William Pynsent was buried at Erchfont,' which points to the fact 
that he was living there at the time of his death, though it may be that Pitt, 
having elected to bury him there with his father, brought the body from 
Burton Pynsent. The estate in Wiltshire was probably about the same size 
as that in Somerset, though its exact extent is difficult to ascertain ; it 
seems to have comprised some 850 acres in Erchfont, together with a water- 
mill and a number of dwelling houses, and it included the manor of Patney 
a few miles distant from Erchfont. No doubt Pitt came down to Erchfont 
for short visits to inspect the property, but he elected to retain Burton, 
where he subsequently took a great interest in the place and planted a large 
number of cedars. 

In 1767 Chatham sold the Erchfont estate to Charles, the third Duke of 

'Up to 1887 there were two hatchments of the Pynsent family in Erch- 
font church, but these must have disappeared shortly after that date as the 
present verger (Mr. Oliver Price), who has lived in Erchfont since 1896, is cer- 
tain that they were never in the Church in his time. A description of them 
is given on p. 313, vol. xxiii., of this Magazine. The Pynsent coat of arms 
was :— Gules, a chevron engrailed between three estoiles argent. In Burke's 
Extinct and Dormant Baronetcies (1838), where the record of the Pynsent 
family is more notable for its inaccuracies than its information, the baron- 
etcy is described as Pynsent of Erthfont, and Burton is stated to be in 
Shropshire ! 



46 Notes on Eixhfont Manor House. 

Queensberry, who had a seat at Amesbury and owned considerable estates 
in Wiltshire, including property in Erchfont and the lordship of that manor. 
When the Duke purchased the Pynsent estate at Erchfont, together with 
the house built by the elder Pynsent, the ownership of this house and the 
lordship of the manor became vested in the same person and have so re- 
mained until the present day. But the earlier name " Erchfont House " 
lingered on for some time, and is to be found on an old map of Wiltshire 
(by C. Greenwood) dated 1820. 

In an issue of the Salisbury Journal dated June 13th, 1768, particulars of 
a proposed sale of " part of the estate of the late Sir William Pynsent " (in- 
cluding the present Manor House) are given. This sale apparently did not 
take place, or the property was withdrawn by the Duke for want of a bidder, 
but the particulars are interesting to read. The sale is advertised to be 
held at ten o'clock in the morning "at Mr, Daniel Compton's, the great 
Farm House in Erchfont " (this is the Manor Farm previously referred to) 
and included " the capital Mansion-House of Erchfont and the following 
land : 126 acres of arable land in the Common Fields, 128 acres of Maiden 
Down in several and about 162 acres of arable, meadow and pasture land 
inclosed." It goes on to say: "the Mansion-House is exceedingly well- 
built, the rooms commodious and well proportioned, with cellars and wine 
vaults under the whole house. On the first floor are three good parloirs 
wainscoted, a hall, anti-chamber and spacious staircase ; on the second floor 
seven very good bedchambers, with closets and two good dressing-rooms, 
over which are eight handsome garrets. There is also commodious stabling 
for 25 horses and two coach-houses, all substantially built with brick, also 
a large pigeon-house ; the Mansion-House, garden and orchard are capable 
of great improvements, and will be sold in fee if a purchaser chooses it 
rather than on lives." 

On the death of the third Duke of Queensberry in 1778 the property 
passed to his cousin, the fourth Duke, better known in later years by his 
nickname of " Old Q," whose gay batchelor life in London was hardly likely 
to have been interrupted by frequent visits to Wiltshire, and certainly not 
to the outlying estate of Erchfont. The Manor House was let to the 
Oompton family about this time : Daniel Compton was farming the Manor 
Farm in 1768, but he may have lived at the Manor House or moved there 
later for, in a *' Valuation of the Manor of Erchfont " prepared in 1784, we 
find Judith Compton, his widow, living there holding " a messuage or 
tenement, consisting of a large commodious Mansion House, Coach House, 
Stabling for 20 horses, Granary, Barn, Cart House, Yards and Gardens " 
together with four acres of land adjoining, on a tenancy determinable on 
three lives, namely those of her sons, Daniel, Richard and John Compton ; 
she also rented five lots of arable land in " Eastcott Erchfont Common 
Fields " totalling twenty-three acres. A note in the valuation states " Mrs. 
Compton's house, garden etc., is valued at ^12 per annum only. It is large 
enough for a much greater rent, but considered as the residence of a farmer 
all the superfluous room is an encumbrance." So within a century of its, 
building, apd possibly less, the costly and (decorative house erected by the, 
elder Pynsent had become a farmer's dwelling-house. But perhaps not 



By H. Rivers Pollock, - 47 

altogether. The family of Compton was well-known in Wiltshire, and 
though this branch might have had to return to the land for a living, maybe 
they kept up some semblance of their old state. The Comptons of Hartbury 
in Gloucestershire (with a baronetcy created in 1686 and extinct in 1773) 
were descended from the Comptons of Wiltshire, and the Comptons who 
appeared in Erchfont in the middle of the eighteenth century used the 
same coat of arms as the Hartbury Comptons, namely " a fesse nebule gules, 
in chief a helmet between two lions' heads erased " ; and this coat of arms 
is on the memorial tablets to the family in Erchfont church, together with 
a crest showing a coronet with a plume of five ostrich feathers. 

There are records in the Erchfont registers of five children of Daniel and 
Judith Compton (three sons and two daughters) ; their daughter Lucy 
must have caused some pain to her parents by marrying— very young— a 
labourer by the name of Yates in 1762 and when, sixteen years later, her 
sister Judith married William Keetch (a yeoman) the clerk thought fit to 
add in the register " with the consent of her parents." We may be excused 
from wondering how long this consent was withheld. Their eldest son 
Daniel died in 1817 and there is a tablet in the chancel of the church to 
him and his wife Harriet (who died in 1827) at the foot of which are the 
following words : " He who inscribes this tablet forbears to fill it with 
superfluous phrases or useless lamentations." The inscriber was probably 
their son John Townsend Compton who died in 1852, his first cousin 
Richard Compton, born in the same year as himself, surviving him until 
1868. 

In the meantime there appears on the scene one William Salmon, then 
an attorney-at-law in Devizes, who had started well by marrying " a 
beautiful young lady of the same place with a fortune of ^£5,000 and every 
accomplishment necessary to complete the felicity of the married state." 
In 1780 he was secretary to Lord Shelbourne's Wiltshire committee of the 
Parliamentary Reform Association, at a time which bore certain close re- 
semblances to that of the present day when, as Waylen says in his History 
of the Devizes "the country was burdened with ever-increasing taxation, 
while the farmers were impoverished by low prices, trade decayed and land 
rents fell." This comparatively young man was possessed of some wealth 
and no mean ability, and either he, or his trustees, had formed a favourable 
opinion of the ultimate results on the value of land of the coming Enclosure 
Act of 1789 " for dividing, allotting and laying in Severalty the Open and 
Common Fields etc. within the Parishes of Urchfont^ and Beechingstoke " ; 
for in the year 1788 he is found initiating a series of transactions whick 
culminated in the purchase of the Queensberry estates at Erchfont. 

^ It is during the eighteenth century that the spelling " Urchfont " 
becomes a serious competitor of the earlier versions ; and the deeds of 
that period frequently state " Erchfont alias Urchfont alias Ushont." The 
writer has discovered in various documents and records, dating from the 
middle ages up to the beginning of the nineteenth century, no less than 
sixty-five different spellings of the name ! These include the following 
strange specimens: Archeffounte, Ercheffaunt, Orchefunte, Urichesfonte 



48 Notes 071 Erchjont Manor House. 

Perhaps " Old Q " had need of ready money to meet the expenses of his 
extravagant life but, in any case, the investment proved a very sound one 
for William Salmon, as he sold the same estates thirty-seven years later for 
a sum two and a half times as great as that which he had given for them. 
It was at this time (1825) that Mr. George Watson-Taylor, already estab- 
lished at Erlestoke, and a large landowner in Wiltshire, bought the Erchfont 
estate which, though it by no means embraced the whole parish, had an 
acreage of well over two thousand, including land at Eastcott and Wed- 
hampton and extending for a considerable distance southwards into 
Salisbury Plain. A valuation of the property was made for Mr. Watson- 
Taylor by Kichard Webb of Salisbury in 1824, which throws an interesting 
light on how land tenure was regarded in those not very distant days. In 
this valuation (a small quarto bound in full calf and tooled in gold) the 
following "general observations" are made: "The Urchfont property 
consists of the Manor of Urchfont with the usual privileges of Court Leet, 
Court Baron, etc. The greater part of the Estate is let at Rack Rent and to 
apparently responsible tenants and generally fair farmers. . . Urchfont 
is only five miles from Earlstoke Park, a part of the Down is in full view 
from it and would, if planted, make a fine outlet and beautiful object from 
the Park. After a most attentive view of all the lands, and taking into 
consideration every circumstance of Urchfont, as well as the great difficulty 
there is in obtaining an eligible Investment in Land, I have no hesitation 
in recommending the purchase ; and in fixing the sum I advise to be given 
for the property, I have not added anything for the local value as connected 
with Earlstoke Park, having considered the purchase as one of investment 
only. A considerable portion of the lands may be much improved by 
draining, in several instances by grubbing the hedges between small fields 
and letting off the water from the lanes ; these works would also be a great 
advantage to the Parish by giving employment to the labourers, many of 
whom are often without work (from the small life-holders doing themselves 
what little labour is bestowed on their land) and would gradually bring them 
back to industrious habits and ultimately relieve the Poor's Rate." 

Mr. George Watson-Taylor was Tory member of Parliament for Devizes 
from 1826 to 1832, being returned in three successive elections, but he did 
not contest the great election of 1832 when the two Whig candidates were 
returned with a very large majority. During this time, or the greater part 
of it, we may presume that the Compton family still resided at Erchfont 
Manor as tenants, but shortly after 1850 Mr. George Watson-Taylor's eldest 
son, Mr. Simon Watson-Taylor, went to live there, as already mentioned 
above ; he remained there until 1862, when he took up his residence at, 
Erlestoke. He had been Sheriff for Wilts in 1855 and Liberal member for 

and Urssyant. The original spelling in Domesday was lerchesfonte (pro- 
nounced Yerchesfonte) but in the later middle ages the prefix " I " was 
omitted, and the spelling was then usually Erchesfont, or some variation of 
it ; the Y sound, however, was probably retained, and this may account 
for the introduction of the U in later spelling, which served as an abbrevia- 
tion for IE. The older inhabitants still call the place Ushont. 



\<A 







'v^s^r^'-'-'^^r^^ 





:!.:■: 




%/^^'?^rc#^ 



^\^ 




Erchfont Manor. East Front 
From an old picture. 




Erchfont Manor. The Staircase. 













Erchfont Manor. The Dining Room. 
[Previously the Entrance Hall.] 



By H. Rivers Pollock. 49 

Devizes in 1857, when Palmerston was Prime Minister. Both he and his 
father were great tree planters, and the fine timber in the grounds of the 
Manor House, and many of the woods and clumps in the neighbourhood, 
are due to their pursuit of this sadly neglected practice. In 1902 Mr. G. S. 
A. Watson-Taylor (who had been born at Erchfont) succeeded his father, 
Mr. Simon Watson-Taylor, at Erlestoke and lived there until 1920 in which 
year he returned to Erchfont until 1927.^ From 1862 until 1920 the Manor 
was let to various tenants on long leases, the last tenant being Mr. Dudley 
Scott. During the hundred years in which the Erchfont estate belonged 
to the Watson-Taylor family, the extent of the land underwent several 
changes, at first expanding very considerably and then contracting. At 
the present time the land that goes with the M anor House is approximately 
of the same area as that held by the Pynsents. 

[The Society is indebted to Mr. Pollock for the cost of the blocks illus- 
trating this paper.] 



' He then sold the property to the writer of these notes. 
TOL. XLVI. — NO. CLVII. E 



50 



WILLIAM GABY, HIS BOOKE. 1656, 

I. The Wool Trade. 
[Extracts and Notes by Edward Coward.] 

This little book is 4|iD. long by Sin. wide, and l:fin. thick. It was lent 
to me by Mr. G. S. White, solicitor, of Chippenham, in whose hands it then 
was, but it is now in the possession of Mrs. Wiltshire, of Westbrook, Brom- 
ham. She is a daughter of Edward Gaby, merchant, of Clapton, and St. 
Edith's, Bromham, who built the present house at St. Edith's Marsh and 
was a lineal descendant of the author. The book is bound in leather with 
two brass clasps — one of which will still function — and is in a fair state of 
preservation ; the edges of some of the pages are worn and frayed but very 
few words are undecipherable on that account. It cannot be called a diary, 
the entries are too intermittent ; it is not an account book for the price of 
a job or the value of an article are very often omitted; it is just a note 
book ; " a noate (or noat) of, &c.," is very often the heading of a page. It 
covers a period of 38 years from 1656 to 1694, and although these were very 
stirring times politics are not mentioned, there are no comments on public 
aflfairs, nor are family matters touched upon. The book was started at both 
ends and used without much method. Apparently it was often opened in a 
haphazard way, and whichever side came to hand was used. One page was 
not finished before another was begun ; in fact several pages must have been 
running at the same time for the notes on one page are often dated earlier 
than those many pages before. The spelling is very capricious and often 
gave great difficulty. One surname— Norris — is spelt in four different ways 
on the same page. Words are often clipped and there is no punctuation. 
Gaby does not state where he lived, but it was evidently at Netherstreet, near 
Devizes ; he goes to Rowde, Bromham, and Heddington, but never to Nether- 
street, and in the list of those who paid head silver at Netherstreet are three 
Gabys, one of whom is doubtless the author. The family was established 
in those parts for many years and their name is still connected with closes 
of pasture, pieces of arable, and homesteads, between Netherstreet and 
Roundway. Again, to help coaches up the hill the owner of the oxen must 
have lived near the foot of the hill and Netherstreet is the nearest hamlet ; 
but I shall have more to say about the hill in a subsequent article. Gaby 
was evidently a man of substance and of some importance. Besides farm- 
ing himself he helped others to harvest their crops and to cultivate their 
land ; he hauled their timber, their fagots, stones, fern, and dung ; he was 
what we should call a haulier or contractor. At different times he filled the 
offices of churchwarden, constable, and tything-man, and there are many 
curious entries in connection with these offices. 

The domestic system of industry was then prevalent and weaving was 
carried on in many of the cottages. Gaby was apparently the merchant 
middleman— clothier he would be called— who supplied the raw material 
and disposed of the finished product. The notes of his numerous transactions 
in wool, warp, yarn, abb, cloth, &c., show that he must have been in a con- 
siderable way of business. I propose in this article to abstract the most 



William Gaby, His Booke. 1656. 51 

interesting of the items in connection with this business, particularly those 
where prices are clearly given, or where the information is of an unusual 
nature, or is quaintly expressed. In a subsequent article I shall deal with 
the agricultural entries and others of general interest. Where explanations 
appear necessary they are in brackets, but I have been asked to add some 
further definitions, and in this I have been very kindly assisted by Mr. 
Eric Mackay, of Trowbridge. I am indebted to Mr. B. H. Cunnington 
for assistance in interpreting many difficult words and passages, 

I should like to add that I have made a manuscript copy of the whole 
book, including the shorthand, of which there are several pages and many 
patches. This will be deposited eventually in the library of the Society's 
Museum at Devizes. 

Yarn, yarne, arne, arn : the woollen thread prepared for weaving. 

Warp, wrp : the threads which are put into the loom lengthways. 

Ahhi abbe, ab : yarn for weaving across the warp. 

List : wool woven down both sides of the cloth as selvedge. 

Burling : picking ont knots and irregularities in cloth. 

iSpooling : winding the thread on to shuttle bobbins. 

Carding : combing and brushing wool fibres in preparation for spinning. 

Torrell or forrell : wool of diflferent colouring woven into both ends of a 
piece of cloth. 

Chever : probably same as sliver, wool prepared by carding for spinning 
a rudimentary thread. 

Bowlis : a coarse strong unbleached linen. 

Zocrum : much the same as dowlis. 

Frize : a coarse woollen cloth with shaggy nap. 

Sarg : probably same as serge, a twilled worsted cloth. 

Lamto : probably lambs' wool. 

Breakings : broken pieces left over after the finest parts have been sorted 
out of fleeces. 

Cloathes bloas : might be bload which would mean blued or dyed blue. 

Wt : must mean cwt. or hundred-weight. 

Flow : as used here means team— not an implement. 
July 25th, ) 658. £ s. d. 

Oweth Mark May for wooll and work and the keeping of his 

lame sheep is payd for 114 

March 15th, 1659, then bought of Henry Whit 3 wt. 11 lbs. of 

wooll at 18s. 6d. a wt. and I oweth him yet the summe of 2 

Then I did owe to Tho : Oakey of the Devizes for 80 lbs. of 

wooll at Is. 4d. a pound and 8 lbs. more of wool at Is, a pound 

due to Tho : Oakey upon our last account 2 10 

Due to Jo : Ta : [John Taylor] for linning cloathe the summe of 2 18 
Novem : 2, 1660, then sold to Rich : Cooper 4 score of yarne at 

lOf a pound 4 score of wooll at 6d. a pound 49 lbs of wooll 

at 1 — 6 a pound 

May the 10th, 1661, bought of Rich : Coopr : 44 J lbs of wrp at 
16d. a pound 

E 2 



52 William Gahy, His Boolce. 1656, 



d. 



May the 11th, 1660, then bought of Wm, Long 81 lbs of abbe 

at 16d. 
Nov. 26, 1661, I doe owe Rich : Parsons for dying of 1 duzen 

and a half of list 
Oct. the beginning bought of Stephen Fiveash 5 wt. 16lbs. & a 

half of wooll at £1 a wt. 
Bought of George Townsend 77 lb. of wooll at -61 4s. a wt. 
Dec. ye 2nd, 1669, sold to Rich : Cooper 

6 score 8 lbs. of fine wrp at 16d, ye lb. 
of middle 30 lb. at Is. ijd. 
of c [coarse] wrp 17 lbs. at 9d. 
of c wooll 52 lbs. at 2d. 
May, 1664, John Tomkins hath 7 cloathes bloas Whitsunday. 

(Two pages previously there were notes of hauling stones 

for high way es in 1672 and four pages further on we get 

back to 1663 when it is noted) 
Sold to Wm. Long 86 lbs. of wrp at 6d. a lb. 
Sold to Wm. Pead 61 lbs. of wooll at 6^d. and 8 lbs. at 7d. and 

I had 40 lbs. of wrp of him at 15|d. a lb, 
1666 Jo : Parsons 74 skains of list 13 torrell 
Sold to Dainell Hickes too yards of cloath 16 

(The following is a rather mixed up affair). 
June 17th, 1665, then accounted with Mr. Rich : Scott and I 

owed him 4 

In August he sold 10 cloaths for me for 67 

and he payd £60 unto Mr. Rich : Baker 
In April, 1666, he sold 10 cloathes more for 65 Q 

and he paid £40 by Mr. John Michells order 
And £20 to Mr. James Blatch or by his order the next that 

you sold was for 60 

Payd for Mr. Ed : Peirce of the Devizes for the pole (poll) 

money 60 

The next for ^61 whereof you payd to Mr. Whit 50 

In ye same month he (W. Webb, carrier) carried 10 cloaths to 

London for mee when by his order I sent 4 beasts to meet 

his plow coming home 
He carried 10 more for me about Midsummer wch lay there in 

the sickness (plague) time 
He carried 10 more the last spring 1665 
He carried 10 more against twelftide 1666 
He carried 10 more about Lady day 
He brought down a firkin of oyle 

Since that I payd him 
Since that he carried 10 cloathes more about Michaelmas 

too dayes to sow wheat 
He had 4 beasts of mine since to meet 






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By Edward Coward. 53 



June 25th, 1668, he had 2 oxen to meet him 

The debt is 
he hath paid 

rest due 

Aug., 1670, sold Rich : Michell a parcel of abbe at 15id. ye 

pound 
Oct. 13, 1670, sold Rich : Ooopr 47j lbs. of fine warp at 16jd. 
ye lb. 

33 lbs. of mid : wrp at 1 3d. 
63 lbs. of list at 8d. 
12 lbs. of c. warp at lOd. 
Due from GabrielUe Norris for 62^ lbs. of ab at 14d. a pound 

to be payd at Christmas in 1672 
1670 Eliza Wilshere had half a lb. & a quarter of 

arn for stockins 9| 

for smockes 5 1 

for a payr of shues 2 2 

1677 sold to Mr. John Scott of Chippenham 600 & fifty score 
and one pound of abb and wrp at 13d. ye lb and six score & 
four pound of list at 6|d. 
1679 Eleagar Webb oweth for 75 lbs. of head wool! at 13d. 

I had of Tho : Smith of fleece wooll 32 lbs. at 6d. ye lb. 
Feb. 1st, 1678, reed, of William Gaby Thirteene pound which 
I am to pay for him to Will : Skeate of Cannings for 20 wt. 
of wooll he hath already reed. I say reed by mee Richard 
Cooper. 
(Wooll was cheaper in 1682 when 60 pounds of fine wrp was 
sold to Ed. Smith at 9d. ye lb.) 

of coarse ab 57 lbs. at 6d. 
of coarse wrp. 30 at 5d. 
of list 37 at 2d. 

<In March, 1684, abb and warp made 1/- a lb. This ends one 

half of the book. On the reverse side) 
June the 27th, 1656. Then left with Mr. Alexander Bag worth 
factor living in London, 3 mixt mark cloathes midling 
greyes one whit mark light grey and I owed him nothing 
Nov. 7th, 1656. Then left with Mr. Alexander Bagworth fac- 
tor in Blackwell Hall one whit mark light grey one mixt 
mark midling grey : he hath sold three cloathes for me 2 
mixt markes one yellow mark and I sold too mixt markes 
and one yellow mark to Mr. Kent. I recei : in full for these 
three cloathes the summe of 46 9 

For those three that he sold I recei : £\0 from Dunning and 

from himself I received ^25 the rest is yet due 
July 26th, 1658. Then sent one cloath to London and payd 



£ 


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54 William Gaby, His Booke. 1656. 

Wm. Wearet for dressing of him 

Robert Jenkins for stockcarding and tucking 
for stockcards 
for small cards 
chever 10 lbs. at 5j a lb. 
for spooling & warping list 
Sold to Mr. Rich : Coopr a packet of fine warp at 15^d. a lb. 

and he hath 7 score and 5 lb. of it already 
Sold to him the same time 40 lbs. of list at 6^d. a lb. 

and I have recei : in part 
more received in part 
Sold to him 43 lbs. of of coars yarne at lid. a lb 
Sold to him all the fine yarne in the little loft at 14| a lb. and 

it is 13 score pound in all and he hath fetcht it all 
Delivered to Rich : Hobbs for Rich : Cooper his use 31| of list 

ab at 6^ 
May 29tb, 1659. Then accounted with Alice Gaby and I payd 

her towards the years wages in money and in goods 10 

The yeare began at Michaelmas 1659 and then I did owe her 

for wages 3 

In June more payd her in cloth for a petty coat and in surge 
for a waist coat 

more in locrum If ell at 15d. ye ell 
for a new payre of shues 
for 1 J lb. of lamto 
For 1 lb. of fleez arne for stock due to me from Rich : Parsons 
March 15th, 1657, for 2 yards and a half of cloath at 12s. 
the yard 
For burling milling and soap for his remnants 

for 2 paire of cards 
for 1 yard of whit cloath 
For carridg of his cloath to and from Westbury 
Payd for burling milling soap and dressing 
For I c (cwt ?; of coinpeach wood and carridg 
(Apparently this had something to do with the trade and may 
be the same as redwood but I cannot trace any such wood). 
March 15th, 1657, then due to Rich: Parsons for dying of 
100 lbs. of wool at 4d. a lb. 
for 2 bushelles of coale 
April 12th, 1658, for 20 lbs. of wooll at 4d. a pound 
May 3rd, 36 lbs. of wooll at 4d. 

for half a duzen of list 
for dying of 3 yards of cloathe 
for dying of an apron 
for 8 lbs. of redwood 
for dying of 6 lbs. of blew 
for dying of 12 lbs. of blew 
for half a duzen of list 






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By Edward Coward. 55 



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for 4 lbs. of redwood more 
for dying of 2 yards of cloathe red 
for dying 1 lb. of red yarne 
for half a duzen of blew list 
for a duzen of blew list and 3 lbs. of torrell 
for I duzen more of blew list 

for scouring of 10 lbs. of tarray wooU and eading (card- 
ing ?) of it to 7d. a lb. 

Nov. 1st, 1660, Then accounted with John Line of Marlbough 
parchment maker for wooll that I bought of him and payd 
him in full for all account the summe of 7 13 6 

bought of James Davis 79 lbs. of abbe at 14jd. a lb. and 

he must abate 1/- 
put forth to dying 1672 20 lbs, of tarry wooll at lOd. a lb. 
payd dying of it 
for mixing of breakings 
for stock cards 
for 2 paire of small cards 
for 8 lbs. of white wooll 
for spinning 18 lbs. of w. w. 
for 5 lbs. of wooll to dye 
for 13 of head wooll 
for 7 quarts of oyle 
for mixing of breakings 
for small breaking ye ab 
for spooling and warping 
for 1 paire of cards more 
for abb spinning 
for weaving 
for dressing 
lent to Tho : Smith in July 1680 at our kitchen board when I 

payd him for his wooll 6 

Sold Ed : Smith 30 lbs, of coars wooll at 7d. and 19 lbs. of list 

wooll at 3|d. and 18| of head wooll at 15d. a lb. 
September in 1681, Gabrielle Norrice left to pay for wine yt 

he bought in Novemb. the 25th 15 

Sold to Ed : Smith six score & five pound of warp wooll at 

led. ye pound & of corse ab wooll 35 lbs. at 7d. ye lb. & of 

corse warp wooll 20 lbs. at 6d. ye lb, & of list wooll 21 lbs. 

at 3| ye pound. 

(Earlier in the book Gaby twice mentions " Brother Tarrant." 

He was probably a brother-in-law as Tarrant is a surname. 

^ It looks as though he died and as though his son Robert 

were placed in Gaby's charge. A good deal that follows is 

in connection with his schooling and as prices are interesting 

I have made rather copious extracts about Robert's aflfairs.) 






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56 William Gaby, His Boolce. 1656. 

Oct. 28th, 1680, then payd to Mr. Goulman for six ells of 

dowlis at 16d. ye ell 
Also to Mr. Brazier for his table at schooling 
Also to John Stump for a suite of sarg with linning trimming 

and making 
Also to Robert Biddle for a new hatt 
Also to John Stump for a new grey cloth coate with sarg with 

buttons & other trimmings making in all 
And for mending of his other clothes 
To Sir Walter Ernly for a coppy of license 
To Mr. Brazier for Mich : half years table & schooling 
Payd more to Mr. Brazier for expenses for shues & bookes 
and other necessaryes for Kobert Tarrant until Mid : last 
past in 1680 12 8 

May 25th, 1681, to John Stump for a new suit trimmings & 

stockins 4 

Payd Mr. Johnsons for counsell 10 

Octobr the 31st, 1681. 

Then payd to Mr. Brazier the summe of seven pounds nine 
shillings & too pence for one yeares table and schooling 
bookes and shues and other things due at Michaelmas last 7 9 2 

Dec. 31st, then payd to John Stump for a new coat and mend- 
ing of other cloathes 2 5 6 
April 7th, 1682, then payd to Mr, Brazier for half a yeares 
schooling & table & other necessaryes 
for carrying of his bed & other things to Chippenham 
payd Mr. Warden for his shirts 
for Knitting of a payre of russet stockins 
for a payre of russet stockins 
payd to his sister Joyce for shirts and other 
payd to Bristo for making his cloathes & trimmings 
gave him at St. Andrews tide 
Jan. 5th, 1680, received of John Potter (?) by the hand of 
Wm. Withers towards that yeares rent for Robert Tarrants 
living at Etchilhampton the summ of 15 
Oct. 7th, 1682, then payd Wm. Rumin of Chipinham for a hatt 

for Robert Tarrant 16 9 

Oct. 28th, then payd to Mr. Roger Warne for one quarters 
table 2 10 

then also payd to Mr. Warne for sarg and other things 

lor a payre of hoase 
to Charles Glovier for frize for a coat 
to Tho : Line for a payr of shues 
Dec. 23rd, gave to Robt. Tarrant the 6th of Janur in ye bell 
backside at Chipin (Bell Inn backyard) 
and for a pair of gloves 
March lOth, 1682, then payd to Mr. Warne wch he payd a part 
of to the taylor for making & altering of cloathes & for 



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10 


6i 





11 


3 


1 


3 


6 





10 











10 



By Edward Coward, 57 

& 8. d. 

goodes that he had out of his shoppe 1 17 1 

Payd Arthur Estmead for a coat cloathe of grey 17 6 

To ye Wid Bittle for a hatt yt he fetcht himself in April 
April 16th, 1683, payd Mr. Warne for sarg & other materialls 

for suit of cloathes and making as it appeareth by his bill 

receipt 2 16 6 

Payd to Mr. Mitchell at the sealing of the ind. (indenture ?) 

and before 
Delivered to Robt. Tarrant himself at same time 
Now payd to Mr. Samuel Michell Aug. 9th, 83 
More payd to Sam : Michell at Chippenham the Saturday 

after Lukes tide 8 

More payd to Mr. Sam : Michell at the bacon house at Chip- 

pingham and is in full 2 

for a bond about ye award 10 

Sept. 1st, 83, to Jo : Sarjant for a coat cloathe 18 

to Mr. Warne for ware and some table 112 1 



20 








1 








10 









58 



NOTES OIT THE FLOKA OF THE SALISBURY DISTRICT. 
By Mrs. Campbell and Miss B. Gullick, B.Sc. 

The country round Salisbury is eminently pleasing from a field botanist's 
point of view, comprising as it does the splendid Chalk downland, the con- 
fluence of five rivers, with their water meadows, some Jurassic and 
Lower Cretaceous rocks, giving limestone, sand and clay, and an outlier of 
the Eocene beds, covered by bogs and heathlaud, comparable with those of 
the New Forest, all within the Wiltshire borders. 

For the past ten years or so notes have been kept of the flora of this dis- 
trict, and efforts have been made to check up the localities cited in the 1888 
Flora of Wilts, and Maton's Natural History within ten miles round the 
City of Salisbury. A large number of these stations have been located, 
while the disappearance of others can be traced to past and present build- 
ing operations, and to the recent alterations in farming methods. New 
stations are still being found, but very few new species are now added 
yearly to our lists, which in 1931 amounted to about 675 for the southern 
third of the county. Grasses and ferns have been included but only species 
as named in Bentham and Hooker's Handbook of the British Flora- 
It is desired to take this opportunity of expressing thanks to the num- 
erous local observers who have co-operated with us by putting their ac- 
cumulated knowledge at our disposal and by communicating their new 
discoveries, and also to the local landowners, who have most readily 
accorded permission to walk through their woods and fields. In every case 
mentioned, excepting notes within brackets, the locality has been visited 
by one of the authors. 

The rarer and doubtful plants have been verified by Kew Herbarium, or 
some other authority, and since its issue, Butcher's Further Illustrations of 
British Plants has been studied. A list is appended of such plants men- 
tioned therein as appear to occur in our district. This is, of course, by no 
means complete, but as yet the time has been short. 

The Ranunculi have not been studied in any detail, but R. trichyphyllos 
has been recorded near Whaddon. 

Helleborus viridis survives in its old station at Clarendon, and there is a 
large patch in a copse at Whaddon. 

H. foetidus is now scarce at Clarendon, but has been found in a spinney 
in Wilton Park. 

Aconitum napellus at Bishopstone, where it is now fully naturalized in a 
damp copse, though it probably originated as a garden escape. 

Nasturtium sylvestre. On the river bank at Britford, on the roadside at 
Milford and as a persistent garden weed at Salisbury. 

Arabis hirsuta is not common in the district, but occurs on mole hills on 
Barford Down, near Redlynch, etc. 

Hesperis matronalis is found near Alderbury, but is no doubt a garden 
outcast. 



Notes on the Flora of the Salisbury District. 59 

Sisymhrium thalianum is fairly common near Salisbury, especially south- 
wards. 

Erysimums orientate and cheiranthoides are found occasionally, but always 
near where birds have been fed. 

Camelina sativa has been found sparingly on a wall between Salisbury 
and Alderbury for the past ten years. 

Brassica mnralis has been for many years a weed in a Salisbury garden. 

Senehiera didyma. Down ton, as a casual only. 

S. coroiiopus, common around farmyards. 

Zepidium campestre has not been noted in the district. 

i. draba is an almost ineradicable weed in some cultivated land. 

Thlaspi arvense has been seen only at West Grimstead and Britford. At 
the latter station it has been abundant for some years. 

Viola lactea x canina hybrids occur around West Grimstead and Whad- 
don. Those with canina dominant on the sandy heath, and those with lactea 
dominant in the boggy gronnd. 

Dianthtis armeria. In the woods about Farley in several places, which 
may be the Pitton station mentioned by Maton ; also near Whiteparish. 

Saponaria officinalis, a semi-double form in the village of West Harn- 
ham is probably the survival of that mentioned by Maton and Tatum. A 
similar form occurs at Chilmark ( FT.il.J/., xlii,, 80). Noted at Corsley. 

Silene anglica. Alderbury, Grimstead, and Whiteparish. 

Silene noctijlora in fields on the Race Plain and Batt's Croft. 

Lychnis alba x dioica has been recorded near Alderbury, Pitton, etc. 

Cerastium arvense in gravelly fields, apparently preferring high ground. 

Arenaria tenuifolia, so far found established in the south of the county 
only near Yarnbury Castle, and near Farley. 

Sagina nodosa, found sparingly at Clarendon, Buxbury Firs, and Alder- 
bury, where it may be Maton's station. 

Montia fontana. Wilton and Winterbourne Earls. 

Hypericum, dubium, near Downton. 

Radiola millegrana survives at Alderbury, the only locality in the county 
mentioned by Preston. 

Geranium phaeum has not been confirmed at the Alderbury station, men- 
tioned by Preston, but has been found at Fonthill Gifi"ord, where it was no 
doubt a garden escape, but is now well established and is spreading through 
the hedge. Seen also at Wardour. 

Geranium pyrenaicum is abundant in several places on road sides, as at 
Odstock, Coombe Bissett, Fonthill, and Hindon. 

Oxalis corniculata occurs at Downton, where, of course, it may origin- 
ally have been a garden plant. Also among cobble stones at Dinton. 

Jmpatiens biflora is found annually at various places on the Avon. 

Rhamnus frangula occurs at West Grimstead. This plant is not men- 
tioned in Preston's Flora of Wilts. 

Trifolium arvense still survives at Alderbury, but is now very rare. 

T. striatum is still to be found at Alderbury. 

Astragalus glycyphyllos occurs in some quantity in Clarendon Woods, and 
also at Tisbury. 



60 Notes on the Flora of the Salisbury District. 

[A. hypoglotlis. Between Amesbury and Salisbury.] 

Lathyrus aphaca occurs as a casual in cornfields near Salisbury. 

L. nissolia, for several years in mowing grass near Wilton, and near 
Amesbury abundant. 

Melilotus alba at Pitton. 

Medicago denticulata. An occasional plant is found in gardens. 

Genm intermedium seems to be quite common near Salisbury, and shows 
many forms grading towards the parents, especially near Alderbury and 
Great Ridge Wood. 

Potentilla argentea has been searched for in vain at Alderbury, the old 
windmill having been replaced by a cottage, 

P. palustris still occurs in some quantity in the Alderbury district. 

Alchemilla vulgaris does not appear to have been recorded nearer Salis- 
bury than Great Ridge Wood during the past ten years. 

Poterium o^cinalis, which is mentioned in the 1888 Flora has not been 
seen by the present observers. 

Cotyledon umbilicus^ abundant about Tisbury, but not seen east of Din- 
ton. 

iHippuris vulgaris. Near Downton.] 

Myriophyllum spicatum. In the rivers Bourne, Avon, and Nadder. 

Apium inundatum. Whaddon and Whiteparish. 

Carum segetum, common and very persistent in several places near Salis- 
bury, confirming Mr. James Hussey ( W.A.M., ix., 239). 

Smyrnium olu&atruin, not mentioned by Preston, but found near Pitton 
and Whiteparish, well established for some years. 

Sambucus ebulus, at Winterbourne Stoke and Falston, as mentioned in 
Aubrey's Natural History of Wilts, p. 52. 

Dipsacus pilosus. Near Downton, sparingly. 

Erigeron acre. Still in Clarendon Wood as mentioned by Maton. Seen 
formerly at West Marnham. 

Filagos germanica and minim,a only seen around Alderbury, Farley, etc. 

Gnaphalium sylvaticum,, Groveley, Alderbury, Farley, etc. 

Antennaria margaritacea, well established and increasing at Chilmark 
quarries (See W.A.M., xlii., 80). 

Inula helenium has not been seen near Salisbury by the present writers. 

Doronicum pardalianches at Stapleford. 

Senecio sylvaticus, on the sand near Whaddon, etc. 

S. squalidus. The G.W.R. Station Goods Yard was searched in vain in 
1931 and 1932. Abundant at Westbury Station. 

Carduus eriophorus, near Pitton and Clarendon (Maton recorded it from 
the latter). Also at Ham Cross. Not seen at Harnham. 

Picris hieracioides. Chilmark, Coombe Bissett, and Whiteparish. 

Helminthia echioides. East and West Grimstead and Ham Cross. 
Casual plants only. 

Lactuca virosa. On Dean Hill there are several large colonies. 

Campanula patula, near Alderbury. 

Pyrola has been known for some years near Hindon. 



By Mrs. Camjphell and Miss B, Gullich, B.Se. 61 

Monotropa. Netherhampton, or what might be called Harnham Hill 
(Preston, p. 192), where it became extinct about 1915 with the making of the 
Golf Course road. Plentiful near Wilton and on Dean Hill. 

Gentiana campestris. Not seen at any of the localities mentioned in the 
1888 Flora, but found in several places around Alderbury and Grimstead, 
where it was particularly abundant in 1931. 

G. amarella, double form found at Pitton, probably the doubling caused 
by the gall mentioned by Mr. Cecil Hurst in W.A.M., xli., 359. 

Cynoglossum officinale. Figsbury, Wilton, and Ebbesbourne Wake for 
many years. 

Anchusa sempervirens at Durnford, where it is considered by Preston as 
an escape, but it is now spreading along the roadside and is equally abun- 
dant across the road among nettles. Also in Wilton Park and in Salisbury 

Zycopsis arvensis, in cornfields near Alderbury and Whiteparish. 

Anchusa officinalis^ edge of field near Milford, and for several years on an 
old camp site near Compton Chamberlayne, but now disappeared. 

Hyocyamus niger. Casual, often to be connected with chicken food. 

Linaria repens, in downland grass, near Charlton, found in 1929, in- 
creasing. 

Lathrea squamaria. Clarendon Woods in several places. Still occurs 
at Brickworth corner, abundant since the road widening. 

Pinguicula lusitanicat still present near Alderbury, but in jeopardy from 
bungalow building. 

Mentha rotundifoliat Stratford and Harnham on roadsides. 

M. sylve!>tris, near Netton on the roadside. 

Plantago coronopus, in the sandpits at Whaddon. 

Chenopodium polyspermum, at Alderbury and Clarendon. 

C. hybridum, comes up every year in certain gardens in Salisbury. 

Polygonum bistorta, Compton Chamberlayne, probably the same place 
as described by Mr. James Hussey as Dinton ( W.A.M., xii., 338). Also 
at Alderbury, Fovant and Downton. 

Daphne mezereon. Clarendon Woods. 

Euphorbia lathyrus, still in Clarendon woods, perhaps a survival of that 
noted in 1867 (see W.A.M., xii., 346). 

E.platyphyllos. Farley, 1931. 

Salix aurita. Near Grimstead only, but quite abundant in that area. 

Ceratophyllum, Bemerton and Britford for many years, 

Cephalanthera ensifolia has not been seen but a variety or hybrid of C. 
pallens is found on Dean Hill. 

Epipactis palustris. Alderbury. 

Orchis latifolia L. The three forms 0. incarnata, 0. prmtermissa and 
0. Iditifolia, as described by Butcher and also the two forms 0. elodes and 
0. fuchsii of the old 0- maculata, with many intermediate forms are found 
abundantly near Whaddon and Grimstead. 



62 Notes on the Flora of the Salisbury District. ^ 

[0. hircina. Redlynch, 1928, Miss Eyre Matcham.] 

Herminium monorchis is found on the hill opposite West Dean as men- 
tioned in the 1888 Flora, but so far has not been traced within the Wiltshire 
County Boundary there. Occurs on the downs above Fovant. 

Hahenaria hifolia is still in the Whaddon district as mentioned by Maton 
but on the chalk hill, Batt's Croft, only the Greater Butterfly Orchid is 
found. 

Allium ursinum, at Batt's Croft and Ebbesbourne Wake, etc., but does 
not appear to be widespread. 

Muscari raceiJiosum near Wilton, a great many years, probably the place 
recorded by Dartnell in the 1888 Flora. 

Ornithogalum pyrenaicum, near Farley. 

Gaqea lutea, has been found in the south-west corner of the county. 

Colchicumautumnale in Grovely Wood, near Ham Cross, in Great Ridge 
and Clarendon Woods. 

Paris qitadrifolia has been found near Lympley Stoke, Ebbesbourne 
Wake and also close to Salisbury. 

Lemna gihha has been known for many years near Britford Church. 

The following Potamogetons have been recorded near Salisbury : —crupw* 
densus, natans, pectinatus, perfoliatus and lucens. 

The following Scirpi are found in the neighbourhood : — caespitosus, 
lacustris, multicaulis, palustris and setaceus, and the following Carices have 
been recorded within a few miles of the city : — arenaria var. disticha, 
canescenSf caespitosa, echinata, fiiva^ glauca, distans var. binervis, humilis, 
hirta, leporina, muricata and its variety divulsa, paludosa, panicea, 
pilulifera^ pendula^ praecox, pulicaris, si/lvatica, remota, and vulpina, 
Carex humilis appears to be particularly abundant on the downs immedi- 
ately to the south of Salisbury, about Wick and Homington (as mentioned 
iu the W.A.M., xiv., 93) but its apparent rarity in other areas may be due 
to its very early flowering. 

Among grasses, little has been noted beyond the common species, except 
Calamogrostit epigeios near Chilmark and Grimstead. Briza media var, 
albida occurs on Dean Hill and Brachypodium pinnatum in various places 
on the Downs. 

Among ferns, Ophioglossum appears to be quite abundant to the south- 
east of Salisbury, and Botrychium has been found in several places over a 
limited area in the same locality. Asplenium capillus veneris has been 
known for several years on a buttress of Crane Bridge in Salisbury, where 
it was decidedly luxuriant until 1928, when it was almost killed by frost, but 
is now recovering. As regards the other ferns listed by Dr. Flower in 
W.A.M t ^i ♦ 349 and xiv., 310, only the very common ones have been re- 
corded by us in the last few years. 

No Lycopodium has been seen by us in South Wilts, but Equisetums 
arvemCi limosum, palustre and telmateia are found. 



By Mrs, Cam^phell and Miss B. GullicJc, B,Sc. 



63 



The following plants described in Butcher's " Further Illustrations 
the British Flora " have been noticed in the Salisbury area. 



of 



Cardamine flexuosa. 

Sisymbrium altissimum. 

XJlex gain. 

Melilotus indica. 

Lotus uliginosus. 

Vicia angustifolia. 

Agrimonia odorata. 

(Enanthe pimpinelloides. 

Valeriana officinalis. 

V. sambucifolia. 

Galinsoga parviflora casual only. 



Matricaria suaveolens. 
Petasites fragrans, 
Lactuca virosa. 
Primula variabilis. 
Centaurea pulchellum. 
Symphytum peregrinum. 
Lycium barbarum. 
Veronica polita. 
Juncus bulbosus. 
Lolium temulentum. 



64 



WILTSHIEE POLITICIANS (c. 1700). 
By the Marquess of Lansdowne. 

The manor of Grittleton, prior to its purchase by Mr. Joseph Neeld 
in 1828, had been for upwards of two centuries the headquarters of 
the families of White and Houlton. The documents which form the 
subject of this paper appear to have been part of the political corres- 
pondence of Walter White, of Grittleton, the last male representative of 
the former house, who was sometime member for Chippenham and died 
in 1705. They were discovered quite recently among some papers in the 
Estate Office at Bowood, but there is nothing to show how or when they 
had come there. The correspondence at first sight seemed to be too frag- 
mentary and too uncertain in date to be of any historical value, but 
with the help of Parliamentary and other records it has been possible 
to place the letters in their proper sequence, and to identify most of the 
persons mentioned therein. 

Walter White represented Chippenham from 1695 to 1701. When 
he died in 1705 he had just been elected for that borough for the fifth 
time. The age-long political rivalry between Whigs and Tories had 
already commenced, the Whigs being generally identified with King 
William III. and the Protestant Succession, while the Tories inclined 
towards the cause of the Stuart dynasty. Wiltshire with 34 members 
had the second largest representation of the English Counties in the 
House of Commons, and was thus an important field for the party 
politician. Thomas Lord Wharton was one of the first to practice the 
art of electioneering and during the latter part of his life proved him- 
self a most successful party manager for the Whigs in the Western 
Counties. White seems to have been the go-between employed by him 
in Wiltshire. 

The letters all fall within the period of White's activities, and are 
presumed, unless otherwise stated, to be addressed to him. They 
aflford some interesting sidelights on county politics at that time. 

1. 

Thomas Gore. 
[Walter White had been elected for Chippenham in November, 1 695 
It seems that he lost no time in writing to Gore to show how well he 
was attending to his Parliamentary duties, and that Gore en- 
couraged him by the promise of his continued support. The Gores of 
Aldrington (now Alderton) had, according to Britton, held the manor 
of that name for some three centuries. Thomas Gore was the son of 
an eponymous father (1633—1684), a noted antiquary and a writer on 
heraldry, whose name appears among the Wiltshire High Sherifi"s. He 
died two years after this letter was written, without male issue, Aider- 
ton passing to a daughter. 



Wiltshire Politicians. 65 

One of the first acts of the new Parlianaent had been to deal with the 
coinage, which owing to the circulation of false money and the con- 
tinual clipping of the genuine coins, had got into a very bad state. The 
new coinage now instituted was made for the first time with milled 
edges, which made clipping impossible in future.] 

Aldrington, December ye 7th, 1 695. 
Sr. 

I rec*^ yours of ye 2nd instant, and w*^ all it did not a little rejoyce 
me to heare of your welfare as alsoe of your good thoughts and inclinations 
in manifesting your selves the supporters of almost a decayed nation by 
amending ye coyne w*'*' hath been and is still a great hinderance to our 
trade ; w*^*' if timely prevented may by ye assistance of you all cause us to 
be a most flourishing people, and that Providence may soe guide and direct 
you (the great Council of ye nation) that all your enterprises may tend 
not only to ye satisfaction of ye people of this Kingdom, but that the honour 
may redown unto your selves who will be the promoters of so glorious a 
work. This Sir, I presume may suffice you that I intend not to alter my 
resolution but to continue still 

Yr most humble Servt 
THO. GORE 
All at Aldrington give their service to you. 



II. 

[The Tories and Jacobites were on the warpath, and a great con- 
spiracy, which had for its object the murder of King William III. and 
the invasion of England by a French force secretly prepared in the 
Channel ports, had just been exposed. A hastily raised fleet under 
Admiral Russell had prevented the intended embarkation from taking 
place, though there had been no naval engagement, such as that re- 
ported by Gore. 

Gore's reference to the malcontents chorus, " Sit Jacobus com- 
putus " is somewhat intriguing, but it is sufficiently clear from the 
context that the " malecontents " were Jacobites, and that the song 
they were in the habit of singing was one in honour of the exiled 
monarch. The Jacobites were full of shifts and we know how when 
drinking the King's health they contrived to toast their exiled monarch 
" across the water." Possibly there was in the word " Jacobus " a 
double entendre, for it stood for a twenty shilling piece as well as for 
the ex-King. 

The last paragraph in the letter refers to the financial difficulties 
with which the government of the day were struggling, though without 
much success, for the Land Bank scheme mentioned therein proved a 
complete failure.] 

VOL. XLVI — NO. CLVJI v 



66 Wiltshire Politicians. 

Aldrington, March ye 9th. 1695/6. 
Sr, 

I hope ere this you have reed ye petition mentioned in my last * and 
wthall doubt not of your integrity and ready affection towards your Country, 
wch is much as shall be insisted on at this time. Your last signified to me 
that Adm Russell was wth 80 men of War before Dunkirk who (as tis re- 
ported) hath fought and sunk sevH ffr men of War. The confirmation of 
well I hope to have in your next, as alsoe wt newes from ye old Bayley ; for 
ye wind blowing hard at North East is hourly expected to heare of that 
sentance (Guilty All) wch will strike such a terrour to ye male contents {sic) 
both in City and in Country that tis impossible for ym to joyn in ye Chorus 
(as usual sung) " sit Jacobus completus " but instead of wch they bid him 
adeiu and esteem themselves to be men Wth out hopes. Our grand Jury at 
Salisbury behaved themselves as true En . . men I mean by causing ye 
Constables of every hundred to present all papists and non jurors &c . 

I am something streightned with time therefore cannot enlarge as I wold, 
but desire you to let me know how you intend to raise ye residue of ye 
moneys, whether or noe ye Land Bank hath met with any encouragment or 
whether ye Tax on Windows goes on, or w' projects is now offered to you. 
Any Bank except ye Excheq' will please. 

I hope S' I need not give you repeated assurances of being 
Yr most faithfull Servt 
THO. GOEIE. 

My best service attend yourself and Sister.*^ 

I intend to drink your health this afternoon in a glass of Barcelona. 
Expect more in my next. 

III. 
Edward Hope. 

[It was, until the middle of the 18th century, one of the privileges of 
a member of Parliament that he could not be sued for debt. Sir 
Edward Hungerford, sometime M.P. for Chippenham, had been taking 
advantage of this provision, and his creditor Edward Hope no doubt 
applied for redress to White as Hungerford's successor in title. 

Sir Edward Hungerford K.B. (1632— 1711 ) was the son of Anthony 
Hungerford of Farley Castle. He was known as the " Spendthrift " 
being distinguished for his extravagance. He ' got through,' it is 
said, no less than 20 manors, and ended his life as one of the Poor 
Knights of Windsor. He had sat for Chippenham from 1660 to 1681, 
but, though he afterwards continued in the House of Commons, he did 
not again represent a Wiltshire constituency. He was the founder of 
the Hungerford market, which was started with the idea of rehabilitat- 
ing his fortunes. With him the Farley branch of the Hungerford 
family came to an end.] 

* Perhaps No. III. infra. 
* Priscilla White, to whom Grittleton eventually passed. 



By the Mai^quess of Zansdoivne, 67 

To the Honble, the Knights, Citizens, and Burgesses in Parliament 
assembled. 

The humble Petition of Edward Hope. 
Sheweth, 

That S' Edward Hungerford Knt (a member of this Hono^ie House) 
is Indebted to Your Petitioner under Bond dated the fifth day of December 
1684 in the Sume of Two Hundred Pounds Principal money besides interest. 
And altho yo'^ Petitioner by himself and agents hath frequently desired the 
said Sr Edward Hungerford to pay the said debt yet he refuseth to pay the 
same and standeth on his Privilege of Parliament, to the great Oppression 
of your Petitioner who is in great want of his said money. 

Wherefore your Petitioner humbly beseecheth your Honours to Order 
the said Sr Edward Hungerford to waive his Priviledge. And that yor 
Petitioner may be at liberty to take such Remedy for Recovery of his just 
debt as he shall be advised. And yor Petitioner shall Pray &c. 

EDW. HOPE. 



IV. 

[The " Voluntary Association " was a counterblast to the Jacobite 
conspiracy mentioned above. Its signatories undertook to support 
King William and the Act of Succession, against any attempts to restore 
King James. Though Voluntary in name it was scarcely so in fact, 
for it was soon decided that only those who had signed it were to be 
eligible as Justices of the Peace or Deputy Lieutenants. Walter White, 
as a good Whig, had evidently been instrumental in obtaining Wiltshire 
signatures. Though his letter to the Privy Council bears no date, its 
context proves that it was written in April 1697, for it was at the end 
of that month that the King set out for Flanders (see next letter). 

Sir George Hungerford (d. 1714), head of the Cadenham branch of 
that family was, at this moment, " Knight of the Shire " for Wiltshire, 
and as such no doubt responsible for handing in the return of signa- 
tories to the Association in the County which he represented. His 
eldest son, George Hungerford, was member for Calne.] 



IV. 

TO The Rt. Honble The Lords of his Maties most Honobie privy Councill. 
May it please yor Hours 

In obedience to yor Lordpps. 
These are to Certify that at the Geni Quarter Sessions held for the 
County of Wilts in the Town of the Devizes, there was a Voluntary Associ- 
ation entered into and signed by the Justices of the Peace under menconed, 
the other Justices of the Peace there p'sent said they had allready entered 
into that Association which was transmitted to his Matie from Salisbury. 

F 2 



68 Wiltshire Politicians. 

This wch was signed at the Devizes, I sent by post to Mr. Hungerford, to 
be delivered by his father S^ George Hungerford, But do supose the King 
was gon for Flanders before it was delivered. 

My Lords, I rest 

Yor LordPP' Humble Servant 
W. WHITE. 
"Wilts. Justices of the Peace signed Association Voluntary at Devizes : 

Francis Goddard, Walter Long, Thomas Gore, Edward Montague^ 
George Speake Petty, Walter White. 



V. 

Lord Wharton. 

[The maintenance of a Standing Army, with the quartering of troops 
upon the Country which it involved, was at this time one of the 
popular grievances against the Administration. Moreover the Govern- 
ment seems to have found great diflaculty in paying the troops, for their 
financial troubles were considerable. After the failure of the Land 
Bank scheme (supra) a loan was issued to which public subscriptions 
were invited. Chippenham, it seems, had done its duty in taking up 
the new issue and now claimed, through its member, that the obnoxious 
soldiery should be withdrawn from the Borough. As already stated » 
Thomas Lord Wharton was what we should now call a party 
manager for the Whigs. This letter shows that he took pains to keep 
his nominees contented and loyal to the cause.] 

Whithall, Apl 24, '97. 

Sr. 

As soon as 1 had ye favour of yors wch was but on Thursday last, 1 
applyd myself imediatley to Mr. Blathwayte' (who is this day gone wth y« 
King towards Flanders) in order to obey yor comands in it, & I have and 
will token such care in it, yt I dare almost say you may depend not only 
upon having ye souldiers now quarterd upon yor Borough forthwith re- 
moved, but yt bills shall att ye same time bee sent downe for ye discharging 
of them at least to ye 1st of January last, & yr is soe full a subscription 
made for ye securing of y Currency of ye said bills, yt I doubt not but that 
they will be as good as many. 

I am yor very faithfull humble Servt 

T. WHARTON. 
For Walter White, Esq., att his house att Grittleton, neare Chippenham^ 

Wilts. 



1 William Blathwayt (1649—1717), Secretary at War and M.P. for Bath. 
He married the heiress of Dyrham Park and built the house which now 
stands there. 



By the Marquess of Lansdowne. 69 

VI. 
Lord Berkshire. 
[Thomas Howard, 4th Earl of Berkshire (1619—1706), was the Lord 
of Charlton. The title is now merged in that of the Earls of Suffolk. 
His communication to the Justices is without date, but may be assigned 
to the period with which we are concerned. As we have seen, only 
those who joined the Voluntary Association were allowed to exercise the 
functions of magistrate. It is probable, therefore, that there was some 
shortage of these functionaries, and a consequent difficulty in obtaining 
orders for committal of offenders.] 

(No date.) 
Sir, 

I understand yt you are already acquainted with the businesse of 
John Miller and have signed a warrant some weeks since for apprehending 
of him. The bearer now, ye Tything man of this Parish brings ye brother 
of John Miller before you and his Wife, who but last ffriday hindred y* 
taking of John and wounded one of the Tythingman's assistants, as you 
will see, and hear other particulars. I hope you will be pleased to take 
such course in this case that those insolencys may not hereafter trouble y« 
quiet of ye parish here and make ye warrants yt you signe useless to us. 

Your Servant 

BERKSHIRE 
For the Right Worshipfull Sir George Hungerford. Thomas Gore Esq. 
White Esq., present. 



VII. 
Henry Blake. 

[The family of Blake or Blaak were for some four hundred years 
resident at Pinnells, between Calne and Bowood. The moat which 
surrounded their home may still be seen, but the original house was 
destroyed during the Civil War. 

The writer of the following letters, Henry Blake, is described by Sir 
Richard Colt Hoare in his Hungerfordiana as " of Bristol," but it is 
clear that he was still " of Pinnells " in 1698. He married Katherine, 
daughter of Sir George Hungerford of Cadenham, by whom he had 
several children. The family must soon have left Pinnells, for Blake's 
son and successor, Robert, is later described as " of Sodbury " ; Robert 
had, however, no issue and with him the Blake family seems to have 
come to an end. Henry Blake was member for Calne, with his brother- 
in-law George Hungerford. It was the last named who had just re- 
ceived the impressive funeral described below. He was only 24 years 
of age and had died, as it seems, in London. The date (April 30th) is 
recorded in the Bremhill parish register and a marble monument with a 
long Latin inscription testifying to the many virtues of the departed 
M.P. stands in the chancel of that Church. There was no bye-election in 
Calne after Hungerford's death, for Parliament was soon after dissolved. 



70 Wiltshire Politicians. 

At the General Election which followed, Blake was again returned, his 
companion being Henry Chivers, the "Colonel'' mentioned below. 
It may be guessed that he was not one of Lord Wharton's candidates, 
for these, and the Whig party generally, met with scant success in this 
contest. The treatment at Devizes of the Whig nominee for the office 
of Coroner, so graphically recounted by Blake, was no doubt an in- 
dication of the trend of popular feeling. 

At Marlborough, where the deceased (William) Daniell mentioned 
by Blake had been one of the sitting members, we find Mr. Gremfield 
who " spent money" as one of the successful candidates. The other 
was the Earl of Kanelagh, the notoriously corrupt Paymaster General. 
Captain Ned Goddard was evidently unable to compete in such com- 
pany !] 



Devizes, May ye 4th, 1698 
My dear friend, 

I thanke you for your care in sending of the votes to my friends at 
Calne who give theire service to you and drank your health with me 
yesterday at Pinnells. We buried my brother on Saturday at Bremhill. 
The neighbouring Gentlemen and others were so kinde as to meet us on the 
Downs and attend him to his grave, to the number of near two hundred 
horse and four or five coaches : and since it hath pleased God to take him 
from us, the next favour I have to beg of you (for I find I shall be forced 
to trouble you more than once) is that you will move for an order for the 
Speaker to issue forth his warrant for a writt for a new Election, and that 
the first opportunity. I had engaged several freeholders to appear here 
yesterday on behalfe of Kobt Blackmore as you desired me, but one Axford. 
who is the County Clerk standing against him twas pretended that the 
Writt was not yet come to the Sheriff's hands, tho the election was pro- 
claimed as I'me tolde at the last County Court, & so perhaps two hundred 
freeholders attended here in vaine. This, sir, I have reason to beleeve is 
but a peice of artifice and abuse to the man whose interest you doe espouse, 
you may perhaps therefore thinke it worth your while to informe your selfe 
by Mr. Inghame or otherwise if a writt for that purpose be yet passed the 
seal, and if so when & to whome it was delivered. I long to know what 
progress yo've made in the Bill for preventing of Escapes and doe hope to 
see in the next Money Bill an appropriating clause for the payment of 
arrears of Quarters now due to the Country. We had a very hard frost 
last night and the snow lying upon the hills till noon this day and the least 
appearance of spring that ever was known in memory of man att this time 
of the year. Mr. Daniel was buried yesterday. Mr. Gremfield stands there 
and Cpt Ned Goddard, but the first I hear spends money. Mr. Seymour I 
finde by his own discourse seems so be sure of it if he stands, but is not 
willing he sayes to give himselfe trouble for so small a time. I am in hast, 
the post just ready to goe, my service to all my friends. 

I am yr very humble servant, 

HEN. BLAAKE. 



I 



By the Marquess of Lansdowne. 71 

VIII. 

Pinnells, June ye 8th, 1698. 
My dear friend, 

I was informed of your horses going to meet you the beginning of 
the last week & therefore expected to have seen you in Wiltshire before 
this time, but Mr. Mountague whome I saw yesterday at the Devizes tells 
me that you dont intend to be here 'till the later end of the next week and 
upon advice of your coming we are to meet you at Sandy Lane. The 
occasion of our meeting at the Devizes was for the Election of a Coroner. 
You know I did acquaint you some time since that one Mr. Axford, our 
County Clerk, did set up for a candidate & with some of the means he then 
used to obtain his ends, and to discourage such indirect practices I had 
some thoughts of opposing him in his Election. But being informed by Mr. 
Jones of Calne who was at Marlboro on Saturday last, that the Sheriffs 
OflScer that proclaimed the Election there did alsoe give notice that at the 
same time there would be a wrestling match & a hat and feathers to be 
played for at Cudgels and that those that voted for Mr. Axford should 
have their charges borne, I thought it would be but what at last it proved, 
a concourse of the Mob and more like a Bear Garden than a Court, and 
therefore resolved not to be there. I was however at last prevailed upon 
by the importunity of some Gentlemen to goe, and if you'le promise not to 
laugh at me, will give you a briefe account of the Adventure. I found the 
Court sitting, or rather the mob up when first I came into the town, & a 
great many gentlemen walking in the Market Place that could not have ad- 
mittance. The pole did happen to be between Mr. Axford and one Mr. Adye 
& several of Mr. Ady's friends complaining to the Gentlemen that they were 
kept from the pole by the Mob that were set on purpose to cry up Mr. 
Axford, tho they were no freeholders, Mr. Montagu & Colin Chivers did 
at last interpose and for some time gaind admittance for Mr. Ady's friends 
to come to the book to be poll'd, Whereupon this Mr. Axford as County 
Clerk took upon him to adjourn the Court to the Town Hall where the 
Comon Cryer of the town (as I am informed by the appointment of the 
Mayor) and another placed there by Mr. Axford, had the keeping of the 
door & refused to admit I believe it will be proved about 150 freeholders 
because they would not promise before hand to vote for Mr. Axford. I 
need not tell you that know it how inconvenient a place it was for that pur- 
pose, but you would little thinke of another artifice they had to keep Mr. 
Adye's freinds who were all the Gentlemen, clergymen, & most substantial 
of the freeholders from the poll, and it was to force them as they poU'd to 
come down into the open street, out at a window and by an old ladder. 
After they had by many such practices tir'd Mr. Adye's freinds, sent them 
out of town unpoll'd, and so baffled his interest, about six in the afternoon 
the Gentlemen were admitted. We enquired for the Sheriff or his deputy 
but he was not there nor anyone that so much as pretended to have a dep- 
utation from him. Mr. Axford however declar'd himselfe to be duely 
elected & then swore himselfe Coroner and then, I suppose for fear that 
many of those that voted for him should afterwards upon enquiry appear 
to be no freeholders, assisted by the Mayor of the town in the head of the 



72 Wiltshire Politicians. 

Mob, fell upon the person employ'd by Mr. Adye to take the poll and took 
away his book, and without any manner of provocation beat some, abused 
others, and insulted every Gentleman there that we thought ourselves happy 
that escaped without broken heads, & if you had been there (as I beleeve 
you would had you been in the country) you would have thought it to have 
been a riot contriv'd on purpose to give him handset of his office. This will 
be all prov'd before my Lord Chancelour by Affidavits, but they cant be got 
ready so soon as Mr. Axford can get a Returne of the Writt, and if his 
L^ship was in the meantime made acquainted with the matter I beleeve he 
would thinke fit to put a stopp to the filing of the Returne till he could be 
more fully informed of the manner of theire proceedings. I have just now 
reed a letter from Mr. White ' that he came to Compton last night, to 
morow I designe to waite on him. 

I am yr very humble Servt 

HEN. BLAAKE. 
for Walter White Esq. a member of Parliament, London, these. 

IX. 
Edward Montague. 

[A son of Henry Montagu, first Earl of Manchester, and Lord Chief 
Justice under Charles I., had married the heiress of the Baynard 
family and settled at Lackham about the middle of the 17th century. 
Their grandson, Edward Montagu (d. 1701) was now member for Chip- 
penham with White, and as in duty bound, during the absence of his 
colleague, he keeps him informed of events in the House of Commons. 

The maintenance of a standing army was still the great bone of con- 
tention. The King insisted on the protection of his person and his 
throne by an armed force and the Whigs supported him as far as they 
dared. Popular feeling, however, was all against them and, as Mon- 
tague's letter shows, a drastic reduction of the forces was quickly 
efi'ected by the new Parliament] 

London, Dec**' 16/98. 

All forces in English pay to be disbanded except 7000. Resol (ved) 
last night. I was glad to hear of yr health by yrs yesterday ; you shall 
have notice when there is to be a call, in ye mean time 

I am Yrs 

E. MOUNTAGUE. 

I hear of a certificate Mr. Child of Eaton and Mr. Rogers of Hed- 
dington has obtain'd with my name to itt for their being excus'd in ye 
Poll Tax. Now I'm sure 1 never sign'd such & I hope no one has taken ye 
liberty to fix my name, for such matters don't look well & I don't like itt. 
If you know any thing of the matter pray inform me. 

^ Probably Walter White's younger brother Henry, a merchant, who 
appears to be again referred to in Letter X infra. 



By the Marquess of Lansdowne. 73 

This day 1 2000 only are resold to be maintain'd in Ireland on Irish 
Establishm*. None tolbe in pay in England or Ireland but ye K's natural 
born subjects. 

This ffor Walter White, Esq., Member of Parliament, att Grittle- 
ton, near Chippenham, Wiltts. 



X. 
Henry Blake. 
[The subject matter of this letter is explained by the " Journal of 
the House of Commons." Under date April 4th, 1699, we read that 
" a complaint was made to the House of several letters sent into the 
country by Henry Chivers, Esq., a member of this House, wherein 
several of the members of this House are not only reflected on but 
misrepresented as to their votes in this House." Two letters addressed 
by Chivers (Blake's colleague in the representation of Calne) to 
William Wicks and John Hawkins, of Calne, were thereupon read in 
the House and Colonel Chivers was ordered to " attend this house in 
his place upon Friday come sevenight" in order to explain the matter. 
He failed, however, to do so and only escaped being " sent for in cus- 
tody of the Sergeant at Arms " by a narrow vote of the assembled 
members.] 

Pinnells, Feb. ye 11th. 1698 [1699]. 
Sr. 

I wish you could have procur'd a copy of the letter, for tis not now 
to be had in the countrey, the contents of it however were that I had made 
a violent speech in the house for a Standing Army and was so link'd into 
the interest of the Court that they must not expect a good vote from me 
this Session, and in a Postscript " this you may communicate to your 
friends " : there was a letter at the same time from the same hand and much 
to the same purpose to Adye of Chippenham concerning our friend your 
brother but not a word of Stiff-rump as I have yet heard : he sent last week 
to Potter Heskins a list of the names of those that were for a Standing 
Army which I have seen and tis remarkable enough that in that I find my 
friend Wa: White and yet nothwithstanding his former letter Mr. 
Mountague's name is omitted. Here was found a young childe neare Calne 
on Sunday last which some whore or other for the more effectual suppress- 
ing of vice had ty'd up in a linnen cloth together with a great stone and 
threw into a pond. The Coroner took an Inquisition upon it the next day 
and they have found that it was at its time and murther'd, and that Mrs. 
Chivers of the Bear at Calne hath been deliver'd of a base born Childe of 
which she cannot give any account and so the Coroner hath comitted her 
to Salisbury Goale. 

I have not yet had leisure to see Chiphenam, but Mr. Sainsbury and 
Will Stevens din'd with me here yesterday where we drank theire members 
healths, and I finde the Coll"'s letter to Chippenham hath gain'd him no 
more reputation there than the other hath got him interest at Calne. A 



74 Wiltshire Politicians. 

very honest fellow being ask'd the occasion of the quarrel between us, 
" nothing " saide he " but that one man can't serve two masters." 

I haven't seen, since I have been in the Countrey one touch of fishing the 
waters have been so high, nor been able as yet to dispatch the busyness 
that call'd me home, I hope however to waite on you in town in a weeks 
time, and that I beleeve will be before the busyness you mention will come 
on, if not, could I be serviceable in that matter I would come up sooner on 
purpose. I thanke you for your care in sending of the votes in my absence 
which your constant attendance will never give me an opportunity of re- 
taliating. My humble service to my Ld. Will^i, Mr. Morgan, my Cousin 
Mountague, Lloyd, Taylor, and the judge, cum multis aliis. I intend if it 
continues dry to try what luck I can have at fishing on Monday next or 
Tuesday, and if I succeed well you shall hear from me 
I am yr very humble Servant 
HEN. BLAAKE. 



XL 
T. T. 

[The letter which follows presents a problem which I have been 
quite unable to solve. There seemed some ground for believing that it 
might be an intercepted communication, intended for the mischief- 
making "Colonel" Chivers. But Walter White, as we learn from 
Jackson's History of Grittleton, was also a *' Colonel," so it is un- 
necessary to seek for another addressee. That it comes from a 
parson (for the writer talks of his parishioners) probably in Wilts, and 
that it is addressed to someone in London — probably a politician — is 
tolerably clear, but the explanation for the cypher and the secrecy of 
the communication is hard to seek, more especially since White and his 
friends belonged to the constitutional party, and would have been un- 
likely to have had any dealings with Jacobites or other seditious per- 
sons. The initials at the end appear to be " T.T." or " T.S." The 
first would fit Thomas Tattersall, the Rector of Grittleton at this time. 
He would have been a very probable correspondent with White, as 
Lord of the Manor. There seems, however, no reason why he should 
not have conveyed his news en clair'] 

My dear Coll. 

I am ever ready to impart all ye sentem'^ of my heart to you upon 
all occasions Yet now I must be figurative in my expressions well knowing 
that you are a master of numbers. Yrs I rec^ from 34 and also two since. 
The grandmother of 33 is selling oflf goods, perhaps you may pick out ye mean- 
ing. Y was mairyed last week & brings home ye conjunction copulative 
before Christmas. I am sorry any of our acquaintance should lye under 
the suspicion of murder, for if 22 be joynd to 24 certainly there is a sword 
run thro ye bowells wch must needs cause much effusion of blood. As to 
95, the enclosed wch you sent, twas never askt for as yet. Ill am afraid 
will scarce live a moneth longer. My nere neighbr that had two at a birth 



By the 3Iarq2tess of Lansdowne. 75 

has now one of em dead in his house, the other dying k himself was pray*^ 
for last Sunday. I am glad you mind ye concerns of 57. Pray give my 
humble duty to 85 and if there be any discourse of my present condition 
let it still be comiserated that still N may be my Parishioner, you know 
upon what ace*. Heres wanting an S for 26. I wish it may now prove 
effectuall. I wish 89 may rally his forces for 90 is reputed to be full of 78 
& 75. T says theres no need of yr being disconsolatt for every tittle yt was 
repeated ye night before you departed will be accomplisht upon demand. 
P. T. t. are all Gd be praised now in health, k, cordially wish you the same 
T has been full of lamentacons & the harshness of 1 has been much the 
cause. You may be sure i'le mind my promise as to 95 but pray let me 
know more fully how, for I have had no sign. T desires ye little man*s 
Wife at Newgate (to both whome our kind respects) to buy a yard of silk 
that will match this inclost pattern, if it cannot be matcht with ye spots 
tis no matter so it be near the same colour ; if you please you may give 22 
directions in a paper & he may goe to her or any one else for it as he thinks 
fit & if you'l pay for it, it will be accounted a favr and shall be placd to 
ace*. Gn Edwards will be at London next thursday morning, and if 22 
will take ye care upon him to send it then T will be very thankfull. 

99 Hopton Williams. 100 My Ld Mayor. 101 Duke of Shewsbury. 102 
Ld Pembroke. 103 Ld Sunderland. 104 E of Albemarle. P & T wish 
you all happiness desiring you to take special care of yr self & present 
their hearty services. 

Yrs well all 77 

T. T, 

Let P. T t be altered to 0. M. M. m. wch I might have chardeterizd with 
94 all along. 



XIL 
Sir Thomas Estcourt to Wharton. 

[Malmesbury had been represented in 1695 by Goodwin Wharton 
who was at that time the Lord of its Manor. Britton tells us that he 
was succeeded as such by his elder brother, Thomas Lord Wharton, 
who later took the title of Marquis of Wharton " of Malmesbury," and 
that the notorious Duke of Wharton was afterwards in turn its Lord. 
Thomas at all events considered Malmesbury as his "pocket borough," 
and its loss in 1698 was one of his notable disappointments in the election 
of that year. We find Michael Wicks and Edward Pauucefort as the 
successful candidates on the occasion in question, the last-named being 
the subject of the ensuing letter, whose writer, Sir Thomas Estcourt, 
appears from county records to have owned the Manor of Sherston 
Pinkney as well as lands at Hazelbury and Box. 

The return of 1698 was the subject of a Petition which came before 
the House of Commons on the 29th of March following. From this it 
appears that Estcourt had been the candidate but had retired at the 
last moment owing to ill-health, making over his interest to Pauncefort 
whom nobody in Malmesbury had ever seen. Pauncefort was elected 



76 Wiltshire Politicians. 

none the less, mainly through the financial activities of William Adye, 
the deputy steward. This gentleman reappears later on and seems to 
have been Wharton's bete noir. He figures in a subsequent election 
petition in 1702, when he brought to the House of Commons a " bag of 
gold " and a bank note for iJ200 as evidence of the bribes which he 
had received ! 

It is noteworthy that the electors of Malmesbury at this time con- 
sisted only of " the aldermen " and " twelve capital burgesses," so a 
little bribery went a long way.] 



[February 13, 1698/99] 
Sr 

J am ill [and] cannot write much but I assure you Ady drew me in 
to be concerned at Malmsbury for my friend Painsfort, and not I him, as I 
will demonstrate to you by indeniable testimonys when you'll favor me 
with an opportunity and I able to come to you, and in the meane time this 
I assure, I will never have more to doe with him as long as 1 live nor will 
the Corporation unlesse you comand me. I know his strength it being a 
mortgage from 8 or 9 Burgesses (?) of their grants for £l50, sayd to be deue 
for passing the last Chartur, which is not worth a shilling if you please ; 
for before the Charter they had noe title but an injunction, and since the 
grant by his Majesty is voidable, if not void, for the King cannot alter the 
forme of the gift. Theire incorporation was but of yesterday (the time of 
King James the first) theire Grant of lands of great antiquity, they may 
forfeite perhaps theire Libertys but cannot theire lande, as this Case is : 
Soe the whiles in your powr as it ought this sett right : Ady is not worth 
your kindnesse, scarce your thought, I know the constitution better than 
any man living, can make out what I say and begg your pardon if I have 
offended you by his insinuations. I p'sume to write this because Jo. Waite 
told me you sent to speake with me, which I should gladly have done, but 
the too severe reflecting of my Wife on the ingratitude of Mr. H. has put 
her out of order, and I am soe ill my self that I cannot come up. 

Yr obedient humble St 
Bath, 13th/98 THO. ESTCOljRT. 

Mr. Painsfort being the Kings imediate Ser* I hope you'l be mercy full, I 
owe him great obligatins, but I desire to be heard before consided guilty for 
I never designed opposing your interest and would uot have beene concern'd 
if I had not thought Ady's prudenc would have gover*^ him in it, nor have 
I meddled (Tho he engaged my , . . doe what I can) since the Election 
but in writting two letters. 



Addressed " to the Hobie the Ld Wharton." 

Endorsed in another hand "Sir T. Estcourt Feb. 13. 98. sent by Mr. 
Giles Estcourt a grocer in Holborne." 



By the Marquess of Zansdowne. 77 

XIII. 
Henry Blake. 

Pinnells. Feb ye 15th, 1698 [1699]. 
Sr 

The call of the house I finde is the order of the day on Monday next 
and have therefore wrote to the Speaker, if it should happen to come on, to 
excuse me to the house, tho I thinke to be in town the same night & that 
early enough to attend comittes, tis a respect I thinke is due to the Speaker, 
but pray doe you take care of me who am 

Yr humble servant, 

HEN. BLAAKE. 
My service to all my friends & let Mr. Stonehouse^ know that I 
hear that he hath had his share of the Coll"'' scandal. 

XIV, 
Wharton. 

London, May 30th, 1699. 

Sr 

I beleive I must bee att ye sweet towne of Malmesbury on Tuesday 
ye 6th ; in y' case send this to beg y* you would forgive me if I then give you 
notice of it, I should take it as a favor if yr self, Mr. Montagu, Mr. 
Blake & any other of yr neighbours who don't wish me soe heartyly hang'd 
as Mr. Adye dose, would bee soe far disengaged, as (upon notice) to come 
over y* day thither. I shall be out of countenance to ask y' favour of you 
or them, knowing how very ill I can there entertain you ; but I know you 
will forgive every fault of ye kind to 

Yor most obedient humble servt 

T. WHARTON. 

XV. 
BicHARD Long. 
[Mr. (Richard) Long was perhaps a member of the family then living 
at Draycot, though from a subsequent reference (Letter XTX) he 
appears to have been more especially concerned with Uorsham. The 
Ale-houses about which he writes were and continued to be a crying 
scandal, but little was done to remedy their abuses. Long was a 
temperance reformer before his time. Nearly 200 years were to elapse 
before any serious reduction of drinking houses took place. Long's 
enquiry as to civill oranges in the postscript may possibly be in- 
tended as a joke ; Loyalty to the House of Orange was of course just 
now the touchstone of Whigism.] 

Jany 13th, 99/700 
Master Walter 

In my last to Mr. Montague I wish'd you and all other flfriends a 
merry Xtmas which I hope you've enjoyed and now wish you a happy New 
Year and many a one. I find in Mundays votes that tis ordered yt a bill 

^ A Stonehouse was member for Great Bedwyn. 



78 Wiltshire Politicians. 

or bills be brought in for the better p'viding for ye Poor and setting you on 
work which I take to be a good thing, and do beleive it would not be amiss 
if you or some of yor bretheren would think of a clause— to be added — to 
hinder ye poor spending their time and Consuming y^e weekly wages in 
little paultrey Ale houses — especially on Sundays — which if thought fitt 
may be done either by more strict and severe punishments then the laws 
now do inflict — or rather some method thought of to lessen ye great num- 
ber of Ale houses wch I'm sure is ye most encreasing and intolerable 
Greviance wee have : for tis certain such houses in lone and bye places are 
continually frequented by ye Poor sort of people, which I take to be ye 
occasion of yre povertie and of all felonies, burglaries, and other mischiefs 
done & committed in the Country. This you know to be true, therefore it 
deserves yor & ye rest of onr Country's Representatives considerations and 
endeavours to put a stop to this growing evil which I hope you'll not fail 
of doing, it being for so generall a good. My service to all friends (especially 
Mr. Mountague) and be pleased to accept of ye same yo''self & it will be an 
obligation to 

Yor most humble Servant 

R. LONG. 

Next post I design to trouble Mr. Mountague wth a line or two. 

By ys time I doubt not you've sufficient knowledge of ye goodness of 
this years oranges, therefore do desire ye favour of you to buy me (or order 
your man to do it) one hundred of ye best civill oranges & to take care in 
ye packing of them and to send ym wth speed. 



XVL 

[The Parliament which had been elected at the beginning of 1701 
was like its predecessor of a Tory complexion and unfriendly to the 
reigning sovereign. But in September of that year a new situation 
arose with the death of the ex-King James, and King William deter- 
mined to take advantage of it by a fresh appeal to the people. The 
occasion was one of great political activity, and in the result the Whigs 
recovered the ground they had lost in the two previous elections. 

Wharton would of course have received the earliest intimation of the 
King's intention. He hastens to impart it to his Wiltshire friends 
(XVI.) and follows up his letter by a proposal for a personal meeting 
(XVII.). The three following letters (XVIII., XIX., and XX.) though 
undated, clearly relate to the same election. The Whigs appear, in 
this instance, to have concentrated on the " Knights of the Shire " and 
evidently disapproved of the sitting members for the County, Sir 
George Hungerford and Richard How. 

Their candidates, William Ash and Maurice Asheley, were both 
successful. The first appears to have come from Heytesbury, which 
he had recently represented, while others of the same name figure from 
time to time among the Wiltshire members. Asheley writes from 
Purton, and we may assume that he was connected with the family 
who then owned that place. He may indeed have been Maurice Ashley 



By the Marquess of Lansdowne. 79 

Cooper (1675—1726), a distinguished scholar according to the family 
pedigree, who was the son to the first, and brother to the second Earl 
of Shaftesbury. 

Lord John Mordaunt (1681—1710), the writer of letter XX., was 
the eldest son of Charles Earl of Peterborough, the famous diplomatist 
and commander of King William's reign. He had been partner with 
White in the representation of Chippenham in the preceding Parlia- 
ment, and both were now again returned. His family would seem to 
have already had some County connection, though it was at a later 
date that the Earls of Peterborough established themselves at Dauntsey, 
where several of them lie buried,] 

Wharton. 

Nov. 11, 1701. 

Sr 

Ye writs will be out on Thursday for a new Parliament to meet on 
ye 3oth of Dec. I send you ye earlyest notice & desire you to comunicate 
it to our friends. 

I will see you shortly. Mr. Blaak thought he could deale wth Wftl Adye. 
Pray lett us all agree abt better Knts of ye Shire. 

Yors 

T. WHARTON. 
Mr. White. 

XVII. 

Nov. 16'M701. 
Sr 

I am very desirous y I may speake w"' Mr. Blaak & yo' self att 
Ciceter, if it bee not very inconvenient to you. In hopes of it I intend to 
bee att Eastleach Grove on Tuesday night and will meet you at Ciceter, or 
where else you will about yt distance either on Wednesday, Thursday, or 
fryday, but ye sooner ye better, upon many respects. If you come pray let 
Dick Couch or John Wayte, as privatly as may bee, have directions to meet 
there also, and lett this bearer bring me yo"^ answeare as soon as you can 
dispatch him. 

Yors faithfully, 

T. WHARTON. 



XVIII. 
Maurice Ashley. 

Pirton, North Wilts, 

Nouember y' 17th [1701]. 
Sr 

I have been perswaded by severall Gentlemen to stand for the County 
at the next election and have since mett wth considerable encouragement in 
the thing. I should think I neglected one of the Principall of my friends 
if I omitted the acquainting you w*** it to bespeak your Favour and Assistance. 
I heartily wish you success in any undertaking of this kind & for the sake of 



80 Wiltshire Politicians. 

my Country I in the same manner wish that elections generally may turn in 
Favour of men of the same good intentions to our Countay w"* your self. 
I am your reall Humble Servant 

M. ASHLEY. 

XIX. 
Henry Blake. 

Chiphenham, Saturday night [? 1701]. 
My good friend. 

I need not tell you how much the fate of England, nay perhaps all 
Europe depends on the proceedings of the approaching Parliament, nor how 
necessary it is for all honest men now to take care in the choyce of their 
Representatives, but I beg you to be industrious against the Election for 
our County. Ash & Ashley is the word and I am sure that you and I that 
have Voted so many times together cant diflfer in that for we both know 
'em. Ned Baynton' will take care of Melsham & Bromham side, I will of 
Calne, Compton &c. Tom Long & his brother Dick of Corsham &c., and 
doe you doe ye same in the north part. We propose a generall rendevouz at 
Sandy lane. I am in hast, but be you sollicitous in this matter as well. 

Yr humble Servt 

HEN : BLAKE. 
I wish you joy of your deliverance from Squire HungerfordV opposition, 
the County Court^ is tuesday come senight. 

XX. 
Lord John Mordaunt. 

Chippenham, Wensday night [? 1701]. 
Sr, 

You were scarce gott out of Chippenham before Fhill Gage return'd 
from Malborough, the under Sheriff being now at London. He brought 
back the return, and has brought you a letter from old Mr. Wate who ad- 
vis'd him to bring it back, and told him that if we were in haste to have 
the Bayliff's counterpart sent back, he would go to the High Sheriff and 
have it sign'd by him. I was resolv'd to have your opinion of the matter, 
and if you like this proposal I will take care to see it executed. My father 
is working for Mr. Ashely and I believe with good success, he came this 
day to Chippenham to see his friends and presents his service to you, so dos 
Mr. Rival. 

Your most humble Servant and friend 

J. MORDAUNT. 

* Edward Baynton, b. 1662, he was member for Calne with Blake in the 
1701 election. 

^ The allusion is presumably to Sir George Hungerford, of Cadenham> 
who had been one of the county members in the last three or four Parlia- 
ments. It seems that he had not seen eye to eye with the county Whigs. 

^ The County Court was the body which elected the county members ; it 
was often held at more than one place. 



By the Marquess of Lansdoiune. 81 

XXI. 

[The two letters which follow throw some interesting side lights on 
the subject of Election Petitions, which owing to the looseness of 
Electoral law and the prevalence of bribery were at this time very- 
numerous. They were determined, not as now by a Judge, but by a 
vote in Committee of the House of Commons, and bribery being con- 
sidered a venial offence, that vote was generally given on strict party 
lines. 

No. XXI. is merely a '* whip " to attend and vote when one of these 
petitions was being decided in the House, the writer being the Earl of 
Macclesfield (1659 — 1701) who in his younger days had been involved 
in the Rye House Plot, but had found favour under William III. The 
date 1701 can be supplied, for it is in that year that we find in the 
election for Bishops Castle the cross petitions of Sir Gilbert Gerard 
against the election of George Walcott, and of Sir William Brownhouse 
against that of Charles Mason, as a result of which Charles Mason 
was handed over to the Serjeant at Arms for gross bribery. It may 
be remarked that Lord Macclesfield himself does not come vei-y well 
out of the story. 

No. XXII. is in the nature of an " S.O.S." from Cirencester. Its 
date (1701) is determined by that of the Cirencester Election, which is 
recorded as taking place on December 2nd in that year. Henry Ireton 
had been member from 1698 to 1700, but had apparently failed in 1701 
owing to the machinations of the other side. His fears that the same 
thing was going to occur again were well founded, for he was never re- 
elected. The Poll was sometimes open for several days, and since 
there was no necessity for electors to cast their vote until the end, the 
longer the interval the more chance of detaching their votes by means 
of undue influence. The journals of the House of Commons show 
that a petition against the election was duly lodged by Ireton, in 
January, 1702, who claimed a " majority of rightful votes " and stated 
that it was only by illegal practices and the delay of the Bailiff in 
executing the precept that his adversaries had obtained a return] 



Lord Macclesfield. 

Aprill ye 29th [1701]. 
Sr 

This is to desire the ffavour of you that youT be so kind to give your 
selfe the trouble of attending the Comittee to morrow ye 30th inst when ye 
hearing of ye Election of Bps Castle comes on wherein Sir Gilbert Gerard & 
Mr. Mason are concerned and you'l oblige 

Yor most humble Servt 
MACLESFIELD. 
VOL. XLVI. — NO. CLVII G 



82 Wiltshire Politicians^ 

XXII. 
Henry Ireton. 

Cirencester, November ye 29th [1701.] 

My adversaries here being senceable yt a considerable maiority of ye 
Votes weare for me have by their artifices prolong^ ye Election til Thurs- 
day ye 2d of De^r on purpose to persue those unwarantable practises they 
have always used of drawing Votes from me ; the officer who takes ye Pole 
and ye return is intirely in their intrest by wch I must expect very foul play 
and probably a false returne : the Elections for our County hapning so 
near to ours that it will be very deficult for me to get a member of Parlia- 
ment in our intrest to appear for me yt may be capable of speaking for me 
in the house of Commons in casse there should be ocasion, unless I can pre- 
vail with you : wch will be a great favour and kindnesse to me. It will be 
very servisable to me your being here on Moonday night because we shall 
procede to ye Election erley on Wensday morning. If yr affaires can per- 
mitt you to do so it will lay a very great obligation upon 

Your very humble servt 

HENRY IRETON. 



XXIII. 
James Mountagu. 

[Walter White, no longer in Parliament, was being threatened with 
the post of High Sheriff. The next batch of letters are all concerned 
with his efforts to elude that dignity. James Mountagu (1673 — 1747), 
of Lackham, was now member for Chippenham. He was the younger 
brother of the Edward Montague mentioned above (Letter IX ) who died 
s,p. inl701. Montague is the first to give White information of the 
danger which threatens, and upon receipt of his letter White must have 
immediately written off to the Bishop of Salisbury, the famous author 
of A History of His Own Times, with whom he seems to have been on 
most intimate terms. 

Burnet shows himself a friend indeed. The Duke of Somerset, 
Master of the Horse and the Queen's especial favourite, the Earl of 
Pembroke, President of the Council and Lord Lieutenant of Wilts, and 
Lord Halifax, besides Lord Wharton, were all set in motion on White's 
behalf. It cannot be wondered that Wharton and the Bishop showed 
some feeling at White's leaving the whole job to them and failing even 
to suggest the name of a substitute for the undesired office ! Never- 
theless, their efforts were successful, for White was never High Sheriff 
of the County.] 

4th Novr. 1703. 
Dear Friend, 

I hear by Chance you are one of the Triumviri designed to be offer* 
to her Majty in order to make one of you Sherrif, Coll Yonge, Sir Ed : 



By the Marquess of Zansdoivne. 83 

Ernley^ and your self. If I can be any way serviceable pray Command me, 
in the mean time I'le try what I can doe, who am 

Your obedt Servt 

J. MOUNTAGU. 
We are prorogued till Tuesday. 

ffor Walter White Esqr. at Grittleton in Wiltes, Chippenham bag, 

frank : J. Mountagu. 

XXIV. 
Bishop Burnet. 

Lincolns Inne fields 
the 13 Nov' 1703. 
Most Honored Sir, 

I have endeavoured twice to wait on the E. of Pembroke but without 
successe, but I have been happier with the Duke of Somerset. I found 
both L. Wharton and L. Halifax had spoke earnestly to him about your 
■concern and he promised both to them and to me to look carefully after it. 
I will study to engage My L. President likewise tho it is not so easy to find 
him. I am sure I will be allwaies ready to do what service lies in my 
power, youTiave a right to it, and may depend -upon it, for I am with great 
-zeal and sincerity, 

Most Honored Sir 

Your most obedient humble Servant 
GL SAPtUM. 

The Most Honored Master White of Grittleton near Chipnam, Wilts. — 
G,. Sarum. 



XXV. 

Burnet. 

Lincolns Inne fields 

16Nov'^1703. 
Most Honored Sir, 

At last I have, after 3 times going in vain, found the Earle of Pem- 
broke. He tells me he is engaged to serve the other two. He told me the 
grounds he went on, too long to repeat, but he concluded that if you could 
find a fourth person fit to serve he would not oppose that, tho he confessed 
it was in irregular practice. This is all he could be brought to, and I 
thought myself bound to give you this early notice of it, that you may con- 
sider what measures you ought to take. Since my last I have got a very 
earnest letter from Mr. Child complaining of the marble that is put up 



^ Of Maddington. Sometime member for Devizes. He was the last of 
the Ernies in the male line. 

G 2 ■ 



84: Wiltshire Politicians. 

where the Creed was painted. I have writ my opinion very freely to him 
about it and have both advised and desired him to insist no more in his 
opposition to it. I am sorry I can not serve you more effectually. I am 
sure I will do all I can to let you see how sincerely I am 

MostiHonored Sir 

Your most humble servant 
GI. SAilUM. 
To The Most Honored Master White of Gritletoune. 
To be left with the Postmaster at Chipnam Wilts. G. Sarum. 

XXVI. 
Wharton. 

Dover Street, Nov. 18, 1703. 
Deare Watt, 

I had sooner acknowledg'd ye receipt of yors but yt I was unwilling^ 
to doe it till I had made some step in order to your service. The Sheriffs 
are not yet prick't nor will not be this day, as I am certainly informed. I 
have prevail'd with ye Duke of Somerset to take ye trouble upon himself of 
taking you off, & have put a paper into his hands to mind him of it. If I 
can persuade my Lord Pembroke to agree to it (w^h I will endeavour) I 
doubt not but to effect it to yor satisfaction ; Tho I must needs say you 
doe not deserve it, since you doe not think it worth yor coming up for it. 
However I am & alwayes will be 

Yor faithful humble servt 

T. WHARTON. 
For Walter White Esqre 

Att his house att Grittleton 

Neare Chipenham Wilts" T. Wharton ; free 

XXVII. 
Wharton. 

Dover Street. Novr 20th, 1703. 
Since I writt to you last, I have spoken wth yor Lord Lt who sayes 
he hath been long engaged to save two of his Dep : Lts who stand alsoe in 
ye list ; but he will readily serve you if some other fitt names can be offerd. 
It is hoped yt yo r Bp will heare from you upon yt head, before 
Thursday next wch will probably bee ye day ; & then I have a great man's 
promise yt hee will offer such names as shall be given to him. 

Yors faithfully, 

T. WHARTON. 

XXVIII. 
Burnet. 

The 30 Nov' 1703. 
Most Honored Sir, 

My Ld. Wharton told me he had writ to you to come up and solicite 
your own busines, if you think it of consequence to you to decline the ser^ 
vice. I tell you freely I will do you all the service I can, but as for naming^ 



By the Marquess of Lansdowne. 85 

another person, if that is to be done it must be your own work, but you 
will not expect that any other person should do it, for that is too great a 
hardship to put on others. Mr. Long has behaved himself civilly towards 
me and I cannot make so unkind a return for it. I leave the matter to your 
own thoughts to do what you judge best for your selfe, and in every thing 
relating to yourselfe I will do you all the service in my power, for I am 
Very sincerely, Sir, your most humble Servant 

GL SARUM. 



XXIX. 
Wharton. 
[The last letter brings us to the year 1705. The 1702 Parliament 
was dissolved in April of that year and its successor called for June, 
though it did not actually meet till October. We find Lord Wharton 
still to the fore at Malmesbury. There were no disappointments in 
store for him this time, for both the candidates whom he here " recom- 
mends," Henry Mordaunt, a Captain in the Navy (1681 — 1710), and 
Thomas Farrington, were duly returned a few months later. Walter 
White was once more elected for Chippenham, but the contest seems 
to have been too much for him. He died (unmarried) on July 21st 
and was succeeded by his sister Priscilla. With her marriage two 
years later to Joseph Houlton, of Seagry, the association of that family 
with the Manor of Grittleton commenced.] 



Sr 



Api 9*'' 1705. 



Notwthstanding what I writt to you on ye Sffi of this month It is 
now resolved yt ye Queen will not order ye writts till ye 23(i but yt they 
shall beare Teste as yt Day ; Soe yt there can bee noe expences after ye 
22*^. I have this day writt a letter to ye Burrough of Malmesbury to 
recomend to them Capt. Mordaunt, 2"* Son to ye E. of Peterborough, & 
Brigadier Gen" Faringdon, who designe both to bee there on Thursday or 
Fryday next. I wish them good successe & hope they will have your 
countenance & yt of all ye honest men of yor parts, as they are honest men 
themselves & also upon ye account of him that is yor ever faithfull humble 
Servant, 

T. WHARTON. 



86 



THE SEVENTY-NINTH GENEKAL MEETING 

OF 

THE WILTSHIKE ARCH^OLOGICAL AND NATURAL 
HISTORY SOCIETY HELD AT MALMESBURY 

July 26th, 27th, and 28th, 1932.i 

This was the fifth occasion on which the Society had held its annual 
meeting in Malmesbury, the previous meetings having been held in 1862> 
1882, 1900, and 1911. 

TUESDAY, JULY 26th. 

The proceedings began as usual with the annual business meeting held at 
2.15 p.m. in the Town Mall, which had been most kindly placed at the dis- 
posal of the Society by the Mayor and Corporation. Some 40 members were 
present. The President of the Society, Mrs. Cunnington, took the chair, 
and called on the Hon. Secretary, Canon E. H. Goddard, to read the report 
for the past year. 

ANNUAL REPORT FOR 1931-32. 

Members. The number of members on the Society's list on July 7th, 1932, 
was : — 1 honorary member, 18 life members, and 417 annual subscribers, a 
total of 436, against 442 at this time last year, a decrease of 6. There were 
27 deaths and resignations, whilst only 23 new members were elected. 
Among the deaths was that of one of the vice-presidents of the Society, 
Canon E. P. Knubley, a regular attendant at the annual meetings and a 
member of the committee, who had done good work for the Society in past 
years. His death is a real loss, especially on the Natural History side. 

Finance. The General fund, which is the main working fund of the 
Society, began the year 1931 with a balance of ^316 10s., and ended with 
one of £381 8s. Id., an increase of .£64 on the year's working. 

The Museum Maintenance fund, starting with a deficit of £23 12s. ld.» 
ended the year with a credit balance of ^5 38. 3d., but that comparatively 
satisfactory position was only reached by a donation of £50 from the Gen- 
eral fund to pay oS" the remaining debt on the heating apparatus installed 
in the Museum during the previous year. The repair bill of the Museum 
building during the year was also somewhat heavy, amounting to £32 2s. 3d. 
The committee would again call the attention of members, especially of 
those who have recently joined the Society, to the urgent need of all mem- 
bers contributing a small annual subscription, whenever possible, to the 
Museum Maintenance fund. 

The Museum Enlargement fund, which was brought into prominence at 
the annual meeting of 1930, began the year 1931 with a balance of 

^ The fullest account of the meeting was published in the Wiltshire 
Gazette^ July 28th, August 4th, 1932. 



The Seventy-Ninth General Meeting, 87 

i;332 2s. 3d. and ended it with one of £363 5s. 3d., having received dona- 
tions of £18 in addition to the ^613 rent for the caretaker's rooms, which is 
added to it automatically every year. It is hoped that from time to time 
donations will continue to be added to this fund until it has assumed pro- 
portions which would justify a forward movement on the part of the Society. 

The Museum Purchases fund, beginning with ^63 193., ended with 
£62 Os. 3d., only two small purchases having been made during the year. 

The Life Membership fund, of which one-tenth is transferred every year 
to the General fund, starting with i;104 17s. 5d., ended the year with a bal- 
ance of i'96 14s. lid. 

The remaining three funds are earmarked for special purposes and are not 
available for the general work of the Society. 

The Bradford Harn account derived from the fees paid by visitors to the 
barn, had a balance on January 1st of £79 4s. 9d., which increased to 
£93 8s. 5d. on December 31st. The greater part of this will be required to 
pay for the rather serious repairs necessary this year. 

The Register of Bishop Simon of Ghent fund. This Register, which is 
being slowly printed by the Canterbury and York Society, is issued to such 
of the members of our Society as originally subscribed for it. Last year 
Part VI. was issued, and another part is now ready to be issued. The bal- 
ance on the fund decreased from £6 33. 5d. to ^4 IBs. Ud. 

The Wansdyke Excavation fund. The small sum handed over to the 
Society for this purpose increased from £4 5s. Id. to ^4 7s. 

Taking the funds of the Society as a whole, their total balance increased 
from £793 16s. 7d. to ^908 Us, 9d., that is, by ^£114 15s. 2d. 

The Museum. The most important gifts during the year have been the 
pottery and other objects found during the excavation of " The Sanctuary " 
on Overton Hill, given by Capt. and Mrs. Cunnington ; pottery found dur- 
ing the demolition of Chisenbury Trendle, given by the Air Ministry ; and 
the pottery from Chisbury Camp, given by the contractors for the water 
supply. A " Surveyor's Perambulator," given by Mr. T. C. Usher, and the 
Ballot Box of the Devizes Club, 1823, given by the North Wilts Club, are 
also notable additions to our collections. 

It may be mentioned that all the copies of " The Catalogue of Antiquities 
in the Museum," Part II., have been sold out, and that the Committee 
would be glad if members who happen to have copies that they do not want 
would very kindly return them to the Hon. Secretary or the Museum. 

On the Natural History side, we are indebted to Miss Powell for the gift 
of the Rose-coloured Pastor shot at Burcombe in 1853, one of the only four 
examples of this rare bird known to have occurred in Wiltshire. Miss 
Powell indeed offered to the Society the whole of her important collection 
of birds, which, however, want of room made it impossible for the com- 
mittee to accept. 

The Library. A great many gifts of Wiltshire books, pamphlets, papers, 
prints, etc., have been received during the year. Of these, the most valu- 
able probably are the series of 100 excellent photographs of Wiltshire build- 
ings, of which the large majority are of old cottages or farmhouses, given 
by Mr. H. Kivers Pollock. These photographs go far towards filling a gap 



88 The Seventy 'Ninth General Meeting. 

in the pictorial history of the county, and it is much hoped that Mr. Pollock 
may be able to continue his good work in the future, A considerable num- 
ber of old deeds connected with Devizes and the neighbourhood have been 
given by Mr. E. Coward and Mr. J. T. Jackson, and the latter has also given 
certain old maps of interest. The British Record Society has handed over 
to us two large boxes of old deeds, connected with Heddington and other 
places in the county which have been carefully catalogued for the Society 
by Mr. George Kidston. Two boxes of deeds and papers connected with 
South Wilts have also come to us by the kindness of Mr. F. Stevens. From 
South Wilts also come a considerable number of deeds and papers from Miss 
Eyre Matcham and a pile of interesting old bills and papers concerning 
Yeomanry equipment connected with the Wyndham family, of Salisbury, 
1789 to 1821. 

The Magazine. Two numbers, 155 and 156, have been issued to members 
since the last annual meeting, containing 300 pages, including in the num- 
ber for June, 1932, a very full index which completes the 45th volume. 
We have again to thank three writers of papers for very kindly bearing the 
cost of the illustrations accompanying them. 

Excavations. During the year Dr. Stone has continued his diggings on 
the site of the flint mines and beaker settlement on Boscoinbe Down, and 
has also opened two barrows in the same neighbourhood. It is hoped that 
an account of these excavations may be printed in the Magazine, Captain 
and Mrs. Cunnington have been employed this summer in investigating the 
inner ditch at Yarnbury Castle Camp. It had been thought that this might 
be of the Neolithic period, but the result of the excavation goes to prove 
that it is really of the Early Iron Age. Captain and Mrs. Cunnington also 
superintended the demolition by the Air Ministry of the remaining portion 
of the bank of Chisenbury '* Trendle " or Camp, which was rendered necess- 
ary for the safety of aeroplanes alighting there at night. Accounts of both 
diggings will appear in a future Magazine. The carrying of a pipe line in 
connection with water works, along the Fosse Way and across the site of 
the Roman settlement at White Walls, near Easton Grey, resulted in the 
finding of a quantity of Roman pottery, coins, etc. Of this, Mr. Passmore 
will give us some account at the present meeting. 

In connection with excavations, it should be recorded with much satis- 
faction, that the sites of Woodhenge and the Sanctuary on Overton Hill, 
excavated by Captain and Mrs. Cunnington, and purchased and laid out by 
them in such a way as to mark the plan of each of these structures plainly 
on the surface, have now been offered to, and accepted by, the Office of 
Works on behalf of the nation, and the donors' request that no alteration in 
the method of laying out should be made during their lifetime has been 
readily agreed to. Thus by the generosity of Captain Cunnington and our 
President two of the most important archaeological sites in Wiltshire pass 
into the keeping of the nation. 

The Bromham Mazer. It should also be mentioned that Captain and 
Mrs. Cunnington have placed the Bromham Mazer (see W.A.M., xxv., 205), 
which it would have been unsafe to keep in Devizes Museum, on permanent 
loan in the Victoria and Albert Museum, under the express oondition that 



The Seventy -Ninth General Meeting. 89 

should the Wilts Archseological Society require it for temporary exhibition 
or other purposes it shall be returned to the President and Secretary for 
such purpose. 

The Annual Meeting at Devizes in 1931. This was held under the 
direction of Captain Cunnington, as meeting secretary, and was described 
in the last number of the Magazine. It was well attended and quite success- 
ful, leaving a balance of £29 14s. 6d. to be carried to the Society's General 
Fund. 

The Single Day's Meeting. The single day's meeting on the 25th May, 
1932, for which the arrangements were made by Mr. H. M. Gimson and 
Captain Cunnington, took a party of 100 members on to a part of the Downs 
above Heytesbury quite unknown to most of them. Happily, the day was 
fine. The entrenchments of Knook Castle, a round barrow recently opened, 
and a small semi-circular excavation, were described by the Rev. F. G. 
Walker, Rector of Upton Lovell. He regarded the latter earthwork as a 
circus or moot. The long barrow was also visited under the guidance of 
Mrs. Cunnington. In the afternoon the garden of William Cunnington's 
house at Heytesbury was visited, and the famous " Blue Stone'' found by 
him in Bowie's Barrow, and now on the lawn of Heytesbury House, was 
seen. Here Captain Jump most kindly entertained the members at tea, 
which pleasantly ended a very pleasant day. The satisfactory financial re- 
sult was a balance carried to the General fund of £7 15s. 5d. 

Quarter Sessions Records. Captain Cunnington, after much work in 
transcribing the Records of the Marlborough Corporation, has, during the 
year, been engaged in examining and arranging the great mass of Quarter 
Sessions Records preserved in the County Muniment Rooms at Devizes, and 
has printed many of the most interesting items in the Wiltshire Gazette. 

Next Year's President. The committee confidently recommends to the 
general meeting the name of Sir Harold Brakspear, K.C.V.O., F.S.A., as 
the President for next year, in succession to Mrs, Cunnington, whose term 
of office expires with the present meeting. 



The adoption of the Report was moved by the Hon. Secretary, seconded by 
Capt. B. H. Cunnington, and carried unanimously, Mrs, Cunnington then 
proposed the name of Sir Harold Brakspear, K.C.V.O., F.S.A., as the 
President for the ensuing year. This proposition was seconded by Canon 
Goddard and carried by acclamation. Admiral Luce then moved the re- 
election en bloc of the whole of the officers, committee, and local secretaries 
of the Society, with the addition of Mr. H. Rivers Pollock as recommended 
by the committee. This concluded the business meeting, and members 
made their way to the Abbey Church, where Sir Harold Brakspear met 
them and gave an address on the History of the Abbey, and the architecture 
of the Church, before guiding the party round, and dwelling on the special 
points of interest, both inside and outside. It was the first time the Society 
had visited the Abbey Church since the great work of interior restoration 
under Sir Harold Brakspear's supervision, and the extraordinary enhance- 
ment of the beauty of the building which has followed the lowering of the 



90 The Seventy -Ninth General Meeting. 

floor, the removal of the pews and the western organ gallery, and the re- 
arrangement of the east end, could not fail to strike everyone present. 
From the Church members proceeded to the Abbey House, where they were 
most kindly received by Capt. and Mrs. Mackirdy and entertained to tea. 
The whole house was thrown open, the most interesting point being the 
recently opened-up bay of the vaulted undercroft of the Monastic Infirmary 
upon which Stumpe built the beautiful gabled house for himself, v^hich 
still exists. Sir H. Brakspear gave the members a brief talk on its archi- 
tectural history. 

After tea members separated to explore the town, some visiting St John's 
Almshouses and the old Court House, whilst others made their way to Bur- 
ton Hill to see the extensive water and rock garden recently formed by Mr. 
and Mrs. Storey, which was most kindly thrown open to members. 

At 7 o'clock the Annual Dinner took place at the Bell Hotel, which was 
the headquarters of the Society for the meeting. At this forty members 
were present. The picturesque new garden of the hotel, stretching down to 
the river was greatly admired. 

This was followed at 8.15 by the public reception of the Society by the 
Mayor and members both of the old and new corporations at the Town Hall, 
which was most kindly placed at the disposal of the meeting by the author- 
ities. The Mayor (Alderman J. A. Jones) welcomed the Society in a speech 
reviewing the more recent changes in the town, and was followed by Alder- 
man Farrant. After tea and light refreshments, very hospitably provided 
by the xMayor, the President of the Society, Mrs. Cunningtoo, Hon. F.S.A., 
Scot., read as her presidential address, an illuminating paper on the Bronze 
and Early Iron Ages in Wiltshire, dealing more especially with the question 
of the dwelling places of the peoples of those periods.^ Mrs. Cunnington 
knows the secret of using language which can be " understanded of the peo- 
ple," and her address was greatly appreciated and warmly applauded. At 
this meeting 84 members and friends were present. 

WEDNESDAY, JULY 27th. 
At 9.30, a long procession of cars, which at lunch time numbered thirty- 
one private cars and four char-a-bancs, lined up in the Cross Hayes and 
proceeded to Chavenage Manor, Gloucestershire, where the party was most 
kindly received by Mr. and Mrs. G. Lowsley Williams on arrival at 10 o'clock. 
Three quarters of an hour were allowed on the programme and proved none 
too long to see all that there was of interest in this fine Elizabethan house 
and the curious chapel adjoining it covered all over with odd pieces of 
carving, some of M^hich are supposed to have come from Horsley Priory. 
Apart from the house itself, probably the most interesting thing seen here 
was the silver gilt chalice of the 15th century, much resembling the well- 
known Nettlecombe example, which has been secured quite recently for the 
service of the chapel by Mrs. Lowsley Williams, after being for many years 
in private hands. It is a rare and beautiful piece. Beverston Castle, the 
next point on the programme was reached at 1 1 o'clock, and the remaining 

^ This paper was printed in full in Wiltshire Gazette, July 28th, 1932. 



The Seveoity-Ninth General Meeting. 91 

tower, still in fairly complete preservation, was visited by kind permission 
of Mr. S. Westlake. The adjoining Church was also visited, and Canon 
Goddard said a few words on the chief points of interest, calling attention 
to the unusual ambulatory or passage leading from the N. aisle to the 
chance], a peculiarity which this Church shares with three or four in N. 
Wilts, Avebury, Gt. Somerford, Hilmarton, &c. Leaving Beverston at 
12.15, Hunters Hall Inn was reached at 12.45 where lunch was soon ready. 
Leaving again at 1.45 Uley Long Barrow (or Hetty Pegler's Tump) was 
reached at 2.15. By this time most fortunately the showers of the morning 
had ceased, and the three quarters of an hour allowed for the visit were 
spent very profitably in crawling into the three-foot entrance of the tumulus 
and examining, by the help of electric torches, the passage and two cham- 
bers on the south side of it (the two on the north side being walled up). 
Mrs. Cunnington spoke on the subject of long barrows and chambered 
tumuli generally and described more particularly the features of this one, 
one of the finest of them all. She did not, however, mention a feature that 
she herself drew attention to, after seeing the interior, which seems to have 
escaped notice hitherto, namely, a semi-circular notch or bite in the entrance 
slab of one of the southern chambers, which has every appearance of having 
been intentionally worked, and suggests that it is one half of a spy-hole in 
the entrance slabs, the other half of the hole in a second slab having dis- 
appeared. The magnificent view from this tumulus of the plain of the 
Severn, covering an immense distance, and the extraordinarily steep" hang- 
ing," bright with willow herb and ragwort, close at hand, which could be 
enjoyed after the difficulties of the exploration of the interior had been 
successfully encountered, made the visit to Uley Tumulus one of the 
pleasantest memories of the meeting. 

Half-an-hour's drive took the party back to Tetbury where tea, by the 
kind invitation of the president (Mrs. Cunnington), awaited them at the 
White Hart Hotel. At this 103 members and friends were present. At 
this point the rain descended again violently, but the picturesque old many- 
pillared Town Hall afforded shelter, where Mr. A. P. Kitcat, clerk to the 
Tetbury feoffees, gave some account of the governing bodies of the town and 
of some of the documents here exhibited. He also spoke at the Church which 
was next visited. This is one of the most curious buildings that the Society 
has ever visited— not on account of its antiquity, for it was built towards the 
end of the 18th century, but on account of its singular and quite unaltered 
completeness as an example of what was considered fitting in a large town 
Church " in the Gothic style " of that period. Galleries and pews, wooden 
" perpendicular " pillars and vaulting, wide side passages as in a theatre, 
they are all here still as they were built, no doubt the best that their period 
could produce, and to us highly interesting as an existing example of what 
numbers of town Churches must have been like at the end of the 18th 
century. A gem which most of the members noticed on the wall of the 
entrance passage or lobby was a mural tablet thus inscribed, " In the vault 
beneath this stone lie the remains of several of the Saunderses. Particulars 
will be disclosed at the last day. Amen." 

At the evening meeting, which was held in the Town Hall at 8 p.m., Mr. 



92 • The Seventy -Ninth General Meeting. 

A. D. Passmore gave some account of the recent finds of Roman pottery, 
coins, &c., on the line of the Fosse way at Easton Grey at the site of the 
station known as White Walls, Mr. Passmore followed this by showing a 
number of lantern slides of various Wiltshire antiquities, dwelling more 
especially on one showing a bank and ditch running through the interior of 
Chisbury Camp, which he suggests is really a part of Wansdyke. If this 
is so he argued the camp must be later than the Dyke. 

THURSDAY, JULY 28th. 

Leaving Malmesbury at 9.30 Brinkworth was reached at 10 a.m. Here 
Canon Goddard described the Church, reading first of all a letter from the 
venerable Rector, Canon R. G. Livingstone, regretting, with obvious sin- 
cerity, that he felt obliged to listen to the advice of those about him and to 
give up his hope of meeting the Society at such an early hour, owing to his 
advanced age of 95. Canon Goddard pointed out the Church as a good 
example of the careful restoration work accomplished by the late Mr. C. E. 
Pouting, by whom the building and its contents are described in W.A.M.t 
xl., 104. Mr. Lee Osborne followed with further remarks. From Brink- 
worth the calvacade made its way to Lydiard Tregoze Church, which was 
reached at 11.15. This Church, which stands alone in North Wilts for its 
collection of St. John monuments of the 16th and 17th centuries, was 
described as to its general features by Canon Goddard, whilst Viscount 
Bolingbroke gave a very interesting account of the St. John family, their 
tombs and eflSgies, as well as the heraldic glass and curiously painted 
genealogical cabinet.' 

Purton Church was next on the programme and was reached at 12.20. 
Canon Goddard again acted as guide and pointed out the large three-light 
window in the South Chapel filled a year or two ago with fragments of 
ancient glass collected together from elsewhere in the Church, and most 
skilfully arranged, without the addition of any new coloured glass, so as to 
form a window that is a real ornament to this Church. Some of this glass 
carae from the upper lights of other windows, but much of its consisted of 
fragments, of which a large box full had long been preserved at the Rectory, 
which had been taken out when some of the modern glass had been put in.^ 
The next item on the programme was lunch at the Angel Inn, and a very 
excellent one it proved to be. Leaving Purton at 2 p.m. Ashton Keynes 
Church was reached in good time- Here the Society was met by the Vicar, 
the Rev. M. T. Milling, who supplemented Canon Goddard's talk on the 
Church, and was good enough to give a fine bronze dagger found some years 
ago at Ashton Keynes to the Society's Museum. 

At Somerford Keynes, the next stopping place, Capt. and Mrs. Foyle 
Fawcett, of the Manor House, most kindly invited the members to pass 
through their house and garden, as the shortest way to the Church,^ in 



^ This was printed in the Wiltshire Gazette, August 11th, 1932. 

^ This Church is described in W.A.M.^ xxiii., 229. 

2 See W.A.M., xxvii., 27. 



I'he Seventy-Ninth General Meeting. 93 

which the principal interest centres in the built-up Saxon doorway on the 
N. side. Canon Goddard said what there was to be said about this, and 
then members did what they could in the few remaining minutes, for this 
was outside the programme, to see the iuteresting rooms and furniture of 
the house and the really magnificent phloxes which were such a feature of 
the garden. This was the only point indeed during the day when it could 
have been wished that more time was available, but the time table must be 
kept, and members were torn away by Capt. Cunnington's inexorable 
whistle, and 4 o'clock found the party at Crudwell Courch, where after 
touching shortly on the architecture, Canon Goddard utilised the time 
available by reading from tYiQ Magazine the recently printed detailed account 
of the "Sacraments Window" in the N. aisle,' so that members were able 
to make out the representations of the five sacraments which still exist in 
the three lights which are all that remain of the original four-light window. 
Leaving Crudwell the cars made for the inn at Corston, where tea finished 
the programme of the meeting, Mr. E. N. Tuck taking the opportunity of 
thanking Captain Cunnington for his admirable arrangement of all the de- 
tails of the meeting which had made its marked success possible. He also 
thanked Mrs. Cunnington and Canon Goddard for their talks at the various 
places visited. Thus ended the meeting of 1932, and the cars which had 
maintained their positions in the orderly procession with exemplary disci- 
pline throughout (with one exception)— thus making it possible to carry oat 
the programme to the minute— broke away and made for home. The weather 
had been showery or wet during most of the last two days, but it so happened 
that the sun shone during the hours devoted to Uley Long Barrow — when 
wet would have been fatal — and so made the visit delightful, and on the 
last day when there was most rain there were only Churches— but all singu- 
larly interesting Churches — on the programme, so that the proceedings 
were almost entirely under cover and were not interfered with. The finan- 
cial result of the meeting was most satisfactory, a balance of about £35 
being carried to the General Fund of the Society. 



' See W.A.M., xlv., 68. 



94 



NOTES. 
Basalt Weapon-head from Rotherley Down, 

ILuslimore. In June, 1931, there came into my possession what the 
finder, H. Dowland, of Cann Common, Shaftesbury, described aa a " Roman 
spear-head " which he had picked up on Rotherley Down some time previ- 
ously. This weapon-head is unique, so far as I have been able to ascertain, 
and I desire, therefore to place it on record. 




,"\1 



/ 



} 



i3v)tt 




b ixUi-Ji 



a 14 15 cms. 






Black Basalt Implement found on the site of Rotherley Romano- British Village. 



It is a carefully-fashioned leaf-shaped point, weighing |oz. avoirdupois, 
which might have served equally well as. an arrow-head for the long shaft 
of a big bow, or as the tip of a light javelin or throwing spear : length, 7'4 
cms. (approximately Sin. and 7/8ths) ; maximum width, 27 cms. (approx. 
lin. and l/16th) ; maximum thickness, 1*2 cms. (approx. 7/16thsof an inch). 
The rock of which it is made is jet black, like Kimmeridge shale, and 



Notes. 9B 

although it has been chipped, the working, given the material, perforce re- 
sembles rather the chisel-blows of a stone-mason or a sculptor than the 
flaking of a flint-knapper. I took the artefact for examination on January 
12th of this year to Dr, Hubert Thomas of the Geological Survey, who 
pronounced the rock to be a very fine-grained basalt foreign to the West 
country but which could have been obtained from three known areas : (1) 
North of Ireland ; (2) West of Scotland ; (3) the Rhine. It is too fine in 
grain, Dr. Thomas says, to have come from Wales. H. Dowland, a native 
of the downland of the Dorset- Wiltshire border, was precise in localising 
his find : "It was lying on the ground, 200 yards from the top west corner 
of Rotherley Copse on Rotherley Down.*' Reference to Plate I. of Vols. I. 
and II. of Pitt )X\\qx^^ Excavations in Cranborne Chase shows that this is 
within the area, 600ft. above sea level, described by the author as follows : 
'• On the top of this hill [Cuttice Down], just on the skirts of the 
wood [Rotherley Wood], and in the open downland, which extends 
from this spot for about a mile to the westward, is situated the remains 
of a small British settlement, consisting of a prmcipal circle and ditch, 
with other smaller ones surrounding it, and traces of banks dividing 
ancient fields." (p. 1 loc. cit.). 
A detailed plan of this settlement is inset in Vol. II., surveyed after the 
excavations of 1886 — 7, which proved Rotherley Village to be Romano- 
British, like the village on Woodcuts Common just over the Dorset border, 
close by, described in Vol. I. Fifty-seven scrapers, arrow-heads both tanged 
and leaf-shaped, hammer-stones, and 67 flakes, of flint foreign to the area, 
were found in various situations in the settlement, chiefly in surface trench- 
ing, though a flint knife came from the filling of the Main Circle Ditch 
{Plate CXXIII., pp. 186 — 7). The author comments : " The constant occur- 
rence of flint implements on the sites of Romano- British villages has often 
struck me as remarkable." The only other stone artefacts found (apart 
from querns, pounders, whetstones, etc. (Plates CXIX. to CXXI.) were the 
curious tablet of Kimmeridge shale (PI. CXVIII.) and some broken ground- 
and-polished celts illustrated in PI. CXXII., and described on pp. 184 ff. as 
likewise having been found in "surface trenches," either in the Main Circle 
itself or the S.E. quarter of the Settlement. One was of flint, white on the 
surface ; a second is dismissed as being of " ground stone " ; but the third 
— Figure 3 of the Plate— is thus described : *' Part of a ground celt of basalt, 
the edge perfect but worn, as if by rubbing. Found in surface trenching, 
Main Circle." In a note, the author remarks : *' There is no certain evi- 
dence of the use of stone celts during the occupation of the village, but 
they may perhaps have been employed for second-hand purposes other than 
those for which they were constructed " — written, obviously, under the in- 
fluence of the old Montelian doctrine that polished stone celts and flint im- 
plements characterise — if they do not constitute ! — an hypothetical " pol- 
ished stone age " intervening in time between the latest phases of the 
Palaeolithic and the " First Bronze Age." The existing portion of this 
basalt axe-head is the cutting edge. It has the sharp angle in-curved to the 
side of the axe, which betrays the metal model of this entire class of 
'* celts " whose function would appear to have been to hack wood rather 



96 Notes. 

than to hoe the soil, a model whose simple form has given rise to the twin 
theories, both equally baseless, (a) that it was itself copied from a polished 
stone celt, and (b) that it was, therefore, a type evolved in Europe earlier 
than Europe evolved the socketed bronze celts. 

The finding of the presently illustrated and recorded basalt weapon-head 
within the area of the Rotherley Komano-British settlement during the exca- 
vation of which this other broken basalt celt was found in association with 
other polished stone celts and flint implements, lends support to a rather 
different interpretation of the increasingly common discoveries of polished 
stone and fiint artefacts of supposedly early types in an Iron Age context. 

That interpretation is based, rather, on the stubborn facts as careful ex- 
cavators find them, than on the theoretical evolution of types in Western 
Europe worked out whilst archaeology was as yet ignorant of the priority of 
the great metal-using civilisations of Asia. It is, simply, that the grinding 
and polishing of stone was part and parcel of the complex metal-using 
civilisation evolved in Asia, modified in North Africa, and propagated west- 
wards both overland and along the Mediterranean shores ; was part, that 
is to say, of a civilisation which comprised the arts of cattle-rearing, hus- 
bandry, writing, and navigation, the crafts of wood-working, ship-building, 
ceramics, felting, weaving, dyeing, and masonry, as well as those of cutting, 
grinding, and polishing stone, and of metallurgy, together with the social 
advances represented by organised industry, trading, religion, and govern- 
ment. From which it follows that, just so long as the products of the smith's 
craft were luxuries whilst the clearing of woodland, the tillage of the soil, the 
chase, and defence of the settlement against raiding were still necessities 
imposed even on the poorest, so long, too, must ground-stone axes and hoes, 
flint scrapers, arrowheads, javelin-heads, and knives of various sizes and 
forms to suit varying needs, continue to have been used along with, not 
only the locally made implements of pure and impure copper, deliberately 
alloyed bronze, both home-produced and imported, and objets cC art of 
meteoric iron, but with home-made and imported tools and weapons of 
wrought iron. And this not alone in the British Isles, but in all parts of 
the world to which civilisation had penetrated in the course of the preced- 
45 centuries— "jo^ws mmws" ! V. C. C. CoLLUM. 

The Great Bedwyn Mint. Mr. George F. Hill, of the Depart- 
ment of Coins and Medals in the British Museum, writing 14th August, 
1922, to Mr, C. r. Hurst says : — 

" This museum contains silver pennies of Edward the Confessor issued 
at Great Bedwyn, which you will find described in the official Catalogue of 
English Coins, Anglo-Saxon Series, Vol. II., p. 342. They read + 
EADPARHD RE on the obverse and BEDEPINNE on the reverse. 

We also have a halfpenny of the same reign and moneyer (CILD ON 
BEDEP). The mint is just continued into Norman times : see Catalogue, 
Norman Kings, p. 2 (F'irst type of William I., same moneyer). No coins 
of any other kings or moneyers are known. There is an account of the 
mint in The Numismatic Chronicle, 1902, pp. 20 — 5. The coins are not 
common." 



Notes. 97 

Index of Architectural Records. A Committee repre- 
senting the Royal Archaeological Institute, the Royal Institute of British 
Architects, the London Society and the Society for the Protection of 
Ancient Buildings, has been formed to explore the possibility of compiling 
a central card index of prints, drawings, and other architectural records. 
It is felt that this should be of great assistance to those engaged upon the 
repair of old buildings, to writers of architectural, archaeological, or 
topographical works and to students generally. 

If it should meet with success it is not unlikely that it would be developed 
to include some means of storing such records in a central and safe place, 
should they be loaned, offered, or bequeathed. 

It is proposed to limit the scope of the Committee's work to buildings at 
least a century old and to those of England only, but it is hoped that 
parallel action will be undertaken in Scotland and Wales. 

It is realised that an immense amount of such records are in private 

hands, and it would be useful to the Committee if owners would give 

particulars of their collections now, for with this knowledge the Committee 

will be better able to form an idea of the extent and scope of the enterprise. 

A. R. PowYs (S.P.A.B.), 20, Buckingham Street, W.C. 2. 

Ruth Pierce. Coroner's Inquisition. Capt. B. H. 

Cunnington has recently found in the County Muniment Room at Devizes 
a roll of coroners' inquisitions, containing the original inquisition on Ruth 
Pierce. This is printed in the Wiltshire Gazette, May 5th, 1932. 

" Taken at the Burrough of Devizes on ffryday the 26th day of January 
upon the view of the Body of Ruth Pierce late of Pottern. Verdict, From 
the Visitation of the Great and Almighty God, in a Great Quarrel was 
struck dead with a lye in her mouth, ffees £\ — — 0." 

Bathynella found at Corsham. The Times of July isth, 

1932, contained an article on the interesting discovery made by Mr. A. G. 
Loundes, of Marlborough College, in the underground workings of the 
quarries at Corsham. This minute crustacean was first discovered in a well 
at Prague, cir. 1882, and was recognised as belonging to a primitive type 
only known previously as fossils of the carboniferous period. For 30 years 
Bathynella was not seen again. But just before the war it was re-discovered 
near Basle, and has since been found elsewhere in Central Europe, Serbia, 
and Roumania, and also in the Malay Peninsula. It had never been found 
in England until its discovery at Corsham by Mr. Loundes. The Times 
gave a much magnificent illustration of this little " shrimp." 

Note to Antiqua Monumeuta of Bedwyn. By G. M. 

IToung', in W.A.M.t xlv., 525. Since writing the above I have noticed 
a remarkable parallel to this phrasing in a Worcestershire charter. The 
boundaries of Grimley run to the Old Hedgestow and along it to the High 
Road and along the Highroad to the Crucifix. Stow in many cases has a 
VOL. XLVI. — NO. CLVII. H 



98 Notes. 

definitely religious sense. If it here means Old Sacred Place enclosed by 
a Bedge then in the juxtaposition of a Stow, a Highroad, and a Crucifix, we 
have an exact analogy to the Hearh and the Gabuli both close to a main 
road. 

Skeletons found at Old Sarum, August, 1931. During 

the construction of the new Bye-Pass Road at Old Sarum, a small cattle way 
was made, south-east of the farm buildings fronting Old Sarum. In the course 
of construction, a row of skeletons was found on the south-east side of the 
road, near the concrete wall which encloses the " Castle Inn." The bodies 
lay head to the north-west and feet to the south-east ; they were all extended 
and with the arms straight by their sides. One skeleton only lay with 
head to the west and feet to the east. In all there were nine skeletons lying 
on the south-east of the Road. A much greater number lay on the north- 
west of the Road in an extended position. Mr. J. P. Preston, of Lymington, 
very kindly examined the site, and made a rough sketch of the cattle-way, 
and the positions of the bodies, which were found at a uniform depth of 
ten inches below the surface of the ground. The Landlord of the Inn stated 
that the ground inside the concrete wall had been dug and skeletons found 
and reburied. 

It would appear therefore that the site upon which the farm buildings 
stand, was formerly portion of a cemetery outside the East Gate of the 
Castle. This suggestion is confirmed by Sir Arthur Keith, who reports 
that there is no trace of hanging or of ante-mortem violence on the skulls 
submitted to him. He adds also that there are in several of the skulls 
" peculiar points of likeness such as 1 should expect where nearly related 
people were buried together" and adds significantly " I think you must 
hunt for history of a cemetery or chapel outside the gate." 

Associated objects are few and shed very little light upon the date of the 
interments. Mr. Preston found from one to six inches in depth coarse red 
pottery,, presumably of late date and clay pipe stems. From six to ten 
inches he encountered mottled green glazed ware of the 14th century. One 
piece of this was found immediately under the skull of one skeleton. Sir 
Arthur Keith, after examining the skulls, writes " I expect you are right as 
to date, 14th century." F. Stevens. 

Skulls found at Old Saeum, outside the Gate, 1931. 
Report by Sir Arthur Keith, F.R.S. 

There is not a trace of hanging or of antemortem violence on these skulls. 

Of the six indentifiable, four are men, two women. Both the women are 
young, about 20. The men vary from 30 to 50. In several of them there 
are peculiar points of likeness such as I should expect where nearly related 
people are buried near together. 

1. Male, 30 years or over ; a fine representative of the commonest south 
English type, but whether we should speak of the type as Celt or Saxon I 
cannot decide, for we find it in Celtic as well as in Saxon cemeteries. 
Cephalic index 79 (English mean 78). 



Notes. 99 

2. Male, 30 to 40 years of age. A round skull of the type found south 
of the Seine ; we may speak of this as the Gaulish type. Abundant at 
Hythe and in other South English cemeteries. Many in 8th century 
cemetery at Guildown, near Guildford. 

3. Male, 50 years or more. Shows characters of both 1 and 2 ... a 
hybrid type. In profile it will remind you of the Beaker type of skull. 

4. A young women (20 years). Same type as No. 1. She had rickets 
when about three years of age, as her teeth now show. 

6. Face only, woman about 20, with remarkably short face. 
6. Face only, man. Apparently same type as No. 1. Short-faced as in 
1^0. 5. 

I expect you are right as to date : XlVth century. 

The Catalogue of the Sturge Collection of Flint 
Implements in the British Museum, by Reginald A. 

Smith, 1931, contains the following Wiltshire examples. 

P. 108. Wiltshire, fifty pieces of flint from Windmill Hill. 

No. 440. Celt of Cissbury type, unpolished, white patina all over, with 
slight iron staining, curved towards the butt, which is sharp but notched, 
carefully flaked throughout with even side edges, the patina worn in places, 
L. 4. Sins., Pewsey. 

(Specimen illustrated but the size given in the illustration is five inches). 

List of sites. Wilts. Pp. 131— 32. 

Avebury, Clatford, and Hackpen — about 50 specimens. 

Donhead St. Mary— 1 celt. 

Great Bedwyn— 2 celts. 

Hackpen — about 20 neoliths. 

Highfield — 1 scraper (? Highfield, near Marlborough). 

Knowle Farm — Rolled Chelles (Paleos) 20, unrolled 25. Early St. Acheul 
hand axes, about 50. Flakes, 7. Rechipped implements, 2. Inferior Le 
Moust, 16. 

Old Sarum— 1 large lump. 

Salisbury — Paleos, 6. Neo. scrapers, 2. 

Silbury Down — From bowl barrow — Arrowheads, 2. 

Upton Lovel— Scraper, 1. Neos. 2. 

Windmill Hill— about 50. A. D. Passmore. 



Mar den Circle. In Antiquity for December, 1930, an air photo is 
given of an Irish circular earthwork at Navan. It is about the same size 
as Marden Circle, which it resembles also in having the ditch inside the 
bank (as far as one can judge from the photo) and in its interior a huge 
tumulus, and a small flat round one set roughly in the same positions as in 
the Wilts example, where the large tumulus is now destroyed, but the small 
one is still perfect. These similarities can hardly be due to accident. 

A. D. Passmore. 
H 2 



100 Notes. 

Roman Coins from Wootton Bassett. s.w. of this^ 

town is Hunt's Mill Bridge, and immediately south of this is a high bank 
on the east of the Bushton Road. Here about 1882 (?) were found 98 small 
coins, copper, but for one exception, which is silver. The following is a 
list of those identified :— 

1 Claudius 41—54 A.D. 

1 Domitian 81—96. 

1 Postumus 258—267. 

1 Claudius Gothicus 268—270. 
25 Constantine family 306—340. 

1 Constans 350. 

2 Magnentius SoO— 353. 

1 Decentius, 3 Valentinianus 364— 375. 
8 Valens 364—378. 

1 Gratian .375—383. 

2 Charles I, copper farthings. 
1 Victoria farthing. 

5 doubtful. 

47 Barbarous imitations of Constantinian coins and later fourth century 
ones with some undecipherable but of the same period. 

Many are much corroded and damaged ; they prove that the site was 
occupied during the fourth century, the earlier ones being brought there 
when already obsolete, and possibly the imitation coins carried on well into 
the fifth century. 

Beyond the coins other relics (if any) were not preserved, neither are 
there any details of the actual discovery except that they were found while 
digging the site for a new cottage, A. D. Bassmore. 

A Saxon Mint at Chippenham ? Aethelred II. minted 

many coins at Wiltshire mints such as Cricklade, Malmesbury, Salisbury, 
and Wilton, and it is rather surprising that such an important town as 
Chippenham in Saxon times should not have struck coins also. 

Amongst the unidentified mint marks on coins of this reign is one which 
reads CEPEN. These coins are of extreme rarity. The late Saxon name 
of Chippenham as recorded in Domesday Book is CEPEN. It is, therefore, 
almost certain that the Wilts town did have a mint at the time in question. 

It may be objected that other places such as Chipping Camden, Chipping 
Norton, &c., might also claim the honour, but as far as my enquiries go 
these towns are not recorded by any form of the word in Domesday. 

A. D. Passmore. 

Square Earthwork at Russley Park. S. of Baydon. 

CM. XVI., S.E. 6in. Wilts, shows Russley Park in the S.E, corner of the 
map. In the S.W. corner of this, close to a large pond is a curious double 
square earthwork, somewhat irregular in shape, consisting of a low square 
bank and ditch measuring on N. side 210 feet, on S. side 201 feet, on W. 
side 192 feet, on E. side 187 feet. There are apparently entrances at the 
N.W. and S.E. angles. Centrally inside this is a small square earthwork 



Notes. 101 

of the same character as the outside one but on a somewhat higher level, 
71 feet square. The S.W. angle rests on the bank of an old cultivation 
terrace ; the site commands a great view to the east over Ashdown, while to 
the west it is somewhat shut in by the ridge that carries the Roman Road 
close at hand. The ditch is in all cases outside the bank and the measure- 
ments are taken from the bottom or middle of the ditch. 

A. D. Passmore. 

BiOman Remains at Burderop Racecourse. In the 

lowerright corner of sheet XXII. N.E. of the six inch Ordnance Map for Wilts 
is B.M. 595. 9. Immediately S. of this and just over the Kidgeway is a 
ploughed field in which are to be seen many signs of occupation in Roman 
times. About 250 yards S.E. of the same spot in a ploughed field are the 
remains of many square huts, in a line N. to S., and on the 600 ft. contour. 
On digging into two of them we found that they probably had been con- 
structed of poles and wattle and daub work with rough stone floors of 
Sarsen pebbles and lumps. On this floor was a lot of rough square pottery 
tiles and grey Roman pottery, with marks of fire and several patches of iron 
slag. The whole was filled in as found. This site was examined by the 
kind permission of General Galley and Mr. C. Whatley in April 1930. 

A. D. Passmore. 

Roman Hypocaust at Chiseldon. In July, i930, by the 

kindness of Messrs. A. Ashford and E. G. Skurray, I was able to examine a 
curious underground hypocaust found in making a garden immediately be- 
hind the Plough Inn at Chiseldon and alongside the Roman Road. 

A trench six feet deep had been dug and the sides roughly walled ; this 
liad been arched over and could be traced for about twelve feet, the ends 
being ruinous. The whole showed signs of long and continuous burning. 
It was partly constructed of material from an earlier building, as in the 
side walls were pieces of Bath stone columns 10^ inches in diameter with 
two small round beads at the base. 

In the bottom was the unburnt head and neck of an ox with some Roman 
pottery. On the surface was pottery, one piece of red Gaulish ware, and 
five small copper coins of the third century. The whole has been covered 
in as found. A. D. Passmore. 

St. Catherine's Chapel, Wanborough. Ordnance map, 

sheet XVI. N.W. 6in. Wilts. Parish of Wanborough, shows a moated 
site at " Wanborough Marsh " (old name Court Close or Cold Court). The 
moat is still broad and deep and encloses a square rectangular space of 
about 135 X 100 yards. At the S.E. end of the enclosed space stands a 
farm house, and immediately S. of it a cottage. Close to the S. end of this 
was found years ago a large collection of 14th cent, encaustic tiles, and a 
lead coffin containing human remains. There is a tradition that the moat 
was spanned at this spot by a copper bridge. The tiles are of the usual 
square type ornamented with flowers and foliage ; some are triangular and 
bear a design of a bird, a beast, and in one case, a castle gateway. 



102 Notes. 

In the 13th cent, a chapel of St. Catherine stood in Wan borough, a build- 
ing so important that it had five resident priests. The site of this is lost^ 
(see Jackson's ^w6rg?/). 

In a MS. in the British Museum written by Captain Symonds in 1644 he 
distinctly states that the chapel of St, Margaret's (mistake for Catherine) 
stood at the moat near Foxenbridge, which name is borne by a farm 200 
yards north, but the whole district is known as Foxbridge. 

On the above evidence we must conclude that the chapel in question 
stood on the S.E. side of the moated site from the 13th cent, or earlier, till 
1483 when it was abandoned. A. D. Passmore. 

An Iron Sword from Baydon. About 1890 a labourer 
ploughing near this village turned up a sword which he took home and gave 
to his children to play with, Some time after, a man seeing the children 
using the sword as a horse and riding it furiously down the road breaking 
off pieces as they went, bought it and had it preserved. It is now 32in. in 
length and has probably lost about 13in. from off the end of the blade which 
judging from what is left must have been about a yard in length. The 
enormous quillons (hand guards) are round in section and 11 in. across, the 
grip is 4^in. ending in a pear-shaped pommel with a central rib, 32in. 
long. The quillons seem to be of a shape common about 1380, but the 
pommel is later, and the sword may be dated about 1400. Weapons of this 
age are rare. A. D. Passmore. 

A Pottery Button from TJpham. The pottery object illust- 
rated was found at Upham, in Aldbourne, some years ago lying on 
a ploughed field. It is bun-shaped with a flat base with four holes in the 
top which meet in one below, but for this peculiarity it would be exactly 
the same as a modern domed button. It is apparently of Bronze Age 
pottery but may be somewhat later, the interior is dark with a red outside. 
I have not been able to find any record of any example exactly like it, 
though it seems akin to the Early Bronze Age conical shale buttons. The 
nearest appears to be Fig. 587 on Plate LXXX. of Mortimer's Forty Yeari 
Researches. This is a pottery button of the same size and shape, except that 
its base is concave instead of flat, and it has two small holes piercing the 
disc at the centre. It was found in Barrow No. 40 at Garton Slack, E. 
Yorks. The texture of the pottery in this case is said to be exactly the 
same as that of a small urn found with it. A. D. Passmore. 

Lyneham Register. Depositions C, 22. G. 6O6. 24. Comp- 

ton V. Button Sf ors. Extract from Depositions before a Commission taken 
at Sutton Bengert co. Wilts, 24 April 34 Chas. II. relating to the Parish 
Register Booh of Lineham in the same County. The following Interrogatory 
was put to some of the Witnesses .* — 

Doe you know, believe or have heard, that ye Auncient Register Book of 
Lineham in the County of Wilts, is in the hands of the Deft Salway or is 
the same Lost, And doe you believe that ye pag writing now produced to 
you is part of the Auncient Register Book of Lineham aforesaid, whose 
Handwriting is the same written with. Is pot the same the handwriting of 



mm^mm^^^^mm 



4t 



Fig. 5.™ Iron Sword, cir. 1400. Fouod at Bay don,. 



Notes. 103 

M' Hayes, the late Vicar of Lineham afsd, as you know or believe. Doe 
you know or believe that ye parcbm' writing now produced is a true Coppy 
taken out of the Register book of Lineham aforesaid & is not the same 
written with the handwriting of one Mr. Uhapperlin dec'd as you know or 
Believe. Was the said Chapperlin Register of Lineham aforesaid dureing 
the time of the late troubles, or how long. Declare ye truth of what you 
know believe or have heard, with your reasons & Inducemen" fully & at 
large. 

In answer to the foregoing the undermentioned Witnesses deposed : — 
Andrew Heath of Lineham in the County of Wilts, aged J^l or thereahoutSy 
saith that he believeth that ye Auncient Register book of Lineham is lost, 
But there is a new Register book, & it is now in the hands of M"" Salway, 
one of the Defts. And, further saith that the pchm Writing now shewed 
to this Deft is very much like the handwriting of M"" Chaplin, dec'd in the 
interr named, which he better knoweth haveing sevall writings in his keep- 
ing of the said Mr. Chapperlin. And knoweth that the said Chapperlin 
was Register of Lineham sometimes in the late troubles. 

Robert Burden of Lineham^ yeoman, aged 53, saith that he believeth That 
the new Register book of the psh of Lineham is in the hands of Mr. Sal way, 
one of the Defendants, and believeth that the old Register book of the said 
psh is lost, onely that the pag writing now shewn forth unto him at the 
time of this examinacon is a sheet of the old Register book, and that he 
found the same amongst some papers at Mr. Long's house. And, this 
Depon* further saith that Mr. Chapperlin in the Interr named was Register 
of the psh of Lineham in the time of the late troubles, and further this 
Depon* saith not. 

Transcribed from Chancery Depositions by C. R, Everett. 

Koman Bronze Statuette from Ashtou Keynes. 

The little figure here illustrated was found at Ashton Keynes, together with 
the little bronze cock, some years ago. It measures 2|in. in height and is 
well preserved except that the bronze is much corroded. From the eared 
cap worn, it may perhaps be Mercury. The little cock also illustrated 
measures Igin. from beak to tail. Both are in the possession of the Rev. 
M. T. Milling, Vicar of the parish, who has very kindly allowed me to 
illustrate and describe them. E. H. Goddard. 

Bronze Dagger from Ashton Keynes. This bronze 

dagger was exhibited by the Rev. M . T. Milling during the Society's recent 
(1932) visit to the Church, and was most kindly presented by him then and 
there to the Society's Museum. " It was found," he writes, " by my clerk 
■when digging a drock at North End, Ashton Keynes, twenty-three years 
ago. I looked to see at the time if there was anything else of interest in 
the spot dug but found nothing." The Society is indebted to Mr. A. D. 
Passmore for photographing both the dagger and the Roman objects 
mentioned in the preceding note. The dagger measures 6ins. in length 
and ifins. in width at the butt. It is in a remarkable state of preservation, 
the metal being quite uncorroded and showing yellow on one side and 



104 Notes, 

dark green on the other. The only injury is that a bit |in. wide in the 
centre of the butt which probably contained a third rivet hole is broken 
off, otherwise the weapon is perfect and the edges actually sharp enough 
still to cut a pencil with (I have just tried the experiment !). There is a 
prominent midrib on both sides and the edges are bevelled. A rare 
peculiarity is that the two rivet holes at the butt are not placed sym- 
metrically. This perhaps rather suggests that it was a halberd blade, but 
it is too small for this. There is no specimen quite like it in the Society's 
collection. E. H. Goddard. 



A Wiltshire Surveyor's Measuring^ Wheel. In the 

Salisbury and South Wilts Museum is an example of a " road surveyor's 
perambulator " similar in general principles to the one described in W,A.M. 
xlv., 505, at Devizes, with the added interest that the Salisbury specimen 
was made in Wiltshire. The iron-bound wheel is inserted between two oak 
shafts which unite to form the box containing the cog and clockwork ar- 
rangement as in the specimen at Devizes. The turned spokes are probably 
ash, but the remainder of the wood is oak. The diameter of the wheel is 
2ft. 7|in., giving a circumference of 8ft. During one revolution of the wheel 
the indicator on the largest dial passes over 13 units, so that each unit 
represents one link. The complete circuit of this dial is 100 links or one 
chain. A smaller dial registers the passage over 10 chains or one furlong, 
while two others show 8 furlongs and 10 miles respectively. The inscrip- 
tion on the brass plate is " William Lander, Maker, Mere, Wilts." The 
date is about 1800. Frank Stevens- 



Parish Register restored to Bremhlll. The Wiltshire 

Times, September 1 7th, 1932, has an interesting account of the Restoration 
of the liegister of Baptisms, Marriages and Burials from 1653 to 1675 to 
the parish of Bremhill. Whilst going through the collection of papers and 
documents at Bowood, Lord Lansdowne found a box containing a collection 
of documents connected with the Woodlands property, and amongst them 
was this parish register. " Woodlands " which now forms part of the 
Bowood estate, belonged to the Rev. John Wilson, Vicar of Bremhill 
who dying in 1724, left it in his will to the Master and Fellows of Clare 
College, Cambridge, "for the maintenance in perpetuity of two poor 
scholars at the College." 

No doubt the register was handed over with the deeds of the property 
to the College, by his executors, in error, and when later on the land was 
purchased by the Earl of Shelburne (1st Marquess of Lansdowne), from 
the College, the register again accompanied the deeds of the property, 
and has remained hidden at Bowood ever since. Lord Lansdowne has now 
had it carefully repaired and bound and with a note as to its discovery 
has restored it to the register chest at Bremhill. Previously only a very' 
imperfect and incomplete copy of the entries included in these years had 
been available. 



Notes, 105 

Bromham Pebbles. It seems worth while to put the following 
facts on record. On the rich market gardening soil of the lower greensand 
in some of the fields at Bromham, and more especially at the back of " The 
Bear, " at Sandy Lane, there are to be found a certain number of water- 
worn pebbles of quartz, quartzite, and other hard stones, obviously derived 
originally from earlier rocks elsewhere. Some of these pebbles are of 
opaque whitish quartz, and others of various colours. Within the last year 
or so it occurred to someone in the Devizes neighbourhood to send some of 
these pebbles to be cut and polished by a Cornish firm who undertake this 
sort of work. The result was surprising. Many of the pebbles of course 
proved useless, but others came back in the shape of beautifully clear rock- 
crystal pendants cut in facets, or drops of translucent orange, red jasper, or 
agate. And the charge for cutting these charming things was most reason- 
able, 7s. 6d. for a pear-shaped facetted pendant of clear crystal two inches 
long, and smaller objects at 4s. 6d., or for small pebbles cut as beads for 
necklaces not more than Is. 6d. A most alluring prospect of a cheap source 
of birthday presents of an unusual and interesting character seemed to be 
open to the inhabitants of the district, which it was quite possible might 
even bring a substantial profit to the market gardeners of Bromham. 

Certainly, too, there should be a series of these opaque quartz pebbles in 
the rough, and of the astonishingly clear rock crystal pendants which could 
be cut out of them, on exhibition in the geological section of the Society's 
museum at Devizes. But as clear rock crystal pebbles are to say the least 
of it very unusual in this part of England, it seemed desirable to consult 
the authorities of the Geological Survey as to where they could have come 
from. This was done, a series both of the cut and uncut stones being sent 
up by Capt. B. H. Cunnington to Dr. H. H. Thomas, at Jermyn Street. 
The reply was as follows : — 

" Dear Mr. Cunnington, 

Your parcel of pebbles from the lower greensand with the cut 
stones has duly arrived. Things turn out as I had expected, and the 
firm concerned is the one which is being constantly brought to our 
notice. I may say with perfect confidence that none of the eight uncut 
pebbles which you say were like those sent for cutting could yield even 
a semi-transparent stone when cut. These cut stones are German cut 
and are probably Brazilian quartz. Clear-cut stones of quartz (variously 
coloured) can be imported from Germany (even with a duty) for a few 
pence each. It is undoubtedly the practice of these people when you 
send them pebbles to be cut, for them to say that a limited number will 
turn out well. These they throw away and substitute the German cut 
stones, charging you a substantial sum for the supposed cutting and 
making a big profit on what amounts to a carefully considered fraud." 

Thus an appreciable quantity of lower greensand pebbles have been 
added to the coast of Cornwall, to the possible puzzlement of future 
geologists, and the glamour of the Bromham gem-stones has faded away. 

Ed. H. Goddard. 



106 Notes. 

Great Stone Cannon Balls in Wilts. Writing on July 

7th, 1930, Lord Fitzmaurice says : — " I have read the paragraph on the great 
stone cannon balls at Clyffe Pypard in the current number of the Wilts 
Archagological Magazine. It may interest you to know that two such can- 
non balls used to be in the forecourt of Lansdowne House. I believe my 
nephew has removed them now to Bowood. I remember that long ago my 
grandfather told me one day in the garden at Lansdowne House that these 
balls had been brought back on one of Duckworth's ships in 1806, after our 
fleet had had such a narrow escape from destruction when they got as best 
they could out of the rat-trap into which they had got themselves in the 
Sea of Marmora. My grandfather was a member of the short-lived Whig 
government of 1806—7, but I do not think this had any connection with 
the acquisition of the cannon balls. He was then Lord Henry Petty ; but 
his elder brother, John 2nd Marquess of Lansdowne, was then in possession 
and he had a maritime villa on Southampton Water when the shattered 
fleet came in. I expect he got hold of the cannon balls then. The fullest 
account I know of the escape through the Dardanelles is to be found in 
Marmont's Memoirs, who says one of these balls carried away the main- 
mast of Duckworth's flagship." 

[Lord Lansdowne tells me that the two cannon balls from Lansdowne 
House are now mounted on wooden blocks under the large portico at 
Bowood.— Ed.] 

Neolithic Pottery of Wiltshire. In the exhaustive paper 
on "The Neolithic Pottery of the British Isles," by Stuart Piggott in Arck. 
Jour., Ixxxviii. (1931), pp. 67 — 158, Wiltshire is credited with the following 
localities where Neolithic pottery of the Windmill Hill type has been 
found, Knap Hill Camp, Kingston Deverill round barrow, Robin Hood's 
Ball (a causewayed camp), Windmill Hill, Avebury (a causewayed camp), 
and the Long Barrows at Tanhill, Norton Bavant, Tinhead, and Wexcombe. 
Of these, specimens from Windmill Hill, and Norton Bavant are figured. 

The " l^eterborough ware," the second class of Neolithic pottery, is also 
Hoted from five Wiltshire localities, West Kennett Long Barrow, which in 
some cases gives its name still to this type of pottery ; the ditch of Avebury 
circle; Easton Down, Winterslow ; the Sanctuary, Overton Hill; and 
Windmill Hill, Avebury. Both these classes of Neolithic pottery are des- 
cribed at length, and illustrated, as is also the unique double gourd-shaped 
vessel from Long Crendon, Bucks, in the Stourhead Collection at Devizes. 

The Gorges Monument in Salisbury Cathedral. 

The Gifts of the Spirit. Canon Fletcher in his description of 
the Gorges Monument, at page 31 of the present number of the Magazinet 
describes the eight panels on the ceiling of the canopy over the effigies, of 
which one bears the inscription Septem dona Spiritvs Sancti, and the other 
seven illustrations of these gifts. Canon Fletcher interpreted No. 5 (N.E.) 
as Jacob and his sons {Gen., xlv., 26, 27), and No. 7 (N.W.) he is unable to 
explain. Since his paper was printed Canon Fletcher writes — " The Pro- 
vost of Eton has been staying here and has been much interested in the 



Notes. 107 

account of the Gorges tomb. He sent me a note in which he says—' I took 
a look just now at the Gifts of the Spirit on the Gorges monument and I 
think No. 5 (N.E.) is undoubtedly Joseph telling his dreams to Jacob. 
There are two sheaves on a wall or curtain ; and No. 7 (N. W.) I think is 
Joseph again interpreting Pharoah's dream. This would give a meaning to 
the crowned figure. I should have expected to find Daniel somewhere but 
I cannot place him.' " 

Catalogue of Air Photographs exhibited by the 
Ordnance Survey at the International Congress of 
Prehistoric Archaeology. London, 1932, svo., pp. 13. This 

catalogue contains photographs priced at ^2 2s. each, and letterpress 
notes of the following Wiltshire monuments, Wansdyke (a strip mosaic), 
Stonehenge, Woodhenge, Silbury Hill; the camps of Woodbury and 
Figsbury rings ; the " Neolithic" camps of Kobin Hoods Ball, Scratchbury 
and Yarnbury [This latter has since the publication of the catalogue been 
proved not to be Neolithic]; strip lynchets at Brunton in CoUingbourne 
Kingston and Wick Down in CoUingbourne Ducis ; and examples of Celtic 
fields at Charlton and Milston Downs in S. Wilts and Coombe Down near 
Enford. 

From Bocuments preserved in the Vestry of Box 
Parish Church. 

Mason's Work done to the Guard house. Materials & Labour by James 
Kawlings. 

To Pulling down the Old Wall and digging the foundations &c. 
Hi Perch Rough Walling to foundations & part in front 
403 Feet Freestone Ashler to front and sides 
40 do. Run of Cornice and blocking course 
144 do. Supr. Octagon Dome with Cramps let into do. 
7 do. llun Circular Ramps &c. 
Turn'd Chimney Shaft, and ball on top of dome 
76 Feet Paving to Floor and part in front 



Meas'd 19th March 1805. Thos. Crane 
Carpenter's Work as by Bill of the same 
Smith's do. do. 

i'57 4j 
James Rawlings to make good the broken parts, and the joints in the 
said Work. 

From Box Parish Register. 
BOX, Diocese of SARUM. July 30, 1783. 
There are in the Tower belonging to the said Parish Church 4 Bells. 
« Furniture etc. belonging to the sd. Church viz., 
A Communion Table. 



;eo 


6 


6 


^3 


9 





£20 


3 





£1 








^9 


12 





£0 


14 





il 








£1 


18 





£44 


2 


6 


£1 


6 





^4 


10 





Sil 


I 


lOj 



108 Notes. 

A Cloth for ye sd. Table made of superBne Uloth and Silk Fringe. 

A Linen Cloth and Napkin used only when the Sacrament is Ad- 
ministed. 

One Flaggon, one chalice, two salvers, ail of Silver with this Inscrip- 
tion, viz. This Plate was given to the Parish of Box by Rd. Musgrave 
of Haselbury Esq. and Dame Rachel Speke his wife who was 
daughter of Sr. Wm. Windham of Orchard Windham in ye County 
of Sumersett Kt. & Barrt. An. Dom. 1707. 

A Pulpit Cloth & Cushion, and moveable Clothes for ye Minister's and 
Clerk's reading Desks, all of superfine Cloth and adorned with Silk 
Fringe, and Two Surplices. 

The Church, Vestry Room, and Church Yard Fence are repaired by the 
Parish. 

The Chancel and East end of the North Isle are repaired by the Im- 
propriator. 
The Clerk is appointed by ye Vicar, and his customary wages paid by 

€very Housekeeper in the Parish at Easter besides Fees for Marriages, 

Funerals &c. 

Humphry Beak S. Webb, Vicar. 

Robert Raynolds 

Stepn. Bridges \ .^, , , 

Wm. Cottle jChurchwardens 

Wm. Gibbons. A. Sha.w Mellor. 

DoWUtOU Mace. In December, 1921, Lord Radnor presented to 
the Parish Council of Downton an ancient mace which had been preserved 
at Longford Castle for 50 years. An inhabitant of Dnwnton then living 
remembered this mace being carried before the last Ma^ or of Downton, 
named Hobbs when he attended the Court Leet at the Manor. By some 
means the mace had found its way to a pawnbroker's shop at Southampton, 
and there the grandfather of the donor (Lord Radnor) had bought it. Mr. 
F. Stevens who was present at the presentation, said that there certainly 
was a Mayor of Downton, though there seemed to be no charter, and it was 
suggested that he was appointed by the Lord of the Manor at the Court 
Leet. The mace is placed in a glass case and is thus described, " Downton 
Mace, made in London by Gabriel Sleath, in 1714. Around the head of 
the mace are shields bearing the arms of Duncombe and Eyre, both of 
which families represented the Borough of Downton in Parliament from 
1707 till 17 14. Between the arms are shields bearing a hunting horn and 
an arrow and small roundels bearing the National Emblems, rose, shamrock, 
thistle and G.R." The mace weighs 86ozs. The arms of George I. are 
inside the crown at the head. ( WilUhire Gazette, December 15th, 1921). 

Roman Sculptured Stone Figure of Atys found at 
Froxfield, now in the British Museum. The Proceedings 

of the Society of AntiquarieSt 2nd Ser„ xv., 87—90, has a note by Walter 
Money on this figure which he then exhibited, and the Newbury Field Club 
Trans.t !▼• 201., refers to the figure as "probably a Venus," In reply to a 




Fig. 1.— Pottery Button from Upham, in Aldbourne. Enlarged f. 






u:-f M 



f 

Fig. 2.— Bronze Dagger from Ashton Keynes, now in Devizes Museum. 








Fig. 3.— Roman Bronze Statuette and Cock from Ashton Keynes. |. 




I'm'^ 



Fig. 4. — Stone figure of Atys in the British Museum. 
Found at Rudge, in Froxfield. About g-^ 



Notes. 109 

letter of enquiry Mr. Money writing in December, 1924, from Donnington, 
near Newbury, says : — 

"I may mention that my late wife was the step-daughter of Mr. 
J. P. Gillmore, of Rudge Manor, Froxfield, hence my connection with 
the locality. I obtained the figure from an old gentleman at Froxfield 
named Francis, and when Sir A. W. Franks was at my then residence, 
Herborough House, Newbury, I showed it to him, who said it was 
probably a Venus. I am under the impression that I allowed Franks 
to keep it for the British Museum. I am sorry I cannot say the exact 
spot where the figure was found, but it was in the parish of Froxfield, 
but not with the other items." (Roman coins, etc., exhibited at the 
same time.) 
The figure is 12in. high ; it is now described as representing Atys. Mr. 
A. D. Passmore in sending the photograph here reproduced, which was pro- 
cured from the British Museum, by the kindness of Mr. Reginald Smith, 
writes, " The site at which it was found seems to be on the Ramsbury side of 
Rudge in a flat field where squared stones sometimes turn up. This is 
the spot described by Hoare from which came the famous Rudge Cup now 
preserved at Alnwick Castle. 

Brass of Elizabeth Kington. "Here lyethe Bvryed the 
Body of Elizabethe Kington The Wyef of William Kington Gentleman, 
who ended Her dayes the XXV. of November 1597. She lived Godly and 
dyed Christianlye from her cradle virtvovs now in Heaven gloriovs Together 
with Thomas Kington the only childe token and deere pledge of this his 
mothers love, lefte behinde her vnto his father Her sorowfull hvsband of 
whome eche of them havinge bvt small comfort in this world followed his 
happye and blessed mother in deathe allso the IX of December next fol- 
lowinge both whos bodies here together interred : Theyre spottles sovles 
Raygne with the Lord, in Joyes vnspeakable and Glorye eternall." 

The above brass, measuring 20g X 1 Ig inches, is in the possession of Mr. 
James J. C. Boger, of 77, Marine Parade, Brighton, who desires to return 
it to the Church to which it belongs. It is thought that it may belong to 
a Church in Wiltshire, but up to the present Elizabeth, wife of William 
Kington, who died in 1597, has not been traced in any register. A rubbing 
of the brass has been given to the Society's library. 



no 



WILTS OBITUARY. 
Brig.-Gen. George Llewellen Palmer, CB , died March 

3lst, 1932, aged 75. Buried at Lacock. Born 12th March, 1857, S. of 
Michael Palmer, of Berryfield, Bradford-on-Avon, head of the firm of Palmer 
and Mackay, woollen manufacturers, of Trowbridge. Kducated at Harrow. 
Married 1881 Louie Madeleine, d. of Will. Gouldsmith, of Uodwell Hall, 
Trowbridge, who died 1925. High Sheriff 1903. J.P. Wilts. Lt.-Ool. 
Wilts Yeomanry 1911 — 1915, Hon. Brig.-Gen. 1917. Retired with rank of 
Brig -Gen. 1920. He was one of the strongest supporters of the Conserva- 
tive cause in the county, having been a candidate for the Westbury Div- 
ision on four occasions unsuccessfully, as well as in 1918 when he became 
M.P. 1918 to 1922. He was one of the founders of the Wiltshire Working 
Men's Conservative Benefit Society, was a donor of Almshouses to Trow- 
bridge, a generous benefactor to the Parish Church and Cottage Hospital, 
assisted in the acquisition of the County Cricket Ground at Trowbridge, 
and was foremost in many other charitable movements. He was one of the 
founders and afterwards master of the Avon Vale Hounds He lived at 
Springfield, Trowbridge, Lackham in Lacock, and Berryfield in Bradford- 
on-Avon, until a few years ago he married again and left the county to live 
at Bexley, in Kent. Of his four children, Major Allen Palmer, 14th Hussars, 
was killed in the war ; Col. William Llewellyn Palmer, 10th Hussars, is now 
in command of the 4th Wilts Regt. and lives at Rushmore Park. He 
married Lady Alexandra, d. of Earl Carrington. Michael Palmer was 
drowned in 1908. The only daughter married the Hon. Felix Hanbury 
Tracey, son of Lord Sudeley who was killed in France 1914, and secondly 
Captain C. L. Hargreaves, of the Scots Guards. 

Obit, notices, Wiltshire Times, April 2nd ; Wiltshire Gazette, April 7th, 
1932. 

George LansdOWn, died March 22nd, 1932, aged 78. Buried at 
Trowbridge. Youngest son of Benjamin Lansdown, the founder in 1854 of 
the Trowbridge Advertiser, which afterwards became the Wiltshire Times. 
He gained experience on the reporting staffs of newspapers in Wales and 
Staffordshire, and was afterwards editor of the Wiltshire Times for over 
40 years, a work to which he devoted his life. He had been a member of 
the Urban District Council, the Technical Education Committee, and the 
Trowbridge Chamber of Commerce, of which he was President in 1908. 
J.P. for Wilts 1922. He was much interested in archaeology and history, 
especially that of Trowbridge. He leaves a widow and one son, Leonard 
Lansdown, on the staff of the Wiltshire Times. Obit, notice, Wiltshire 
Times, with portrait, March 26th, 1932. 

He was the author of : 

Tlie White Horses of Wiltshire. War Badg^es on the Wiltshire Downs 
Pamphlet, cr. 8vo. Price 6d., pp. 20. 1925. 10 illustrations. 

Castle Combe. 1925, pp. 16. 8 illustrations. Pamphlet, cr. 8vo. Price 
3d. 



1 



Wilts Obituary, 111 

Rev. John Penrose, died April 2lst, 1932, aged 8I. Buried at 
West Ashton. Born at Exmouth, May 5th, 1850, son of the Rev. John 
Penrose (the 4th Rev. John Penrose in direct succession), founder of a well- 
known boys' school at Exmouth. Educated at his father's school, at Rugby 
and at Gh. Ch., Oxford, B.A. 1873, M.A. 1880. Wells Theolog. Coll., 1873— 
74. Deacon 1874. Priest 1876 (Bath and Wells), Curate of Cucklington 
<Som.), 1874—78; Tisbary, 1878—82; Potterne, 1882—90; Vicar of West 
Ashton, 1890 to 1922, when he retired to live at llowden Hill, Chippenham, 
where he died. He married Jane Emilia, only child of the Rev. Alfred G. 
Smith, Rector of Yatesbury, and for many years Hon. Secretary of the 
Wilts Archaeological Society. He was a remarkable rifle shot, shooting both 
for Rugby School and for Oxford University, and in later years was known 
as a first-class shot at every kind of game. It has been said of him that 
he was " the best shot in Wiltshire." It is interesting to note that his son 
and grandson inherited his skill with the rifle. His son, John Penrose, made 
the highest score at Bisley in 1904 for Winchester when they won the 
Ashburton Shield, and his grandson, John Scott, did the same thing for 
Charterhouse in 1931. Mr. Penrose was also a notable archer and a regular 
attendant at all the archery meetings in the South of England, being 
champion archer of England at the Grand National Archery Meeting at 
Gt. Malvern, in 1904. He excelled also as a craftsman as a cabinet and 
model maker, and during the war he turned in his workshop several 
thousand 18-pounder shell bases. In addition he was one of the best 
ornithologists and observers of birds in the county, and he possessed a 
large and very complete collection of the eggs of Wiltshire birds, all found 
by himself. The Wiltshire Gazette of April 28th, 1932, had a long and in- 
teresting appreciation of him under the title, " Homo sui generis." His 
widow and three children survive him, Mrs. Scott, widow of Major-General 
G. W. Scott, late Royal Artillery, Major John Penrose, Royal Artillery, and 
Mrs. Beeton, wife of Mr. Alan Beeton, of Hampstead. 

James Strong", died Nov. 27th, 1931, aged 76. Buried at Pewsey 
Cemetery. Born in Devonshire. Rented Lower Everley Farm, 1889, 
where he remained 29 years when he retired from business to live at Park 
Dale, Devizes, afterwards purchasing Ball House, Pewsey, where he died. 
He took a prominent part in the coursing meetings at Everley, and was 
secretary to the meeting for many years. His eldest son was killed at 
Ypres. Two sons, J. B. Strong at Huish Farm, and W. H. Strong at 
Potterne Sleight Farm, and three daughters survive him. Obit, notice," 
Wiltshire Gazette, Dec. 3rd, 1931. 

Rev. Herbert Cromwell Bush, died June 1st, 1932, aged 

70. Buried at Wishford. S. of Canon Paul Bush, of Duloe, Cornwall. 
Educated at Winchester, Hertford Coll., Oxford, and Cuddesdon Theolog. 
Coll. B.A. 1885, M.A. 1889. Deacon 1886, Priest 1887 (Rochester), Curate, 
St. John, Kennington, 1886—88 ; Laverstock, 1889— 190O; Vicar Choral of 
Salisbury Cath., 1888 — 1916 ; Chaplain of St. Nicholas Hospital, Salisbury, 
1900—1916 ; Vicar of Seend, 1916—24 ; Rector of Wishford, 1924, until his 



112 Wilts Obituary. 

death. He married, 1888, Mabel, d. of Gen. Reynell Taylor, C.B., C.S.I., 
who with two sons survives him. His eldest son, Capt. J. C Bush was 
killed in France. Mr. Bush was a talented musician, and for some time 
acted as local Chaplain of the Actors' Church Union. He was a lineal 
descendant of Oliver Cromwell. 

Henry George Harris, died Aug. 6th, 1932. Second son of 
Thomas Harris the founder of the bacon firm of Thomas Harris & Sons, at 
Calne. In 1898 this firm amalgamated with that of Messrs. Charles 
Harris &, Co. (Thomas's brother) and became Messrs. C. & T. Harris & Co., 
Ltd. Until 1907 he was actively engaged with the firm and travelled 
widely abroad in its interest. He retired in 1907 but still remained a 
director of the firm until 1920 when the firm was re-organised. As church- 
warden of the Parish Church he presented the new and splendid organ, for 
which the Church is noted, in 1908 and followed up the gift in 1917 by an 
endowment of £1,000 towards its permanent upkeep and maintenance. A 
Liberal in politics, he became J.P. for Wilts in 1912. He married Amy, d. 
of W. Woodward, of London, who survives him. He leaves no children. 

John Gunning*, died Aug. 4th, 1932, aged 74. S. of John 
Gunning, of Calne. Born 1858. Lived at Bournemouth, where he was 
chairman of the Lighting Committee, and patented in 1897 the "Gunfire 
Controller," a device for the automatic lighting and extinguishing of street 
gas-lamps, which was adopted in many towns in England and abroad. 
Obit, notice, Wiltshire Times, Aug. 13th, 1932. 

Rev. E.. G. Wheeler, died August 16th, 1932, aged 82. Buried at 
Calne Cemetery. For more than 51 years he had been the minister of the 
Free Church at Calne, which was opened in 1868, when he undertook the 
pastorate, with later on the superintendence of the Congregational Church 
at Goatacre and the Cleveancy Chapel, which he continued to hold until 
1930. In 1929 he was presented with a purse of ^120 in recognition of his 
jubilee. He was well known and greatly respected in Calne. 

Obit, notice, Wiltshire Gazette, August 18th, 1932. 

Rev. James G. Watson, died July, 1932, aged 83. Buried at 
St. Leonards. Wore. Coll., Oxford, B.A. 1870, M.A. 1877. Deacon and 
Priest (Worcs.), 1880. Curate of Sparkbrook, Birmingham, 1880—85. 
Assoc. Sec. C.M.S. for Bucks, Oxon, and Peterborough, 1885 — 1900 ; Rector 
of Devizes, 1900—09; St. Ebbes, Oxford, 1909—12; Licensed Preacher 
Diocese of Oxford, 1913—14; Vicar of Charlecote, 1915 — 19, when he re- 
signed and went to live at Hastings and afterwards at St. Leonards, where 
he died. During his incumbency at Devizes, many alterations and im- 
provements in St. John's Church were made. The Beauchamp Chapel was 
refitted for service (it had previously been the Vestry), the organ was moved 
to the N. Transept, the bells were rehung, the west window filled with stained 
glass and tV Heating apparatus put in. At St. Leonards he built at his own 
cost the ne urch of St, Ethelburga in memory of his second wife, Ethel 

Fanny W-;' Obit notice, Wiltshire Gazzete, AugUBt 4ih, 19Z2. 



Wilts Obituary. 113 

Rev. Edward James Clifton, O.B.E., died June 20th, 

1932, aged 59. Buried at Heddington. Born at Bloxham, Oxon, Sept. 14th, 
1872. S. of John Clifton. Educated at Banbury Academy. Joined the 
Lichfield Evangelical Brothers and ministered as a licensed lay brother to 
the coastguards and fishermen at Path Head, Kirkaldie, Scotland, where 
he was instrumental in the building of a Church, He then worked as a 
missionary in the west end of London. Then after training at the C.M.S. 
Islington College, he spent seven years as a lay missionary in Persia, 
preaching over the whole country. Returning to England he was ordained 
Deacon 1910, and Priest 1911 (London). He wished to return to Persia 
but ill-health prevented him. He was curate of St. Cath , Leyton, 1910 — 
12, on the C.M.S. Deputation Staff 1912—13, Curate of Bovingdon 1913— 
15, Heme Bay 1915—17, Temporary Chaplain to the Forces 1917—21. In 
consequence of his wide knowledge of Persian and Arabic he was drafted 
to Mesopotamia. He was on his way there on board the troopship 
" Transylvania," with 5,000 troops on board, when the ship was torpedoed 
and 500 lives were lost. He himself escaped in a boat without oars with 
two others and after several hours was rescued by an Italian destroyer and 
taken to Savona, where he remained for six weeks, identifying the bodies 
that were washed ashore and burying them. Thence he went on to 
Mesopotamia, was present at the battle of Takut, and was mentioned in 
despatches for gallant and distinguished service in the field. He remained 
in Mesopotamia after the war, and in 1919, during the Kurdish Rebellion, 
gained the O.B.E. by a signal service to the troops he was with. He became 
Hon. Chaplain to the Forces, and was a member of the Royal Asiatic 
Society. He was Curate of Christ Church, Chorley Wood 1922—26, and 
Rector of Heddington 1926 until his death. There he was greatly esteemed. 
He married 1899 the daughter of Dr. Hay McGrindle, of Edinburgh, who 
survives him with a son, Capt. E. J. M. Clifton, Indian Army, retired, and 
a daughter, Jessie Eleanor. 

Long obit, notice, Wiltshire Gazette^ June, 1932. 

Peter Charles Barnes, died June nth, 1932, aged 77. Buried 
at St. Paul's, Chippenham. Born in Staffordshire. He served for over thirty 
years on the staff of the Wiltshire Gazette which he left in 1919 to become 
Borough Collector for the Chippenham Town Council. He was a strong 
Conservative, and was one of the prime movers in the foundation of the 
Conservative Benefit Society in Chippenham and other centres in N. 
Wilts. He was also the founder of the Chippenham Bowls Club, and had 
been a prominent member of the Institute of Journalists since 1889. His 
I widow and daughter survive him. 

Obit, notice, Wiltshire Gazette, June 23rd, 1932. 

Canon Francis Ralkes, died Nov. 8th, 1931, aged 83. Sarum 
; Theolog. Coll., 1870. Deacon, 1872; Priest, 1873 (Salisbury). Curate of 
j St. Martin, Salisbury, 1872—79 ; Vicar of Figheldean, 1879—95 ; riurate of 
' Bishopstone (S. Wilts), 1895—1914 ; Rector and Vicar of Bishopstone, 1914 
, —1931 ; Non-residentiary Canon of Salisbury, 1927. 
IVOL. XLYI. — NO. CLVII I 



114 Wilts Obituary. 

Dr. Charles Gilbert Burrington Kempe, died February 

22nd, 1932, aged 60. Buried at Wilton Cemetery. Eldest son of Dr. 
Charles Marshall Kempe, of Shoreham-on-Sea, Sussex. Born February 
I7th, 1872, educated at Brighton and Durham University. House surgeon 
at Royal Sussex Hospital, Brighton, and on a Union Castle liner. Came 
to Salisbury as assistant to Dr. Harcourt Coates, 1895, and later became 
bis partner. He worked on the staff of the Salisbury Infirmary from 1899 
to 1931, when his health obliged him to resign. He was also consultant for 
the Andover and Shaftesbury Hospitals, and during the war for the Wilton 
House and Longford Castle Hospitals. For his services he was made O.B.E. 
He married 1900, Ethel, d. of George Rawlence, of Wilton, by whom he 
had three sons and a daughter, who survive him. Mrs. Kemp died 1928, 
and he married secondly, 1930, Violet, d. of George Main, of Salisbury, who 
survives him. 

Obit notice, Salisbury Times, February 26th, 1932. 



Rev. Archibald Charles Clark-Kennedy, died February 

19th, 1932, aged 50, from a fall whilst riding. Buried at Highworth. 
Selwyn College, Camb., B.A. 1902, M.A. 1906, Wells Theolog. Coll., 1905, 
Deacon 1906, Priest 1907 (Bristol), Curate of Chippenham, 1906—11, Vicar 
of Wroughton, 1911 — 1926, Temporary Chaplain to the Forces, 1915—19, 
Hon. Chaplain to the Forces, 1920. Vicar of Highworth with Sevenhampton, 
1926 until his death. His wife, a son and a daughter survive him. Mem- 
bers of the British Legion acted as bearers at his funeral which was very 
largely attended. 
Obit, notice, N. Wilts Herald, February 26th, 1932. 



The Rev. Reginald Edward Coles, died May 21 st, 1932. 

Buried at Manningford Bruce. Charsley's Hall, Oxford, B.A. and M.A. 
1887, Deacon 1888, Priest 1890 (Ely), Curate of Eaton Socon (Beds) 1888— 
90, St. John, Bedminster, 1891—94 ; Warlingham, 1894—96 ; Wilksby 
(Lines), 1896—1900 ; Hector of Heepham (Lines), 1900—1905 ; Curate of 
St. Augustine, Northam, Southampton, 1908—11 ; Vicar of East Kennet, 
1911 — 14 ; Vicar of Wilsford with Woodford, 1914—19; Rector of Manning- 
ford Bruce 1919 until his death, and of Manningford Abbas from 1926 when 
the two parishes were united. 

Obit, notice, Wiltshire Gazette, May 26th, 1932. 



Rev. Hubert Alfred Corke, died Oct., 1931. St. Bees Coll., 
1882. Deacon 1884, Priest 1885. Curate of Brinkworth, 1884—92 ; Vicar 
of Bradenstoke, 1892—1904; Chaplain, Malmesbury Union, 1888— 1904 ; 
Vicar of Holy Apostles, Charlton Kings, 1904—19 ; Rector of Swindon 
(Glos.), and Vicar of Elmstone with Hardwick and Uckington, 1919 — 1929, 
when he retired to live at Bournemouth. 



Wilts Obituary. 115 

Rev. Richard Morgan Rees, died June 28th, 1932, aged 57. 

Buried at Porthcawl. S. of John Rees, Vicar of Ystradowen, nr. Cardiflf. 
Magd. Coll., Oxon, R.A. 1897, Ch. Ch., Oxon, M.A. 1904, Deacon 1898 
(Coventry), Priest 1899 (Wor.), Curate of St. Oswald, Bordesley, 1898—1901 ; 
St. John's, Canton, Cardiff, 1901—02; Chaplain of Ch. Ch. Cath., Oxford, 
1902—14; Curate of Radley, 1905—14; IJector of Semley, 1914 until his 
death. In his younger days he was a cricketer and football player. 
Obit, notice, Salisbury Journal^ July 1st, 19.32. 

Frederick Henry Knee, died June 26th, 1932, aged 72. Buried 
at Melksham. Born at Cheltenham, came to Melksham and worked with 
Messrs. Spencers in 1876. He became Secretary to the firm and retired in 
1908. Chairman of the Urban Council 1917, throughout the war and again 
in 1920, until he retired in 1923. In 1927 he became Chairman of the Rural 
District Council which office he held until his death. He was also Chairman 
of the Melksham Education Committee. He was a strong Liberal and 
Congregationalist. He held many other offices at Melksham, and had 
long filled a large place in the public life of the town. 

Long obit, notice with portrait, Wiltshire Times, July 2nd, 1932. 

Rev. Wyndham Noel, died July 3rd, 1932, aged 66. Buried at 
Christ Church, Bradford-on-Avon. Born at Brecon, educated Exeter CoU.^ 
Oxford, B.A. 1887, Deacon 1889, Priest 1890 (Salisbury). Curate of Holy 
Trinity, Bradford-on-Avon, 1889—1908; Vicar of Ch. Ch., Bradford-on- 
Avon, 1908 — 1931, when he resigned and lived at Bathwick. He was for 
many years Vice-Chairman of the Board of Guardians at Bradford. He 
was also greatly interested in the Wilts Clergy Charity. 

Obit, notice, Wiltshire Times, July 9th, 1932. 

James Richard Jerram, died July nth, 1932, aged 8), Buried 
at Fleet, Lines. Youngest s. of Rev. Richard Jerram, Rector of Fleet, 
Lincolnshire. Trained as a marine engineer, he took up bell hanging at 
Long Sutton, Lines., and later became partner with Thomas Blackburn, the 
bell founder. He came to Salisbury about 50 years ago. He was the last 
surviving foundation member of the Salisbury Diocesan Guild of Kingers 
inaugurated in Feb., 1883, when he was appointed inspector of belfries and 
instructor in change-ringing, and later became General Secretary of the 
Guild until 1929, and was recognised as one of the leading authorities on 
bells. He was for many years Hon. Librarian of the Salisbury Church 
House Library which he catalogued. He was a Governor of Salisbury 
Infirmary. He was greatly interested in St. Paul's Church, schools and 
parish of which he was a generous supporter. 

Obit, notice, Salisbury Times, July 15th, 1932. 

Dr. Francis Burchett Rutter, died July 23rd, 1932,aged63. 
Buried at Mere Cemetery. Born at Mere 1869, youngest s. of John Farley 
Rutter. Educated at the Friends' School, Sidcot, and Durham University. 
F.R.C.S. 1894, M.D. 1895. After some years at the London Hospital he 

G I 



116 Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles. 

started a medical practice at Mere 1896, and remained there until his death. 
He married 1897 Alice Kate, d. of Daniel S. Pring, of Newport, Isle of Wight, 
He took a very prominent part in the civil and religious life of Mere, acting 
as secretary of the Temperance Society for 30 years. He was a member of 
the Friends Central Education Committee, and of the Social Order Council 
of the same body, but of late years he had been connected with the Congre- 
gational Church in Mere. As a Friend he maintained the position of that 
society during the war, and was mainly instrumental in securing for the 
town the fine Mere Peace Memorial Ground at its close. He also completed 
the work of the Mere Lecture Hall begun by his father. In 1908 he greatly 
interested himself in the working of the Small Holdings Association of 
which he was president. He was on the Executive of the West Wilts 
Liberal Association, and took a leading part in politics in Mere. He was 
an authority on the work and aims of the League of Nations and had atten- 
ded the Geneva Assembly twice, and had also been present at the Hague. 
He had a large medical practice, but always found time to help in the 
organisation of any movement for the furtherance of deserving causes in 
Mere, where, as in the surrounding district, " he was admired and loved 
both as a doctor and a man." 

Long obit, notice, Wilts Times, July 23rd, 1932. 



WILTSHIKE BOOKS, PAMPHLETS, AND ARTICLES. 

[N.B. — This list does not claim to be in any way exhaustive. The Editor 
appeals to all authors and publishers of pamphlets, books, or views, in any 
way connected with the county, to send him copies of their works, and to 
editors of papers, and members of the Society generally, to send him copies 
of articles, views, or portraits appearing in the newspapers.] 

Map of Neolithic Wessex showingf the distribu- 
tion of Long Barrows, Circles, Habitation Sites, 
riint Mines. Scale, four miles to one inch. Pub- 
lished by the Ordnance Survey Office, Southamp- 
ton. 1932. Price 4s. net. 8|in. x 5|in. Folding map 
mounted on linen, 23in. X 31|in. 35 pp. of letterpress. 

This is a wholly delightful map, beautiful to look at, and most helpful to 
use. The country covered is from a line just S. of Swindon to the Channel 
and the Isle of Wight, and from Cardiff and the Severn to some distance | 
east of Winchester. j 

The clay lands (Clay with flints, London clay, Gault, Oxford clay, Kim- j 
meridge clay. Lower Lias, Atherfield clay, Wealden Clay) which were pre- \ 
sumably covered with forest are shov\?n with green trees accordingly, and the 
chalk and other uplands in brown — as open country — with the rivers as usual 



Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles. 117 

in blue. Each class of monument lias its own sign very clearly shown, so that 
a glance at the map shows the distribution of the population in Neolithic 
times, and the reasons why the Long Harrows, for instance, occur in groups 
in certain districts as they do. The effect of the whole is that of a map of 
the period dealt with, without a single modern place, or road, or railway 
showing, to spoil its teaching, but as a matter of fact the whole background 
is really that of the modern ordnance map, but printed so lightly in pale 
grey, that it really forms a sort of ghost map behind the Neolithic colour- 
ing. Thus if you wish to identify any Long Barrow or Circle with its 
modern place name it is easy to do so, whilst the general appearance of the 
map has nothing modern about it. The letterpress too is excellent. The 
condition of the country in Neolithic times, its forests, its chalk downs, its 
heaths, and its marshes is shortly described. The forest crossing places, 
where the first trackways and afterwards the Roman roads ran, are indi- 
cated, and the reason why they ran there is given, not only, that is, because 
the forest was narrowest but because the amount of clay land to be tra- 
versed was least at these points, a matter of the utmost importance when pack 
animals were the only means of transport, both in prehistoric and mediaeval 
days. As to Long Barrows it is assumed that they were all " chambered " 
originally, with stone, or where there was none, with wood ; and that the 
Neolithic population who built them lived not upon the barren heath land, 
on the sands and gravels, but on the broad rolling uplands of Salisbury 
Plain, Central Hampshire, Dorset, and the Cotswolds. It was not until th« 
end of the Bronze Age that the gravel plains of the New Forest region be 
came at all thickly studded with round barrows. 

Altogether this is a most excellent four shillings worth. 

Trowbridge and its Times A Tribute by Rev. P. 
J. Croodrich. London: Sir Isaac Pitman & Sons, 

1932. 8vo. Cloth, pp. xi. + 2L Price 10s. 6d. 24 illustrations and 
portraits. 

This book does not, by its title, claim to be a history of Trowbridge. Its 
title indeed is somewhat vague, and its contents bear out its title. It is a 
well-printed, well gotup book, containing a series of chapters on various 
matters connected with Trowbridge, with much meditation thereon. Perhaps 
the two following excerpts give a fair idea of its general style and scope. 
" Meditating on the bygone, we see here one of Wiltshire's towns. It is an 
aphorism ! We classify places thus, mentally, and even unconsciously, may 
be, confusing one with another : Marlborough, Chippenham, Devizes, or 
Malmesbury. It will be seen that the aphorism misses a good deal of point." 

" It is pleasant to ruminate on old legends which may be entirely fictitious, 
or contain some measure of fact, such as Trowbridge's place anterior to the 
time when factual data is found (sic), its reputed allegiance to King Dun- 
walls for instance, bat we wish to follow lines which can be substantiated, 
«,nd none other." 

The chapter on the Parish Church is a useful one, the inscriptions on the 
windows and most of the mural tablets are given in full with some account 
of the restoration of 1846 — 1848. The succeeding chapter on the daughter 



118 Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Ai^ticles. 

parishes of Holy Trinity, Staverton, St. Thomas, and Studley, with their 
Churches, windows, and monuments, is also fairly full. There are photo- 
graphs of Holy Trinity, Staverton, and Studley Churches. Staverton 
Church was rebuilt and enlarged in 1826. Studley Church was built in 
1852. and it was made a separate parish in 1853. St, Thomas' Church was 
built in 1870 when the new parish was formed. The liomau Catholic 
Church built in 1875 was enlarged in 1907. 

Undertheheading" Biographical andTopicaldetails" thereare a few words 
on the Yerbury family, short accounts of George Crabbe and Sir Isaac 
Pitman, with partial pedigrees of Bythesea and Langford, a word or two on 
four or five others and that is all. As to the cloth riots two pages suffice 
for their mention. Under the section of " Extracts from ancient records," 
a quotation from the Tropendl Cartulary (the name Tropenell is through- 
out the book spelt wrongly " Tropennel," just as Longespee is printed 
Longespree ; " Moch Chaldefeld " is three times printed Mock Chaldefeld ; 
and the "extracts" are of the shortest. Throughout the book the author 
is apt to go off on some general subject, as for instance in the chapter on 
the Bectory, where the origin of tithes and the history of their commuta- 
tion, the meaning of the titles " Rector" and "Vicar," and so forth take 
up much of the space. Twelve pages of large print suffice for the history of 
nonconformity in Trowbridge, and an account of its places of worship ; and 
eleven more for the history of the cloth trade, almost entirely a general 
sketch of its origin in il*]ngland with no special reference to Trowbridge. 
The list of charities is useful, as is the KoU of Honour of 1914 — 1919. In 
the " Finale" the author has a series of visions of what may have happened 
at different periods where the Town Hall now stands. The arms of Trow- 
bridge are spoken of, but of course none were ever granted to it. There 
are hardly any references given for quotations, and the proof reading seems 
to have been peculiarly careless. One thing remains clear, and that is that 
the need for an adequate history of Trowbridge still exists. 

Noticed Wiltshire Gazette, May 5th, 1932. 



The Parish Church of St, James', Trowbridge. A 
brief Historical and Descriptive Gviide. By F. C. 

Pitt, 1932. B. Lansdown & Sons, Printers, Duke Street, Trowbridge. 
Pamphlet, 7|in. X 5iin., pp. 31 (6d.). Good illustrations of portrait of 
Crabbe ; Crabbe Memorial ; Plan of Church ; Church ; N. front and interior 
looking east ; Turret of staircase to S. J'arvise, and Pinnacle at E. end of 
nave ; l^ectory ; W. porch of Church ; Tomb of Thomas Helliker. This is 
just the sort of sixpennyworth that visitors to an unknown Church want. 
Mr. Pitt describes all the different parts of the building clearly and con- 
cisely, windows and mural tablets worth looking at are pointed out, and 
the various restorations and rebuildings from 1846 down to the present 
time are mentioned with their dates, and the work done at each period is 
shortly specified. There is a list of Rectors, and a page in which the 
visitor can see at a glance what the main points of interest are, and on 
which page the description of them can be found. Such items as the three 



Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles, 119 

mural tablets from St. Stephen's Chapel of Ease, in Castle Street, de- 
molished in 1926 ; the stone mantelpiece moved in 1847 from the S. Parvise 
to the Clergy vestry, and Helliker's tomb in the churchyard are mentioned. 
It is to be hoped that Mr. Pitt will write further on Trowbridge history. 

The Ol&cial Gruide to Trowbridge. By J. W. 
Simpson. Issued under the auspices of the Trow- 
bridge Urban District Council. Pamphlet, ejin. x 4in., pp. 

32. N.D. {cir. 1930). Illustrations of Town Hall and Market Hall ; 
Parish Church, exterior and interior ; Wicker Hill ; Fore Street ; Lake, 
People's Park ; sketch map of district. The various industries of the town 
are described shortly, the success of the woollen trade being ascribed to 
the qualities of the water of the Biss, whilst the invention of the treadmill 
for prisons is ascribed to the firm of Haden, engineers. Bacon-curing and 
brewing also figure amongst the chief industries. Short notes on the 
history of the Castle, the Parish Church, places of interest in the neigh- 
bourhood, local celebrities, &c., complete this small guide, 

[Marlborough] Signs of the Times. Quo Vadimus. 

By C. H. S. Matthews (of Marlborough College). St. Martins 
Review, March, 1932, pp. 131 — 133. A protest against the vandalism of the 
powers that be in the Marlborough neighbourhood in the unnecessary 
widening and spoiling of the Bath Road, and the destruction of the beauti- 
ful West Woods by the Forestry Commission, where the natural oaks and 
ashes are being ruthlessly cut down to make way for the lines of pines so 
dear to the heart of the scientific forester. 

Past Years, an Autobiography by Sir Oliver Lodge. 
Hodder & Stoughton, London. 1931. Large 8 vo, pp. 364, 
16 portraits, etc. 

The first chapter of this solid volume deals with the author's "ancestry 
and early days" and two succeeding chapters with bis school days — which 
seem to have come to an end at 14, when he was expected to join his father 
in his successful business as potter's merchant. However, when he was 15 
or 16 he stayed with an aunt for a winter in London, attended lectures on 
geology by Prof. Tennant and more especially a series of lectures on heat 
by Prof. Tyndale, which seem to have had great influence on his career, and 
he began making experiments for himself at home, and a little later went 
again to London, and attended regularly courses given under the Science 
and Art Department at S. Kensington and at the Royal Institution. 

In 1876 — 77 he wrote his first book on Elementary Mechanics, for which 
he received £100. He passed the London Matriculation in 1871, studied at 
University College, London, in 1874, took the B. Sc. degree, and later the 
D. Sc. in 1877, and married soon after. He taught physics at Bedford Col- 
lege and University College in 1876, naturally coming into contact with the 
leading scientific men of the day. From that time onward he published a 
succession of papers in the Philosophical Magazine dealing more especially 



] 20 Wiltshire Books, Paynphlets, and Articles, 

with electrical experiments and discoveries, and lectured frequently. The 
chapter headed *' Romance " is singularly interesting, dealing as it does 
with the one love of his life, leading up to his marriage with Mary Marshall 
in 1877. In 1881 he was appointed the first Professor of Physics of the 
newly-founded University College of Liverpool. 

Here he continued his career of research and discovery, receiving in 1898 
the Romford Medal of the Royal Society "in recognition of his researches 
on radiation and on the relations between matter and ether." In 1900 he 
became the first Principal of the new University of Birmingham, In the 
vacations he became intimate with the Wyndham family at Clouds, where 
he visited regularly. He speaks of Mrs. Percy Wyndham as *' the most de- 
lightful lady I ever knew," and of Mr. Arthur Balfour, who was frequently 
at Clouds, as " certainly the most brilliant and broadly educated man with 
whom I had ever come into contact." A chapter on the " Beginnings of Wire- 
less " records the author's share in this wonderful development. Of his own 
family of twelve children and their singularly happy and united life he 
writes charmingly. Two chapters deal with the work of the Psychical Re- 
search Society founded in 1882, and the psychic adventures and phenomena 
with which it is concerned. A solid book on a remarkable life. 

Iiongford Castle. By Chr Hussey. Country Life, 

Dec. 12th and 19th, 1931, pp. 648—655, 696—701, 724—730 ; 4U illustrations. 
Entrance front and west tower ; Elizabethan loggias (of W. front) re- 
built with old material in 19th cent. ; the re-built N. tower, entrance front 
and original W. tower ; Entrance and garden fronts from the W. ; Sunk 
garden and Antony Salvin's additions to the Castle ; Sunk garden and 
River Avon ; Approaching the Castle in Charles II. 's reign, the sycamore 
walk to the Moat Bridge (from print) ; Bridge over moat and Porter's 
Lodge (from print) ; Entrance Front as built (from print) ; Entrance to sunk 
garden ; Garden front ; Thorpe's elevation for entrance front ; Plan by 
John Thorpe; Garden divided into several enclosures (from print); S. 
front with E. tower ; Study alias dining parlour ; Study chimneypiece ; 
Long parlour ; Stucco over door in the library ; Library ; Picture gallery ; 
Queen's, or green, drawing room; Ground and first floor plans, 1678; 
Chimneypiece in green drawing room ; Plans in 1766 ; Old Chapel, or marble 
room ; Looking across the Avon from the S.E. ; Dining room added 1874 ; 
Portraits in dining room ; Tower end of saloon ; Saloon formed 1874 ; 
Chimneypieces in old state bedroom and dressing room, Saloon, and dining 
room ; Triangular hall formed in courtyard 1874 ; Chimneypiece in billiard 
room ; Stone vase ; Office buildings, probably incorporating the original 
Manor House ; Bridge over the Avon, and office buildings ; Existing plan 
of 1st floor of Castle. 

Mr. Hussey shows that the tradition that the plan of the Castle was 
copied from that of Uraniborg, in Sweden, can have no foundation and 
" the buildings have no resemblance." John Thorpe's sketch plan is based 
on the shield assigned in mediaeval heraldry to the Holy Trinity, and the 
three towers are labelled " Pater," " Filius," and " Sanctus Spiritus," with 
a circle in the centre inscribed " Deus." " The entrance front is the only 



Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles. 121 

one to retain its original appearance. The charming garden front owes its 
present form to alterations by Antony Salvin in 1870 and the third side is 
buried in less distinguished additions." " When the front was rebuilt 
during the last century the flanking pediment-surmounted wings were 
moved one bay nearer to the centre, and the top storey above the loggia 
was recessed to the same plane as the exterior wall below. Neptune and 
his boat were preserved, but the parapet was cleared of Thorpe's trimmings." 

Mr. Hussey produces proof from account books that considerable recon- 
struction of details in the front occurred in 1757. The N. tower has been 
wholly rebuilt, but the W. tower and the S.E. tower survive intact. I'he 
original house cost £18,000, with £6,000 more for the outbuildings. Pelate 
describing the house before the Civil War says — ** The vines, before the 
house was garrisoned, climbed from the garden over the highest towers. 
The same having been cut down by the soldiers are notwithstanding got up 
again to the third storey and produce still infinite (and these as generous) 
grapes as (upon the verdict of many travellers and most exquisite palates) 
can be tasted anywhere in England. Under these vines (to wit, up to the 
cornice of the first storey) were ingeniously planted the peach, apricot and 
fig trees to decypher the grace and plenty of the ag8 wherein this house 
was raised." The same writer describes the condition the house was left 
in, after being garrisoned, first by the Royalists and afterwards by the 
Parliamentary forces, and its gradual repair by Lord Ooleraine, the then 
owner, who in 1667 was " choked trying to swallow the rump of a turkey." 
The various changes in the interior of the Castle at subsequent dates are 
shortly described. The 3rd Lord Coleraine sold the Castle to Sir Edward 
des Bouveries in 1718. His brother, Sir Jacob, succeeding him in 1736 
began a series of alterations which continued until his death. These in- 
cluded the replanning of the entrance front, and the alteration and redecor- 
ation of many of the rooms throughout the (Castle. 

Rysbrach was paid £867 in 1737—39, and Sir Henry Cheere ^1,205 in 
1741, for chimneypieces which still apparently exist. In 1802 plans were 
made for rebuilding the whole house on a hexagonal plan of vast proportions. 
The 2nd Earl Radnor rebuilt the N. tower on a larger scale and began on 
the hexagonal plan, completing two sides in white brick. This remained 
until Antony Salvin completed his alterations for the 4th Earl in 1874, 
rebuilding the entrance front and covering in the triangular courtyard and 
making it the hall. Mr. Hussey regards the group of buildings at the back 
of the house near the bridge as perhaps the old .Manor of the Cervingtons. 
*' Its walls consist of alternate bands of brick and of Hint and stone checks 
— one of the most elaborate examples in the county of this local technique." 

Altogether this very full and admirably illustrated account of Longford 
and its varied history is an important addition to the records of the 
domestic architecture of the county. 

Furniture at Longford Castle. By Chr. Hussey. 

Country Life, Dec. 12th, 1931, pp. 679—682, 8 illustrations including one 
of the Picture Gallery. 

" The first and second Viscounts Folkestoneassembled at Longford between 



122 Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles. 

1736 and 1775 what is now one of the most magnificent collections of 
Georgian furniture in existence." The account books preserved at Long- 
ford Castle show that William Hallett and Benjamin Goodison for furniture, 
William Hradsbaw for carpets, and Kilpin for upholstery, were the principal 
makers employed by the first Viscount, more especially in the furnishing of 
the gallery, with the magnificent suite of daybeds, sofas, and stools which 
remain to this day in their original position, and are lavishly illustrated in 
this article. These are probably by Ben. Goodison cir 1740, whilst the 
splendid armchairs are attributed to Giles Grendey ciV 1739. 

Drawing Room Furniture at Longford Castle. By 

Chr. Hussey. Country Life, Dec. 26th, 1931, pp. 715—718, 7 illust- 
rations including " The Drawing Koom." 

Sir Jacob Bouverie, afterwards Viscount Folkestone, converted the 
" Queen's Bedroom " into a drawing room and in 1741 pays for the green 
Genoa velvet that still adorns its walls. Even the pull-up curtains are 
apparently original. The fine furniture is fully described, and its various 
makers identified. 

Furniture at Longford Castle. Article in Country Life, 

April 23rd, 1932, pp. 455—457, with 12 illustrations by M. J. " The mid- 
Georgian furniture bought for Longford C'astle between 1736 and 1775 is 
now one of the most considerable collections in existence and for this the 
first and second Viscounts Folkestone were responsible, as may be seen by 
the sums entered in their accounts to William Hallet of Newport Street, 
Benjamin Goodison, and the firm of Vile and Cobb, three of them listed 
among the Royal tradesmen." The various pieces illustrated are fully 
described. 

[Manton] Some Memories of a Famous Racing 
Stable. Impressions of the Old Regime and the 

New. Country Life, Jan. 9th, 1932, pp. 39—41. Portraits of the joint 
owners of Manton, iMr. E. Somerville Tattersall and Mr. Gerald Deane, and 
of Mr. Joe Lawson the trainer, with "Horses passing out of the stable 
yard," and other groups of horses on the Downs. The article deals with 
the best known horses of the past and present trained at Manton, and 
mentions that in 1931 jSIanton surpassed all previous records by winning 
i'93,399 in stake-money. 

Wansdyke. By Sir Charles Oman, KB.E. Archaeological 

Journal, Ixxxvii., pp, 60—70. 

To begin with Sir Charles pours scorn on the recently suggested exten- 
sion from Chisbury towards Ludgershall. For him the dyke runs straight 
to Inkpen and ends there. " Some suggested fragments of a subsidiary 
ditch falling out of the main Wansdyke near I^edwyn and trending towards 
Ludgershall seem imaginary, though several Wiltshire antiquaries have 
tried to link them into a line. They are not continuous as Wansdyke 
always is, and seem to be isolated field banks and enclosures connected 



Wiltshii^e Books, Pa7nphlets, and Articles. 123 

only into a system by the eye of faith." " The main puzzle of Wansdyke 
is that it corresponds to no recorded boundary in British history." It was 
not the boundary between the Belgse and the Dobuni, for Bath which is 
expressly stated by Ptolemy to belong to the lielgse, lay to the north of 
the dyke, nor was it ever the boundary between Wessex and Mercia. It 
cannot have been, like the Roman wall, a purely military work, and no 
army of early days could have defended it, " It is obviously a state 
boundary, intended to delimit exactly the ground belonging to two separate 
units, so that there should be no doubt as to whose men were trespassing 
on the territory of the other, if they were found north or south of the great 
dyke." "The name Woden's Dyke is a testimony to great antiquity, and 
must have been bestowed in the heathen period." Pitt llivers proved that 
it could not be pre-lioman, thus disproving Guest's assumption of the 
" Belgic Ditches." Sir Charles Oman will have none of Major Godsall's 
theory, that Ceawlin constructed it after a conquest of Somerset. " This 
seems absolutely ruled out ... by the fact that Wiltshire and Somer- 
setshire show no traces of early Saxon antiquities of the heathen period in 
their barrows and cemeteries, as do Hampshire or the Thames Valley." 
Sir Charles finds the explanation of Wansdyke in the story of Gildas who 
tells us that the Saxon invasion had been checked about 500 A.D. after the 
battle of iVlount Badon, only to be resumed in 577 when Ceawlin, after the 
battle of Deorhatn, took Bath, Gloucester, and Cirencester, and that mean- 
while, South-Western Britain had been divided into five kingdoms whose 
rulers he abuses because they were always at war with one another. One 
of these rulers was Aurelius Caninus whose dominions Sir Charles places 
on the lower Severn, including Bath, Cirencester, and Gloucester. His 
neighbour to the south appears to have been Constantine, King of 
Damnonia, " which almost certainly included not only Devon and Cornwall, 
the district to which the name was afterwards restricted, but Somerset and 
Wilts also." " We are forced to conceive of the Damnonian King, after 
wars with Aurelius Caninus, marking out the, perhaps, shrunken limits of 
his kingdom, by throwing up this great boundary dyke. . . . We may 
safely ascribe the origin of the greatest of dykes to the bellicose Celtic 
Roman Princes of the first half of the 6th century, without much possibility 
of going wrong." 

The Wilton Diptych. English! By Charles R. 

Beard. Short article in The Cowioisseur, Dec. 1931, p. 375, with admir- 
able coloured plates of the two leaves, King Richard II. with SS. Edmund 
of Bury, Edward the Confessor and John the Baptist, and the Virgin and 
Child with Angels. iMiss M. V. Clarke in an article in the Burlington 
Magazine, June, 1931, proved from heraldic details, etc., "that the picture 
could not have been painted before 1395 — 96, when Richard and his council 
were negociating with Charles VI. of France for the hand of his daughter 
Isabelle, and the year 1395 is the earliest possible date at which Richard 
could have worn the livery Collar of Broom-cobs of his future father-in- 
law which appears so prominently in the painting. Miss Clarke has sought 
to associate this Diptych with Pvichard's supposed intention to join Philipe 



124 Wiltsliire Boohs, Pamphlets, and Articles. 

de Mezieres' Crusading Order of the Passion. She accordingly sees in the 
lamb held in the arms of St. John, and in the Red Cross of St. George, 
illusions to that Order, since upon its banners these emblems appeared." 
Mr. Beard cannot accept this reasoning. " It is Richard's seeming youth 
that forms the stumbling block in any attempt to provide a logical explana- 
tion for this painting . . . When Kichard married Isabelle at Calais 
on Nov. 4th, 1396, he was a man of thirty v^hile she was a girl of eight. 
. . . It was customary for a prospective husband to submit a portrait of 
himself to the lady he intended to make his wife . . . such a gift would 
be appropriate from Richard at any time during the negociations that pre- 
ceded the signing of the marriage contract on March 9th, 1396." Richard 
would wish to minimise the difiference in age between himself and his 
future wife, and to this end would have himself painted without a beard, as 
James IV. of Scotland cut off his beard on his marriage. Mr. Beard sees 
no reason to assign the painting to a French artist. He says " The stand- 
ing figures of St. Edward and St. Edmund are very obviously in the tradi- 
tion of both the figures of Henry III. and Edward I, on the sedilia at West- 
minster, set up in 1,308, and those of the adoring Magi, which once adorned 
the walls of St. Stephen's Chapel in Westminster Palace, which must have 
been executed about 1 360." He mamtains in short that this famous picture, 
acquired in 1929 for the National Gallery from Wilton House for £90,000, 
is the work of an P]nglish painter. 

The Church of St. John Baptist, Inglesham, Wilts, 

By W. H. KnOWleS, F.S.A. Tra7is. of Bristol and Gloucestershire 
Archxological Soc. for 1931. Vol. xliii., 191—205. This is a full and 
valuable description of the Church with many plates and drawings, in- 
cluding ground plan, longitudinal sections looking north and south, details 
of mouldings of base and cap of south nave arcade, and of the wall arcade 
of chancel, bell gable, S.W. view of exterior, interior looking east, N. and 
S. piers and screens, wall arcade and seating in Church, sculpture of Virgin 
and Child, iron hinge work on N. door and hour glass bracket. 

He regards the N. and S. arcades as clearly of different dates and inser- 
tions in earlier masonry, and suggests " that a Church of earlier date (than 
the details of the arcades) did occupy the site, there is much evidence 
in a sculptured stone of the Madonna and Child . . . and in un- 
mistakable and strikingly Saxonic proportions of the nave. In the 
latter there are no apparent architectural details but the dimensions 
of its plan and the height and character of its masonry sufficiently 
demonstrate the fact that its walls belong to a building of the 11th 
century or possibly earlier." 
Of the sculpture of the Madonna and Child which previous to 1910 was 
built into the exterior south wall of the nave, near the porch, he suggests 
that it is possibly contemporary with the original nave and may have occu- 
pied a position above the altar. He describes it as follows : — 

" The stone is 24 x 42 inches in height. Our Lord is enthroned on 
the lap of His Mother. The figures are posed in profile and inclining 
towards one another. The Virgin is clothed in a hooded robe. The 



Wiltshire Books, Pampldets, and Ai^ticles. 125 

nimbed Christ is also draped in a long robe. His right hand is ex- 
tended in the attitude of benediction. His left clasps a book and 
above him is the Dexter Dei. On the upper margin of the stone in 
capital letters is the name MARIA. The work is a minor example of 
figure sculpture rudely executed which does not permit of precise 
classification other than that it must be assigned to a date preceding the 
structural details ascribed to the 12th — 13th century. At a later date 
the stone has been defaced by the incised meridian and the hole for 
the gnomon of a scratch dial. 



The Age of Stonehenge : a Criterion. By George 

iEnglelieart, F.S.A. Antiq. Joum., Jan. 1932, xii., pp. 17—23. In 
this paper Mr. Engleheart examines anew the bearing of the evidence of 
the finding of " Blue stones" of the type of those at Stonehenge in two 
barrows on the Plain, on the question of the age of Stonehenge itself. The 
main point is, what did Will. Cunnington mean when he wrote to Sir K. 0. 
Hoare, in a letter (the full text of which was printed in Antiquity, June 
1929) describing the excavation of a flat barrow west of Stonehenge ? The 
primary interment in this barrow was admittedly of Early Bronze Age, as the 
presence of a small bronze knife dagger now in the Devizes Museum proves. 
W. Cunnington writes — "I perceived a small heap of whiter earth, which 
on removing we came to the primary interment^ a deposit of burnt bones 
in a fine circular cist, with which were found a brass spearhead (knife dag- 
ger) and brass pin. . . . On removing the earth from over the cist we 
found a large piece of one of the blue stones of Stonehenge." Mr 
Engleheart argues that " the earth over the cist " means the " whiter earth " 
mentioned before, which doubtless was the chalk from the cist, which was 
shovelled back into the cist again when the interment of the ashes was com- 
plete, and formed a " small heap over it " before the rest of the barrow was 
piled up H e argues that the word " over " means " upon " or " immediately 
covering " the cist, and that the earth in which the blue stones was found 
was this " whiter earth " which had come out of the cist, and therefore 
could not have been later than the Early Bronze Age. If so, the blue 
stones of Stonehenge were on the spot and had already been chipped into 
shape at that date. On the other hand Mrs. Cunnington had argued in her 
article in Antiquity that the word over might mean any part of the barrow 
above the cist, and not necessarily in close contact with the cist itself, and 
inasmuch as Will. Cunnington expressly states that a previous excavator, no 
doubt Stukeley, had cut a trench through the barrow in close proximity to 
the " little heap of whiter earth," there was nothing to prove that the blue 
stone fragment had not got thrown in from the surface when the trench 
was filled up. In which case it might well have been chipped oflf the blue 
stone ages after the barrow was thrown up. It is a nice point upon which 
both sides are likely to retain their own opinion, and there is no authority 
competent to decide what " over " in this case exactly means. The argu- 
ment is well summarised in the editorial notes in the Wiltshire Gazette, 
Jan. 21st, 1932. 



126 Wiltshire Books, PampJdets, and Articles. 

Stonehenge and the Two-date Theory. By Lt.- 

Col. R. H, Cunnington. Taper in Journal of the British Arch. 
^ssocn., June 1931, N.S. xxxvi., pp. 229—232. 

Col. Cunnington begins by saying that the discovery of the Aubrey holes 
has led to the general acceptance of the two-date theory. It was observed 
that the Aubrey holes corresponded in number fairly closely with the Blue 
Stones, and it was suggested that the Blue Stones had originally stood in 
the Aubrey holes. Moreover it was observed that very few blue stone chips 
were found, either in the bottom silt of the ditch, or at the bottom of the 
Aubrey holes. It was therefore concluded that the Aubrey holes with the 
Blue stones in them, and the ditch, were of the same age and formed the 
original monument before the sarsen stones of the circles were there at all, 
and that the Blue Stones were taken out of the Aubrey holes and placed in 
their present position when the great sarsen circles were set up at a later 
period. Col. Cunnington sets out the objections to this theory. First the 
Aubrey holes are round, as holes for stones elsewhere never are, they are 
mostly not big enough to have held the Blue Stones, and if ever the Blue 
Stones had been placed in ihem, they certainly could not have been taken out 
again without breaking down the edges of the holes, and their edges are not 
broken down. Again the objects found in the Aubrey holes are " diffused 
downwards somewhat in theshape of an inverted cone, strongly suggestive of 
having slipped into the centre of the hole" as the wooden posts decayed. 
Everything suggests that these holes held wooden posts and not the Blue 
Stones. If this is agreed, what evidence is there that the Blue Stones and 
ditch are older than the rest of Stonehenge ? Only the absence of stone 
chips at the bottom of the holes and in the ditch, and the fact that the 
centre of the Aubrey hole circle differs by 3jft. from the centre of the sarsen 
circle, together with the filling in of that part of the ditch which cuts across 
the avenue. As regards the Aubrey holes, the absence of Blue Stone chip- 
pings at the bottom of the holes only proves that these holes were filled 
before the Blue Stones were chipped, presumably with wooden posts. As to 
the alteration of the ditch to suit the avenue which has been brought for- 
ward as a proof of the two dates, the filling of the ditch at this point takes 
the place of the natural silt in the rest of the ditch. This filling is obviously 
intentional, and of course was subsequent to the digging of the ditch, but the 
interval between the digging and the filling in was only an extremely short 
one, /or r<o natural silting had taken place. " All that we can conclude from 
the filling near the causeway is that the ditch was either carried too far by 
mistake, or that the avenue was an afterthought ; and that in either case 
the correction was made at once." 

The Date and Orientation of Stonehenge By 

Iit.-Col. R. H. Cunnington . Journal of the British Archxological 
Association^ N.S. Vol. xxxvii., pp. 161—171 (June 1932). Col. Cunnington 
begins by examining the foundations on which the axis of Stonehenge, as 
given by Tetrie, Lockyer, and Stone, is laid down. He maintains that 
Stone in attempting to reconcile Petrie and Lockyer, really altered the 



Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles. 127 

latter's measurements, and that in consequence Stone's axis is of no real 
value in comparison with the other two. Of these two l^ockyer made his 
axis dependent upon the centre of the avenue and ignored the measurement 
of the stones, whilst Petrie on the other hand based his axis on the stones 
and ignored the avenue. Which of these was right ? Col. Cunnington de- 
cides that Petrie was, and that his plan and all its measurements are 
extraordinarily and minutely accurate, and that the axis of the monument 
as founded on those measurements, if dealt with as Lockyer dealt with his 
axis, instead of pointing to 1500 B.C. or thereabouts as the date of the 
monument, point rather to about 300 B.C. He claims that the accuracy 
with which the whole circle of sarsens is set out, as well as the 
remarkable shaping of the lintels both to fit the circle, and also to make 
them appear as wide at the top as at the bottom, suggests the influence of 
Greek builders, which would fit this date. Such refinements in 1500 B.C. 
he regards as impossible, unless Egyptian influence is invoked, and for that 
he says there are no grounds at all. His arguments may seem revolutionary 
but there are not wanting signs that the archaeological wind is blowing with 
increasing strength from that quarter. 

Abury audits connexion with Serpent Worship. A 
paper read before the Metropolitan Collegfe on Jan, 
9th, 1908, by Frater Roland Y. Mayell 

Avebury or Abury, and Silbury Hill ? Depicting 
Stellar, Lunar and Solar Mythos, By R. W. Frater 
R. Y. Maynell. N.B. 

Two pamphlets, 8vo., pp. 19 and 9, both privately printed. 

The first of these papers chiefly consists in a careful resume of the descrip- 
tions of Avebury with its sanctuary and avenues, and Silbury Hill, in the 
writings of Aubrey^ Stukeley, and Hoare, which are largely quoted from 
vols. iv. and v. of the Wilts Arch. Mag. Four plans from Stukely and 
Hoare are reproduced with photos of Silbury, Avebury Circle, and a par- 
ticularly good one of the 12th century font in the Church. The figure hold- 
ing a pastoral stafif with which he pierces a dragon is held to point to a 
survival in later Church times of the tradition of serpent worship in the 
older days. The whole of the second paper is taken up with elaborate 
quotations from Deane and other writers on the worship of the serpent in 
all parts of the world, more especially in its connection with Egyptian 
ritual and mythology, and the conclusion is that the " entire building of 
Avebury was erected by the Druids in the form of the ophite hierogram," 
and that " Silbury probably represents the celestial mount, the mother 
mountain, the underworld, and the huge serpent figure between it and the 
temple as guarding the Mother Mountain and the Tree of Life." 

Woodhenge and Stonehenge. In the Wiltshire Gazette, 
Sept. 15th, 1927, the Rev. G. H. Engleheart criticises Mrs. Cunnington's 
paper on Woodhenge which was read at the British Association Meeting at 



128 Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles. 

Leeds and was printed in the previous issue of the Gazette. He contends, 
contrary to Mrs. Cunnington's opinion, that Stonehenge was primarily 
sepulchral, as were many if not most other stone circles, and that if 
Woodhenge was not primarily sepulchral it could not be the prototype of 
Stonehenge. Indeed it is, he thinks, more likely to have been a degenerate 
copy of Stonehenge. With regard to the idea of the axis of Woodhenge 
pointing to the sunrise, he points to the very obvious objection that if the 
" axis " were intentionally " orientated " surely the builders would have 
made the entrance coincide with the line of the axis as it does at Stonehenge. 
The existence of the child's grave at Woodhenge in, as Mrs. Cunnington 
points out, the precise relative position occupied by the altar stone at 
Stonehenge, leads Mr. Engleheart to suggest that this supports the theory 
that the altar stone once stood upright and marked a central interment at 
Stonehenge. 

Stonehenge. In The KoJcogaTcu KenTcyu (The Archaeological 
Research) for Dec, 1927, there is a short notice of " Stones of the Stone- 
henge, by H. E. Stone," by R. Tsuboi, in English, and (apparently) a longer 
article on Stonehenge illustrated by many of the plans and drawings in 
Stone's book, in Japanese. 

Two ancient English Scholars, St Aldhelm and 

William of Malmesbury. The first lecture on the David Murray 
Foundation in the University of Glasgow delivered June 9th, 1931, by M. 
R. James, O.M. Pamphlet 8vo., pp. 33. 

Dr. James begins his lecture by reminding his audience that " Aldhelm 
was the first Englishman who could be called a book-learned man, the first 
of whom we have any literary remains. William was our first really en- 
lightened historian after the Venerable Bede, who died in 735. A great 
deal has been written about each of them, But there are certain links 
between them and certain facts about them — especially about William — 
which have either not been noted or not brought together, and it is my ob- 
ject in this lecture to focus them." 

Dr. James shows good reason to believe that two at least of the books 
from Aldhelm's library remained at Malmesbury until the Dissolution, and 
that one of them, a Roman law book, was transcribed by William of 
Malmesbury, in a MS. still preserved in the Bodleian, known as the Breviary 
of Alaric, as well as a whole series of historical writings. Of another com- 
pilation by William containing extracts mostly historical from Pagan and 
Christian writers, preserved in the British Museum, Dr. James has found a 
more complete copy in the library of St. John's College, Cambridge, show- 
ing that its proper title is the Polyhistor, and that it is really William's 
work, a fact which Stubbs considered doubtful. Dr. James has found in the 
Cambridge University Library another work by William, apparently un- 
known hitherto, a selection from the works of Gregory the Great, with a 
preface and notices of Gregory's life, which he made for his fellow monks 
at Malmesbury. Other additions to Stubbs' list of William's works are also 



1 



Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles, 129 

identified by Dr. James, including the old MS. collection of Lives of the 
Popes, known as the Liher PontificaliSy in the Cambridge University- 
Library. 

William's preface to the Polyhistor is given (in English) in full, as show- 
ing his wide acquaintance with the classic Latin writers, both poets and 
historians, and with later Latin writers, whose works he recommends his 
friend Guthlac to study. It is clear therefore that copies of these works 
existed in the Malmesbury library in William's day. He also mentions and 
gives extracts from the Christian Fathers, including Tertullian's Apology, 
Leland notes that he saw a MS. of Tertullian at Malmesbury c. 1530 and 
"In an edition of Tertullian printed at Basle in 1550, the editor 
Gelenius says that he had the use of an ancient copy from the extremity 
of Britain, from an Abbey which he calls Masburensis, and that it was 
lent to him by his friend John Leland. I cannot doubt that Leland 
borrowed the Malmesbury copy and lent it to Gelenius, who failed to 
return it." As to the enormous number of transcripts of ancient MSS, 
that William himself made for the Abbey library Dr. James says " Both 
as scholar and historian, he had recourse to every species of document 
that could be of use to him. How did he gather his knowledge ? 
Largely, I think, from visits to monasteries in this island. It cannot, I 
believe, be shown that he was ever out of England, but within England 
we know that he resided for some time at Glastonbury ; and that he 
examined books at Canterbury and Bury St. Edmunds is probable if 
not proven. In any case his accumulation of writings point to the ex- 
istence at Malmesbury of a library of astonishing variety and value. 
That part of it was of great antiquity and dated from Aldhelm's time, 
I think I have shown : that William's own additions to it were large 
and precious is obvious. Only one writer of the century in which he 
lived can be said to rival him in his literary equipment, and that is the 
somewhat younger John of Salisbury, the range of whose reading is co- 
extensive with Williams. . . . But in the case of John we are 
dealing with one whose education and career were continental : he 
spent twelve years at the University of Paris and the School of Chartres, 
resided much abroad at the Papal Court, and died Bishop of Chartres. 
Whereas William lived out his life within the precincts of English 
abbeys and most probably never crossed the Channel. . . . 

Whatever were the sources of it, the mass and variety of William's 
learning are phenomenal : and no less notable are the pains he took in 
making it available for others." 

Farmers' Glory. By A. G. Street. London. Paber 

& Co. [1932]. " This book," says the author, " is simply an attempt 
to give a pen picture of farming life in Southern England and Western 
Canada. Whilst the characters are drawn in some measure from life, no 
names used refer to anyone in actual life bearing a similar name." The 
farm described, apparently in the Wilton neighbourhood, with a great wood 
(? Groveley) at the top end of it, and water-keepers who wire pike in the 
river (? the Wylye), of which the author's father was the tenant, when he 
VOL. XLVI. — NO. CLVII. K 



130 Wiltshire Books, PamphletSy and Articles. 

left an agricultural school at 16 in 1907 to help him on the farm. This 
consisted of 630 acres, of which 400 were arable, stocked with 60 cows, 700 
ewes, and 13 horses. In those days the law of the four course rotation of 
crops was immutable, " one didn't farm for cash profits, but did one's duty 
by the land." 

The story of Granfer the Drowner and the General who persisted against 
his advice in planting his chicken farm in the water meadows is excellently 
told, indeed the language of the labouring folk throughout is genuine 
Wiltshire dialect, and they speak and act and think precisely as they do, or 
rather did, SO years ago. The whole account of the manners and customs 
of the farm labourer of what the author calls " the spacious days " before 
the war is obviously written by one who has not only known but also lived 
and worked with him on the farm. " When I think of the worries of farm- 
ing now, as compared to those simple days, I have a great admiration 
for that period and the men engaged in farming at that time ... Of 
the agricultural labourer of that epoch I can only speak with affection and 
respect ; with aflfection for his kindliness and courtesy to his neighbours, 
and with respect for his inviolable adherence to his duty by the soil." This 
is somewhat different from the estimate of the fashionable town-bred 
novelist of the present day. 

Just before the war, when the writer was grown up, he went to Canada and 
spent three years as assistant or hired man on a farm in N.W. Manitoba. 
He describes the extraordinarily hard work, where two men had literally 
to do everything, including cooking their own food, on the farm, and 
the rigours of the winter with the thermometer 40 — 60 degrees below Zero, 
and then declares that he never was so well or so happy in his life, and 
that there is no occupation so enjoyable or satisfying as ploughing. He 
came home during the war, was rejected by the army for flat feet, and 
helped his father until he died in 1917, and then succeeded him in the farm. 
He describes the profits of farming during the war, with what he calls the 
swanking of the farmer after the war, the great rise inlabourers' wages, and 
the slump after 1921. Every £J,000 invested in farming in 1920 is to-day 
worth £250 only. Arable farming became profitless and in 1925 he turned 
to milk producing, laying down his arable land to grass, and copying in 
1928 the open-air system of milk production of which Mr. Hosier set the 
example at Wexcombe. He describes this system and says that many of 
his neighbours in S. Wilts have already taken it up and that more will fol- 
low. Indeed he regards this system, under which 70 cows can be fed and 
milked by two men, on downland, which is improved out of all knowledge 
in the process, as the only one that holds out any prospect of success for 
holders of what were formerly arable farms in the south of England. 

A remarkable book, full of interest for all country folk, and withal 
singularly readable. 



Strawberry Roan. By A. Cr. Street, London, Faber, 1932. 

7iin. X 5in., pp. 328. A story of farming life, the scene of which is laid in 
S. Wilts, a few miles from " Winchberg," i.e. Salisbury. It is much on the 



Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles. 131 

«ame lines as " Farmers' Glory." There are the same accurate pictures of 
the farmer, and the farm, and the farm hands speak the same excellent 
Wiltshire that they spoke in the author's first book which made him famous. 

Gerdic and the Cloven Way. By O. G. S, Crawford. 

Antiquity, Dec 1931, Vol. Y., 441—458. 

The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle says that Cerdic and Cynric landed at 
Cerdices Ora on the south coast and fought their way northwards through 
Wiltshire. Mr. Thurlow Leeds rejects the evidence of the Chronicle 
entirely and says that the Saxons landed on the shores of the Wash and 
advanced south-westwards along the Ichnield Way. In this article Mr. 
Crawford defends the Chronicle account. The site of Cerdices Ora is 
unknown. Mr. Crawford believes that it was somewhere on the west shore 
of Southampton Water, near its head, and places it at Totton. Saxon 
armies on the march invariably followed important highways, and in con- 
sequence the sites of battlefields are to be looked for along such roads. It 
is agreed that the first battle with the Britons took place at Charford — 
Cerdices Ford — where the invaders must have crossed the Avon. "Now 
it so happens that an old road (for the most p9,rt disused and forgotten) can 
be traced without a break from Totton, across the northern skirts of the 
New Forest to Charford and thence to Old Sarum. ... It can actually 
be seen to-day in the form of deeply-cut trenches or traflSc ruts, produced 
by the combined action of use and weather." He traces this old track from 
Bears Lane, at Totton, to the Wiltshire boundary at Dazel Corner. Here 
in the parish of Landford, the tracks " run parallel with the boundary, a 
few yards to the north of it. They cross the Landford road near Ford's 
Oak, just south of the cross roads, and are plainly visible across Woodside 
Bottom, north of No Man's Land. Here they separate into two distinct 
groups which unite again in a copse at the southern end of Risbury Hill. 
They cross the road near the saw mill south of Lyburn Farm, and can be 
followed through the pine woods of Cloven Hill plantation. Over Cloven 
Hill itself they converge into a deep cleft from which this part of the road 
obtained the name which I have applied to the whole of it." 

From Cloven Hill the tracks cross Pound Bottom and proceed on 
obliquely across the Salisbury Road, near Golden Cross, and so over the 
open by Windmill Ball, Hatchet Green, Home Farm, Hale Dairy Farm, to 
Charbridge Lane and the ford over the Avon, across which they continue 
westwards past Colebrook Cottage and on by the South Charford Drove. 
There was, however, another ford north of this, between Searchfield 
Cottages and Lions' Lodge, with another track which also comes from 
Golden Cross leading to it. This road also goes on westwards by the 
North Charford Drove past Lions' Lodge. Both boundaries of the road 
lead to Wick Down and Grim's Ditch. Here the road disappears in arable 
land north of Wick Down. It reappears west of Odstock Copse and 
merges into the existing road to Odstock and Salisbury. There seems no 
way of deciding as to which of these fords at Charford was the site of the 
battle of 519. Mr. Crawford suggests that "Fyrdinges lea," which occurs 
in the boundaries of Downton and must have been on Odstock Down and 

K 2 



132 Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles, 

on the line of the continuation of the " Cloven Way," " does really contain 
an echo of the battle of Cerdices leah in 527," and he cites the Saxon 
cemeteries at Winkelbury and Harnham as some evidence in favour of his 
suggestion. " The modern road from Salisbury to Old Sarum is a direct 
prolongation of the Odstock road, i.e., of the Cloven Way. It continued 
northwards, probably along the line of the lost Roman road, to Cunetio 
(Mildenhall). As a mediaeval and later road its course through Everley and 
Burbage is well authenticated and well marked on the slopes by traffic ruts. 
If the line be continued beyond Marlborough we reach Barbury Castle, the 
Beran burh where Cynric and Ceawlin defeated the Britons in 556." Mr. 
Crawford gives a number of air photographs and full plans of the road over 
its whole course. 

A Swindon Retrospect, 1855—1930, By Frederick 

Iiarge, Swindon. The *' Borough Press," Eastcott Hill, Sept., 1931, 
7 J X 5, pp. 109. Illustrations, portrait of W. E. Morse ; view of The Lawn ; 
Holy Rood Church, the Planks, with the old mill pond, before it was 
demolished in 1851; G.W.R. Mechanics' Institute; Drove Road; old 
Market House ; old Independent Chapel, demolished 1864 ; six toll gates in 
the Borough, from sketches made 1908. 

This little book written by one born in 1852 whose whole life has been 
passed in Swindon, does not pretend to be more than a series of jottings 
concerning the condition of the town when the writer first remembers it, as 
compared with what it is now. He begins by quoting from The New 
British Traveller a description of Swindon as, " a small village of no im- 
portance on the summit of the hill near the important market town of 
Highworth." He gives a detailed description of the town and its 
surroundings as he first recollects it, the scattered farm houses and cottages, 
public houses, churches and chapels, schools, shops, pest house, pound, 
fields, roads, paths, and the G.W.R. station, noting the present streets and 
buildings that have succeeded them. In those days there were no shops in 
New Swindon. Incidentally he mentions that a large number of men with 
their wives and families were imported from Wales, a fact which helps to 
account for the considerable number of Welsh names amongst the in- 
habitants of the neighbourhood to-day. Wroughton Feast and its prize 
fights, and the red letter day of Wroughton history, when " George Frederick," 
trained by Tom Leader, of Wroughton, won the Derby of 1874, and returned 
from the race in triumph led by the Wroughton Band, who received a pair 
of silver cymbals from Mr, Cartwright the owner, as an acknowledgement 
of their services, whilst the Church bells joined in the welcome— to the 
scandal of those who did'nt approve of horse racing, until it was explained 
that the ringing was not in honour of the Derby but of some ' Royal 
Anniversary ' — it doesnt quite appear what, A vendor of Purton Spa water 
carried in vessels made to fit over his shoulder one in front and one behind 
used to visit Swindon weekly selling the water at a penny the half-pint. 
The severe winter of 1860 is described, when the ice was a foot thick on 
Coate reservoir for six weeks, and sheep were roasted whole on its banks, 
■with other diversions. Then comes a good account of the worst storm in. 



Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets ^ and Articles, 133 

Jiving memory, the great snow of January 18th— 20th, 1881, when twenty 
persons were frozen to death within twenty miles of Swindon, particulars 
of many of these tragedies being given. Elections of course come in for 
notice, more especially the serious rioting after the election of 1880 when 
Mr. N. Story Maskelyne was returned. A couple of errors have crept in, 
the Goddard family were not seated at the Lawn 600 years ago, and the 
height of Swindon above the sea is not 488ft. A useful little book. The 
impression given is that the writer after all regards the good old times as 
really no better than they should be. 

Was there a second Belgic invasion (represented 

l}y bead rim pottery) ? By Mrs. B. H. Cunnington. Ant. Journ.i 
Jan. 1932. Vol. XII., pp. 27—34. It is generally accepted that the invasion 
of Britain by the Belgae, mentioned by Caesar, is represented by the ped- 
€stalled urns found over the East of England from Kent to Cambridge. In 
Archaeological Journal, 1930, Vol LXXXVIL. p. 28, a long paper by Chr. 
Hawkes and G. C. Dunning on " The Second Belgic Invasion of Britain 
and the significance of Bead-rim Ware," elaborates the theory that there 
was a second invasion of the West of England via Southampton Water by 
Belgse from Normandy who brought with them the use of the potter's 
wheel and wheel-made bead rim pottery and were responsible for the crea- 
tion of the great Hill Forts of Dorset and Wilts. In the present paper 
Mrs. Cunnington examines this theory more especially in its bearing on 
Wiltshire, and comes to the conclusion that there is nothing to warrant the 
idea of the conquest of Wiltshire by a second Belgic invasion on a large 
scale. As for this invasion having been led by Commius, he was a fugi- 
tive from Gaul who was most unlikely to have an array with him sufficient 
to conquer Western Britain. As to the wheel-made bead-rim pottery, the 
only sites (out of eleven Early Iron Age Sites in the county which have 
been excavated) which have produced this pottery have been Casterley and 
Hanging Langford, both of which are village settlements and not of the 
type of the Great Hill Forts. Her conclusion is that " This historical event 
of great importance, namely a second immigration from Belgia " conquering 
Wessex, far from having been " conclusively proved " remains extremely 
-doubtful. 

Sir Francis Burdett and his Times (1770—1844). 

Including hitherto unpublished letters of Mrs. Fitzherbert, George Prince 
of Wales, the Duke of York, the Duke of Clarence (William IV.), Lord 
■Chancellor Erskine, Lord Chancellor Brougham, Lord Grey (of the Reform 
Bill), Lord Anglesey, B. Disraeli (Lord Beaconsfield), Jeremy Bentham, 
Thomas Coutts, Harriott Duchess of St. Albans, Lord Holland, Lady Hol- 
land, J. C. Hobhouse (Lord Broughton), Lord Cochrane (10th Earl of Dun- 
<ionald), the 4th Duke of Northumberland, Lord Langdale, Sir C. Manners 
button (Lord Canterbury), Adelaide d' Orleans, Francis Place, J. W 
Cooker, R. B. Haydon, and others. 

By M. W. Patterson, Vice-President and Senior Tutor of Trinity College, 
Oxford. Two vols., 8vo. Macmillan, 1931. 



134 Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles. 

Vol. T. pp. xiv. + 356., 21 portraits and illustrations. Vol. II , pp. 357 — 
688, 13 portraits, etc. 

Sir Francis Burnett was a son of Sir Francis and grandson of Sir Robert: 
Burnett. His mother was Eleanor, d. of Sir William Jones, of Ramsbury 
Manor. As Sir William had no son, Burnett inherited the Ramsbury 
property. He inherited also Foremarke, in Derbyshire, the Burdett family 
seat, with a large property there. Educated at Westminster (from whicb 
he was expelled for taking part in a rebellion against the headmaster, Dr. 
Samuel Smith) and Christ Church, Oxford, he married 1793 Sophie, the 
youngest daughter of Thomas Coutts, the banker. 

The book gives a detailed account of the part taken by Burdett in the^ 
political life and struggles of his time, largely by means of unpublished 
letters which are here given in full. The Middlesex elections of 1802 and 
1806 and the Westminster election of 1807 have chapters to themselves.^ 
The career of Home Tooke and his connection with Burdett occupies con- 
siderable space. The committal of Burdett to the Tower by the Speaker^ 
the original MS. of which now hangs at Ramsbury, and the consequent 
riotous proceedings in London, are dwelt upon fully. 

Coutts' fortune, under the will of Mrs. Coutts, in default of a son» 
passed to Francis Coutts, only son of her sister Clara, who afterwards be- 
came 5th Baron Latymer. Of course the bulk of these two most interesting 
volumes deal with Sir Francis' political career. He was for 30 years M.P. 
for Westminster, and in 1833 he became M.P. for North Wilts. His rela- 
tions with Cobbett, Hen. Hunt, Hobhouse, and the others of that exciting 
time, the Westminster election of 1818, the Peterloo Massacre, his life- 
long fight for reform, the whole story is told, largely through letters either 
from him or to him, of which an extraordinary number seem to have been 
(happily) preserved in the Burdett papers. 

The story of Thomas Coutts, the great banker, father of Lady Burdett, 
and his second marriage within a few days of his first wife's death to Harriott 
Mellon, the actress, afterwards Duchess of St. Albans, and the consequent 
strained relations for a long while between the father and daughter occupy 
considerable space. Sir Francis' only son, Robert Burdett, inherited tha 
title, but died unmarried in 1880 and the title then passed to the son of 
Jones Burdett, Sir Francis' brother, Sir Francis and his wife dying within 
a day or two of each other were both buried in the Burdett vault in Rams- 
bury Church on January 3 1st, 1844. His daughter, Angela (afterwards^ 
Baroness Burdett Coutts) inherited the bulk of the Coutts' property. 

A West Country School of Masons. By Sir Harold 

Brakspear, K.C.V.O., F.S.A. Archseologia, Ixxxi., 1—18, 18 
plates, and cuts. 

" The object of this paper is to endeavour to show that there was in the 
West of England an important school of craftsmen responsible for a num- 
ber of buildings of the first magnitude, as well as for others of a smaller 
size. This supposed school flourished at the period '* when the round arch 
was logically giving way to the pointed one." " It is generally accepted 



Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles. 135 

that building works in the middle ages were carried out by Guilds or Lodges 
of Masons and other artisans under the direction of a master. How these 
guilds originated, how they were ruled, and how the patron wanting work 
done, employed them is not known." " There is no question that Lodges 
or Guilds travelled from place to place as their services were required." 
" Scarcely ever is the guiding hand of any of our great masterpieces recorded. 
One exception is that of Elias de Dyrham, who is credited with the design 
of the King's Hall at Winchester, the Cathedral at Salisbury, and the Nine 
Altars at Durham, and here it would seem that though he was a Canon of 
Salisbury he was a noted designer and possibly the head of a prosperous 
school." 

As the distinctive features of the supposed school appear first in Malmes- 
bury Abbey, it is important to fix the date of the building of the Church, 
and from various considerations Sir Harold believes that it could not have 
been begun before 1145 and that the date of the transepts and west end, 
where the work in question especially occurs, must lie between 1150 and 
1160. Both at the west end and in the interior triforium window arches 
of the transepts the continuous roll moulding round jambs and arches 
which Sir Harold regards as one of the most distinctive features of the 
work of the school, occurs, and he regards the masons wrought this work as 
the pioneers of the school, whose hand is seen especially in the western 
dioceses of Lichfield, Worcester, Hereford, Wells, Salisbury, and Llandaff. 
The two varieties of the Abacus Mould as seen at Malmesbury were used 
throughout almost all the works of the school, as were also the pointed 
arch, always used for vaulting whilst the round arch continued to be used 
for doors and windows, and the continuous order throughout jambs and 
arches was interspersed with orders with caps and bases. The evidence of 
the existence of the school seems to be strictly confined to the period men- 
tioned above. 

Architecture in Wiltshire through the Ages. Sur- 
vey by Sir Harold Brakspear, F.S A. Wiltshire Gazette, 

Feb. 4th, 1932. Lecture at Corsham. This is a useful popular account of 
the development of architecture in England, illustrated by Wiltshire ex- 
amples. The Saxon Church at Bradford is definitely stated not to be of 
Aldhelm's time, but of the period subsequent to the Danish invasions. 

Willbury Park, the seat of Major Despencer 
Robertson, MP. By H. Avray Tipping. Country life, 

January 23rd, 1932, pp. 96—102, 11 illustrations. House from the S-W. ; 
Saloon Chimneypiece ; N. & W. Sides of Saloon ; Stucco and Wood Carv- 
ings in Saloon ; In Lobby, W. of Hall ; Blue Drawing Room ; Library in 
W. Wing ; Plan and Elevation as given in the Vitruvius Britannicus \ 
Hall ; The Temple (in the grounds) ; Beeches forming one of the Avenues. 
William Benson, the successor of Sir Christopher Wren in the office of 
Surveyor of H.M. Works, bought the Newton Toney Manor Estate in 1709, 
and built, about 1715, the new house from his own designs which he called 



136 Wiltshire Books, Pa7nphlets, and Articles. 

Willbury, a plan and elevation of which is given by his friend Colin Camp- 
bell in his Vitruvius Britannicus. It is noted that the Church fell down 
and was re-edified about 1840. It contains, however, monuments to mem- 
bers of the families of Jones, Fiennes, Benson, and Malet, who have owned 
the Manor. In 1786 it belonged to Thos. West, Lord De la Warre, and from 
the Wests passed to the Reades and from them to the Joneses. It was pur- 
chased about 1652 by Col. the Hon. Nath. Fiennes, second son of the first 
Viscount Saye and Sale. He served on the Parliamentary side during the 
Civil War, and afterwards retired to Newton Tony Manor, and was buried 
in the Church. His younger daughter, Celia Fiennes, who was brought up 
at Newton Toney, is well known from the MS. diary which she kept, " The 
account of severall journeys into severall parts of England, with many re- 
marks." Newton Tony, however, is not described in the diary. Celia's 
mother lived there until her death in 1691, her half-brother having inherited 
from his uncle the Viscounty of Saye and Sele and the family seat of 
Broughton Castle, near Banbury. William Benson, who bought the Manor 
in 1709, had inherited a fortune from his father who had been Sheriff of 
London. " He posed as a Maecenas, a generous patron of art, architecture, 
and learning, while his politics took the form of recouping himself, by 
lucrative oflSce, for his over-indulgence in Cb^sthetics." The architect Hawks- 
moor, complains of him that he got himself made Surveyour Generall and 
got more in one year (for confounding ye King's Works) than Sir Christo- 
pher Wren did in 40 years for his honest endeavours." 

The ground floor of the central block remains to-day much as Benson 
built it, the two wings being added later in the 18th century. The plan 
given in Vitruvius Britannicus is the existing one, but the front elevation 
there shown was probably altered during the building, and the upper storey 
added. After Benson's time the house belonged for a short period to Sir 
K. C. Hoare's grandfather, who sold it cir. 1740 to Fulke Greville. About 
1780 it was bought by a Mr. Bradshaw, and again about 1800 by Sir Charles 
Malet, who descendents held it until recently when it was bought by Major 
Despencer Robertson, now M.P. for Salisbury. During internal alterations 
some remains of an earlier house were found, but there is nothing to show 
whether this was the Old Manor House or not. 



The Avon Vale Hunt, by William Scarth-Dlxon, 

1931 — 32. Pamphlet, cr. 8vo., pp. 52, with process views of Meets at 
Shaw House (2), Beanacre Halt, Shingley, Hilperton Grange, Trowbridge 
Barracks, Rood Ashton (2), and Point-to- Point at Broughton Gifford, to- 
gether with a map of the country from Bradford-on-Avon to Beckhampton 
and from Slaughterford to Edington. There are 14 pages of letterpress de- 
scribing the country, and giving a history of the pack from 1888 when the 
Duke of Beaufort lent a part of the Badminton country to Capt. Spicer. 
On the death of the 8th Duke in 1899, the 9th Duke resumed this country 
and hunted it until 1904, when the South and West Wilts hounds hunted 
it until 1912. The Duke, of Beaufort then finally gave it up, and the 
present Avon Vale pack was formed and new stables were built. The 



Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles. 137 

history of the pack and its successive masters is very shortly given down 
to the present time, together with particulars as to subscriptions, puppy 
shows, point-to-point meetings, etc. 

Famous Hunts and their Countries. The Avon 

Vale. Article by M. F. in Country Life, Feb. 13th, 1932, pp. 169—172. 
Fourteen excellent illustrations — Hounds and their Master, Uapt. the Hon. 
T. Holland- Hibbert (at Steeple Ashton) ; A Meet at Steeple Ashton ; The 
Avon Vale Foxhounds at their Kennels near Melksham ; Five Groups at 
the Meet, Six Portraits of Hounds, The article describes the country and 
the history of the pack suflSciently fully. 

The Upper Great Oolite, Bradford Beds and Forest 
Marble of South Oxfordshire, and the succession of 
Gastropod Faunas in the Great Oolite. By W. J. 

Arkell, D. Phil., B.Sc. Quart. Joum. of Geolog. Soc, Ixxxvii., pp. 
563—629. November, 1931. 

This important paper, dealing with the identification and succession of 
the Oolite beds of Oxfordshire, touches the geology of Wiltshire at many 
points. The Bradford Clay, the Kemble Limestones, and the Forest Mar- 
ble of Pickwick, are constantly referred to, as represented in Oxfordshire. 
The paper represents the results of an enormous amount of field work 
as well as minute study of the characteristic fossils of each bed. 

William WindOVer, By A. B. Lemon. An interesting note in 
Salisbury Times, Jan. 29th, 1932. Born in St. Martin's Parish, Salisbury, 
Nov. 16th, 1575, s. of Edward Windover, Mayor 1595, who died April 1st, 
1645. About 1600 William bought the house in St. Ann's Street, built on 
the site of the Greyfriars, now belonging to Mr. J. L. Lovibond. He died 
January 31st, 1632, leaving i'SO to the Shoemakers' Company of Salisbury, 
and the same sum to the Bakers' Company. Two portraits of him, one in 
the Guildhall at Salisbury which formerly belonged to the Shoemakers' 
Company, and the other in the possession of Mr. J. L. Lovibond, are de- 
scribed in this note. In the Guildhall portrait he holds in bis hand a letter 
addressed to "Mr. William Windover, merchant in Hamburg." This sug- 
gests that he belonged to the Company of Merchant Adventurers, whose 
arms appear on his portrait. 

When the Queen passed by. An Outdoor Play in 
three scenes. By Ida Gandy. Price is. net. London : H. F. W. 
Deane& Sons [1932]. Pamphlet, cr. 8vo , pp. 36. 

Mrs. Gandy, daughter of the Rev. C. Hony, Vicar of Bishops Can- 
nings, takes as the subject of her play the performance of a Pastoral Play 
written by George Ferrabe, Vicar in 1613, before Queen Anne of Denmark, 
wife of James I., as she passed Bishops Cannings, and actually made the 



138 Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles. 

Vicar one of her chaplains after witnessing his play as performed by shep- 
herds. In her foreword the author says that she has been " as accurate in 
detail as possible and all the names of her characters are to be found in the 
parish registers of Bishops Cannings of that particular period." The scene 
is laid in the Vicarage garden atiBishops Cannings, and " The Shepherd's 
Song," set to music, takes the place of " The Shepeherd's Songe before 
Queen Anne in 4 partes complete musical upon the Playnes of Salisbury," 
which was printed in London, but is no longer known to exist. 

General Pitt Rivers' Section of Wansdyke. In 

Antiquity iov ^e^i., 1932, Vol. VI., p. 349, Mr. O. G. S. Crawford has a 
note accompanied by a good air photo of the Wansdyke with the General's 
cutting showing plainly ^-mile N.W. of Old Shepherd's Shore. He states 
that " at this point, for a distance of about a quarter of a mile, Wansdyke 
coincides with an earlier entrenchment which was marked on the original 
1-inch Ordnance Map (about 1806) but not on the subsequent large scale 
maps, until I had it re-inserted on the edition of 1925 — 26. The entrench- 
ment in question runs roughly N.W. — S.E. ; starting from the Roman road 
at a point immediately N.E. of Horsecombe, it traverses Morgan's HilU 
where it consists of two ditches and three banks. It is evident that the 
builders of Wansdyke utilised a portion of this linear earthwork for about 
a quarter of a mile. ... On the south side the earthwork has been 
mutilated by some flint diggings, but it can still be traced both on the 
ground and from the air as far as the Old Bath Boad, 750ft. S. W. of Old 
Shepherd's Shore. Mr. Crawford contends that the cutting through the 
outer bank of the counter-scarp revealed what was plainly the ditch and 
bank of this older entrenchment although it was not recognised as such by 
the General. 

We who come after. By Mary Wiltshire. London : 

Sampson Low [1931], 7|in. x 5in., pp. 3 + 312. A Novel. 

According to her sensible custom Mary Wiltshire makes her characters 
live in actually existing houses, in actually existing streets, in the town of 
Devizes, where the whole course of the story is laid. The story is that of a 
Victorian private school for girls established in the well-known Brownston 
House, and as the foreword tells us " the characters of the Miss Susan 
Studley and of Madame are to a certain extent portraits, whose originals 
have long since passed." It is an excellent account of a class of school now 
entirely extinct which, as the writer contends, did in its day fill a place and 
that a really good and useful place, in the scheme of education of the time. 

The Scandal and credulities of John Aubrey, 
edited by John Collier, with engravings by Helen 
Kapp London: Printed for Peter Davies MCMXXXI. 

p. 3 + 169. 

This book consists of a selection from 52 of Aubrey's Brief Lives with 
the addition of five more short notices from other works of his, together 
with a long introduction by the editor, dealing with Aubrey's life as noted 



Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles. 139 

by himself, and with his writings, the Lives and the Miscellanies that 
is, from a literary point of view. The Aubrey that we know best in Wilt- 
shire, the antiquary and the topographer, is barely mentioned. It is the 
Aubrey of the Lives and of the spicey stories scattered so liberally through 
them ; who is set before us in these pages. As the editor says " Aubrey's 
grossnesses occur so frequently and at such important points, that to sup- 
press them is to destroy ^utterly the artistic value of most of the principal 
lives." Accordingly all the indecent passages which were omitted in iMr. 
Clarke's Standard Edition of the lives are carefully restored here, except 
apparently one example, and that one the editor is after all inclined to 
think he was wrong in suppressing. 

Avebury, Windmill Hill *' The Oldest Dog," 

Country Life, Sept. 17th, 1932, has an excellent photograph of the com- 
plete skeleton of a dog, set up as in life, with a note by Mr. Alex Keiller, 
who found it during his excavations at Windmill Hill. During 1928 the 
skeletons of six domesticated dogs were found including the one illustrated. 
This came from the definitely Neolithic station of the middle ditch, and 
was so complete that not a single bone had to be supplied. All the Wind- 
mill Hill dog skulls were of the same breed, apparently, as the dogs of the 
Neolithic Lake Dwellings in Switzerland, but do not resemble any 
particular modern breed. 

Annual Report of the Salisbury, South Wilts, and 
Blackmore Museum for 1931—1932, 8vo., pp 20. 

This report shows the very large amount of work carried out by Mr. 
Stevens and his staff during the year, in the re-organisation of the Museum, 
more especially after the removal of the American section of the Blackmore 
Museum Collection to the British M useum. The museum is becoming more 
and more specialised as the museum of Salisbury and the surrounding dis- 
trict of S. Wilts. The examining and cataloguing of the late Dr. Black- 
more's various collections has alone occupied a large amount of the energies 
of the curator, and in this connection it is good to hear that the doctor's 
large and valuable geological collection, chiefly cretaceous and local is now 
being catalogued and named by the experts of the Natural History Museum, 
S. Kensington. It is to be hoped that room will be found for its adequate 
exhibition at Salisbury when the work on it is finished. 

Report Of the Marlborough Coll. Nat. Hist Soc. 
for the year 1931. 

The outstanding feature of this report is a most interesting paper by H. 
C. Brentnall, pp. 43 — 65, on " Venison trespasses in Savernake Forest in the 
reign of Hen. VII " with a sketch map of JSavernake showing the probable 
extent of the woodlands in 1400, founded upon a report to the Justiciar of 
the King's Forests, by the keepers of Savernake presenting the breaches of 
Forest Law from I486 to 1491 which is printed from a document in the Record 
OflBce apparently in full. One point is worth noticing, all the cases of 
poaching are concerned with Bucks and Does, i.e., Fallow Deer. There is 
no mention of Red Deer at all, and Mr. Brentnall says that he has found no 



140 Wiltshire Boohs, Pamphlets, and Articles. 

record of the killing of harts in other reigns. In 1238 there is a record of 
the importation of harts from Derbyshire to strengthen the local strain in 
Savernake, but there is nothing to show how far this succeeded. The 14th 
century records do not mention them. It is concluded therefore that they 
were then scarce or absent, at which date they were re-introduced there is 
nothing to show. " In 1539 it was estimated that there were only about 
2000 Red Deer in all the King's Forests, Chases, and Parks north of 
the Trent : there would be still fewer south of it." The poachers belonged 
largely to the Wroughtons of Broad Hinton, and the Darells of Little- 
cot. John Wroughton, Sheriff of Wilts in 1486, Sir Edward Darell, 
also Sheriff, John Bayntun, and Henry Sturmy were amongst the chief 
delinquents against whom presentations were made. The paper is full of 
valuable notes on the place names and topography of the forest as well as 
explanations of the terms used in Forest Law. 

The Natural History notes on the past year contain specially interesting 
observations on the Redshank. The first definite record of a pair was at 
Mildenhall in 1911. There was no further record till 1917. The first nest 
found was at Axford in 1920. In 1931, however, it is estimated that about 
36 pairs were nesting in the Kennet Valley between Ramsbury and Fyfield 
and in the Og Valley, and the homes of the various pairs are given. Of the 
Stone Curlew on the other hand the report is by no means so cheerful. " It 
is a species that is far from common here . . . not more than five or 
six pairs breed on the area that has been observed." The Landrail is said 
to be definitely on the increase again. 

In the Botanical Report the following plants are mentioned : — Impatiens 
parvijlora & glandulifera, Genista anglica & tinctoria, Fragaria moschata, 
Rosa tomentosa var. scabriuscula, Ophrys sphegodes, Scropkularia alata. 

The Wiltshire Master Printers' Association. 

Pages 9 — 32 of Our Bulletin, the organ of the South- Western Alliance of 
Master Printers' Associations, contain an illustrated article on *' The Wilt- 
shire Association" inaugurated in 1919, with portraits of E. O. Twitcher, 
President ; J. E. Stone, Vice-President ; and H, H. Vincent, secretary. 
Useful notices of the origin, history, and work of the following printing 
businesses in the county are given —The Adjutants Press, Ludgershall, 
founded 1914 ; The Borough Press, Swindon, established 1895 ; John Drew 
{Printers) Ltd., 51, Bridge St, Swindon ; A E. & H. Holloway, Westbury, 
founded 1857 by W. Michael : J. Riddick, Malmesbury (J. T. Bird, 1873); 
The Salisbury and Winchester Journal, founded 1729 ; The Salisbury Press 
Ltd., set up in 1913 ; George Simpson & Co., Devizes, begun in Salisbury in 
1816, moved to Devizes 1819 : The Swindon Press, Ltd., founded by Will. 
Morris, 1854 ; The Victoria Press, Swindon, founded 1856. There are eight 
illustrations in the text, including Quakers Walk, Devizes. 

Cattle Maiming at Potterne, 1816—17. Captain B. 

H. Cunnington has an interesting article in the Wiltshire Gazette, Dec. 
24th, 1931, on the curious outbreak of cattle maiming at Potterne in 1816 
and 1817. Messrs. James and Thomas Hull seem to have suffered the 
greatest losses, viz., 6 sheep, 7 mares, and 11 cows, though Mr. Chiffence 



Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles. 141 

also lost a cow, and Mr. George Rolfe a sheep. The outrages were confined 
to Potterne parish. In June, 1817, a notice was widely distributed in Wilt- 
shire offering a reward of 50 guineas for information which should lead to 
the discovery of the offender, and a promise of an application for a free par- 
don as well as the above reward to anyone implicated in the outrage who 
would "discover" his accomplices. In October, 1817, a further reward of 
15 guineas was offered by the Devizes Society for the Prosecution of Felons 
and other offenders, and by Mr. George Rolfe, and the matter came before 
Quarter Sessions held at Marlborough on October 17th, and a resolution 
was passed offering JUlOO (in addition to the two previous rewards offered) 
for the discovery of the offenders. The Prince Regent also promised 
through Lord Sidmouth a free pardon to anyone, except the actual perpet- 
rator of the offences, who should " discover " the offenders. It does not 
appear whether any such " discovery " was ever made. 

Records of Marlborough Tradesmen. Bill Heads 

of the Iiast Century. By B. H. Cunnington. Wilts, Berks, and 
Hants County Paper, January 22nd, 1932. Capt. Cunnington gives a series 
of Marlborough examples from his collection of Bill Heads. W. W. Lucy 
(1843), Printer and Stationer ; Edward Yockney ( 1 825), Sign and Ornamental 
Painter ; Charles Awdray (1831), Plumber, Glazier, and Painter ; J. 
Hammond, Plumber, Glazier, and Painter ; F. Mortimer (1827), Grocery 
and Tea Warehouse; John Brown (1832), Tea Dealer and Grocer ; 
Harold & Emberlin (i820), Printers, Booksellers, Stationers, and Druggists j 
Hannah Emberlin, widow of W. Emberlin, succeeded in 1857 ; John Fowle , 
Linen and Woollen Draper ; James Carter (1863), Ailesbury Arms Hotel ; 
William Bunsdon (1829), Ironmonger, &c. ; John Westall (1829), Auctioneer, 
Surveyor, &c. ; John Day (1818), Cabinet Maker, Auctioneer, Upholsterer, 
&c., Jacob Bull, Grocer, &c. 

Fisherton Anger in the Reiifn of Queen Anne. 

By Capt. B. H. Cunnington. Salisbury Journal, J s^nnsiry 15th, 
1932. Extracts from Quarter Sessions Rolls. Fisherton Anger parish, 
then outside Salisbury, appears to have been in a very poor way from 1707 
onwards. Capt. Cunnington has extracted from the Quarter Sessions Rolls 
preserved at Devizes lists of the rate payers in many parishes of S. Wilts 
who in that year and subsequently were rated in relief of the poor in 
Fisherton Anger. The justices in 1707 preface their order for a rate thus — 
" It appearing to this Court that the inhabitants of the Parish of Fisherton 
Anger in the Hundred of Branch and Dole within this County are notable 
to levy amongst themselves sufficient sums of money for the relief of the 
poor of the said parish and that no other of any Parish or out of any Parish 
within the said Hundred, nor the said Hundred (Branch and Dole) are able 
and fitt to relieve the said " — the justices proceed to make a list of the sums 
to be paid by the inhabitants of Clarendon Park, and of the^ various parishes 
in Amesbury Hundred. 

The names of the ratepayers and the amount of their rate are here printed 
in full. The inhabitants were apparently rated according to their means. 
Thus twelve inhabitants of Clarendon Park pay £25 14s. 4d., whilst twelve 



142 Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles. 

inhabitants of Allington pay only 4s. ll|d. The names of the ratepayers 
in the following parishes belonging to Amesbury Hundred are given ; — 
Newton Tony, Cholderton, Brigmerston, Allington, Boscombe, East Winter- 
slow, Tidworth North, Bulford, Gt. Durnford, West Wellow, Kingston 
Deverill, Ludgershall, Compton and Alton, Figheldean, Durrington, and 
Gt. Amesbury. 

In 1706 and 17 1 7 rates were made on " Melchard Park (Melchet, trans- 
ferred to Hampshire in 1895)" for the same purpose. These lists give the 
names of over 400 inhabitants of S. Wilts in the reign of Queen Anne. 

AsBOCiations of Friends of the King and Constitu- 

tiou. Capt. B. H. Cunnington prints an interesting note in the Wilt- 
shire Gazette, April 28th, 1932, on the formation of these associations in the 
county, with extracts from the Quarter Sessions Records, and quotes the 
following declaration passed and signed by the justices present at the 
Quarter Sessions held at Devizes, January 15th, 1793. 

" We, the chairman and others, His Majesty's Justices of the Peace, 
in our General Quarter Sessions assembled do in the strongest manner 
feel and express our sincere attachment to His Majesty's Person and 
the present constitution of this kingdom, and are highly sensible of the 
great blessings and comforts which we enjoy under it, and of His 
Majestys paternal regard in the prevention of all Seditious Public itions 
and Meetings. At the same time we are most happy in having seen 
the Loyalty of this County so fully demonstrated by the numerous 
associations which have been formed for the support of Government 
and the Public Tranquility. — (Signed) A. Bayntun (chairman), Willm. 
Seymour, J. Montagu, Jas. Sutton, John James junr., Thos. Bush, 
Edw. Horlock Mortimer, J. Awdry, T. R. Webb, Philip James Gibbs, 
Amb. Goddard, Thos. Estcourt, Sir Ed. Baynton, Richard Long, T. D. 
Astley, Ed. Goddard, Ed. Poore, Nath. Hume. 
Devizes claimed to have formed the first of these " Associations " in the 
Kingdom, and on Feb. 1st, 1793, when the French Convention declared war 
on England, subscription lists in the town and district were opened " to assist 
the energy of the Government at the present important crisis." At a meet- 
ing of the association on February 25th it was resolved to offer a bounty of 
two guineas over and above the government bounty to all men from the 
Devizes district who should join the Royal Navy before March llth and be 
accepted after examination. 

Salisbury: an arcliitect's impression. By P. T. 

Dickinson. In Salisbury Times, Sept. 2nd, 1932, The writer of this article 
has the temerity to assert that Salisbury spire is too tall. As long as you 
can see it from the Close where it is fore-shortened it is all very well, but 
when you get further away it seems to dominate everything else and that 
he objects to. On the other hand he praises Salisbury for the absence in 
its streets of faked antique house fronts such as abound in Winchester, 
Chester, and other Cathedral cities. He is convinced that the Old Bone 
Mill at Harnham is built largely of fragments from Old Sarum, like the 
walls of the Close. 






Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles. 143 

Songs of Bradford-on-Avon. By the Rev. Bdwin 

J. Matthews ('* Saxon.") 2/6. Cr. 8vo., paper cover, pp.40. 
The foreword by Lord Fitzraaurice filling 7 pp. and dated Sept., 1926, 
dwells on the fact that most of our " Wiltshire " poets have not been natives 
of the county. The body of the work contains 35 short poems, mostly re- 
ferring to, or suggested by some particular spot in Bradford. 

The Moonraker, 1831. Amongst the reprints from the files 
of the paper a hundred years ago, the following appeared in the Wiltshire 
Gazette, Dec. 23rd, 1931 :— 

" The following publication escaped notice in the History of Wiltshire 
Newspapers that was written some years ago for the Wiltshire Magazine. 
If anyone has a copy we should like to see it : — 

Respectfully dedicated to the Inhabitants of Wiltshire. Just Published 
(Price three-pence) No. 2 of The Moonraker, or Museum of Literature, 
Amusement, and Instruction. 

Calne; printed and published by H. H. Gaby, sold by Brodie and 
Dowding, Salisbury ; Mrs. Allbutt, Devizes ; Mr. W. W. Lucy, Marlborough ; 
Cochrance, Melksham ; Sweet, Trowbridge; Alexander, Chippenham; 
ilicketts, Highworth ; Waite, Wootton Bassett ; and by every other Book- 
seller in the county. 

A Second Edition of No. I is now ready. The Moonraker will be 
published in future every fortnight — No. 3 will appear on Tuesday, Nov. 1st, 
containing a portrait and memoir of that friend of his country and mankind 
—Earl Grey. 

Communications are respectfully requested, addressed (post paid) to the 
Publisher. Original articles, or interesting extracts will be esteemed favours, 
and will be inserted as early as possible." 

G-eorge Herbert. No. VIIL in " studies of Sanctity " in The 
Spectator, March 12th, 1932, pp. 360, 361. By T. S. Eliot. 

Alfred Williams. The Hammerman Poet : a Tri- 
bute. By J. B, Jones. A two-column article in the Wiltshire 
Times, April 16th, 1932, by one who knew Williams well, yet he makes this 
strange comment on Williams' prose writings. " Williams loved the 
country folk of Wiltshire in the same romantic fashion (as he loved its 
scenery)," and apparently implies that he saw the Wiltshire labourer 
through far too rosy spectacles. 

Some Bill Heads of the last century. Devizes 
Tradesmen and their wares. By B. H. Cunnington, 

Wiltshire Gazette, Jan. 7th, 1932. Capt. Cunnington has for some time 
been collecting the bill heads from tradesmen's bills of the 18th and first 
half of the 19th century, and in this paper he gives the names and advert- 
isements of articles sold by thirty-two Devizes tradesmen between 1836 and 
1867, and by way of illustration half-a-dozen pictorial cuts from billheads 
of the time are reproduced. In many cases notes are added as to places 
where the business was carried on. A useful article. 



144 Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles. 

Southbroom Church. The centenary of its re-opening after re- 
building was celebrated on August 10th, 1932, and an interesting note on 
the history of the building is given in the Wiltshire Gazette^ August 18th, 
1932, quoting from its own columns of 100 years ago. The Church, or 
rather Chapel, of St. James was then, with the exception of the existing 
tower, almost wholly rebuilt at a total cost of £ 1019 12s. 7d., of which the 
particulars are set forth. The principal events in the history of the Church 
since 1838, when the Rev. Alfred Smith resigned the living, with the suc- 
cession of Vicars are given. Southbroom became a separate parish in 1831. 
Before this it was the Chapelry of St. James, Southbroom, in the Parish of 
Cannings Episcopi. The plan and design of the old Church was very much 
what it is now. It never had a chancel. 

The Bear Hotel, Devizes. Tariff and Souvenir. 

[1931]. Pamphlet, cr. 8vo., pp. 32. "Some notes on its history, by Ed. 
Kite," are full and good. The first actual mention of it as an Inn appears 
to be in 1599, when the landlord was John Sawter. Its position in coach- 
ing days and the connection with Sir Thomas Lawrence are dwelt on. The 
illustrations include the entrance, the back of the hotel, old oak staircase, 
Tudor fireplace, &c., as well as Devizes on Market Day, and a map of the 
district. A very useful pamphlet. 

A WoodborOUgh Centenarian. The Wiltshire Gazette, 
May 12th, 1932, has an article under this heading giving, with a portrait, 
an account of Susanna Hailstone, aged 100, on May 7th, 1932. Born at 
Sharcot, Pewsey, the daughter of Silas Perrett and wife of David Hailstone, 
of Beechingstoke (1854) ; she was for a time mistress of a Dames' School, at 
Bottlesford, and now lives at Woodborough, having spent her whole life in 
Pewsey Vale. She remembers the coronation of Queen Victoria, and was 
present at the last public execution (of a Spaniard) at Devizes. 

Broniham and Thomas Moore. A good article in Wilt- 
shire Times, October 31st, 1931, deecribing Sloperton Cottage as it now is, 
and such rooms as still remain more or less as they were in Moore's time. 
A good sketch of his life and most important works follows with some ac- 
count of the Church and of the Celtic Cross to his memory. 

The Erlestoke Sale of 1832. The Wiltshire Gazette, of 29th 
Sept., 1932, reprints the full account in the Gazette of a century ago of the 
sale of the pictures and some of the furniture at Erlestoke. 

The Crlove Makers of Ashton Keynes. The N. Wilts 

Herald, October 21st, 1932, has a short article with two illustrations on the 
home industry of heavy leather glove making which has been carried on by 
the women of Ashton Keynes for generations. It is now dying out in face 
of the competition of foreign machine-made gloves. 

The Doom at St Thomas', Salisbury. A small photo of 

this remarkable *' Doom " over the chancel arch at St. Thomas' is given in 
Country Life, October 22nd, 1932, with a detailed description by R. E. P. 
Gorringe (Vicar). 



145 

ADDITIONS TO MUSEUM AND LIBRAEY. 

Museum. 

Presented by Mr. A. Shaw Mellor : Pair of Patent Candle Snuflfers. 

„ „ Miss K. 0. Powell : The Rose-coloured Pastor shot at Bur- 

combe, 1853 (mentioned in Smith's Birds of Wilts, p. 
213), Scoter Duck, Two Montagu Harriers shot at 
Hurdcott, Two Hobbies. 

J, „ Mr. and Mrs. F. Phillips : The Bronze 14th Century Seal 

found at Market Lavington and illustrated in W.A.M.t 
xlv., 91. 

„ „ Mr. Joshua Smith, Potterne : Potterne Constable's Staff. 

„ „ Capt. B. H. Cunnington (Curator) : A complete set of 

Goldsmith's Scales and Weights, 1775 (the New 
Standard). Constable's Staff of Mildenhall. Constable's 
Staff and Handcuffs of Devizes Workhouse. 

„ „ Mr. B. H. a. Hankey ; Coin of Probus, minted in Egypt 

from Stanton St. Quintin. 

Library. 

Presented by Rev. F. C. Walker : Map of Upton Lovell Parish. 

„ „ The Author, Mrs. Ida Gandy : " When the Queen passed 

by." An outdoor play, cr. 8vo., 1932 [scene laid at 

Bishops Cannings]. 
„ „ The Author, W. H. Knowles, F.S.A. : " The Church of 

S. John Baptist, Inglesham, Wilts." Reprint from 

Trans. Bristol and Glos. Arch. Soc, 1931. 
„ „ Mrs. Diggle, Bratton Manor : A large box of Family Deeds, 

&c., chiefly concerning Bratton and Imber. 
„ „ The Marquess of Lansdowne : Roxburgh Soc. Vol. " A 

Bestiary of the 12th Century." 
„ „ The Author, Rev. E. J. Matthews (Calstone) : " Songs 

of Bradford-on-Avon," 1926, pamphlet, cr. 8vo. 
„ „ Mr. E. Gardner : Will of Sarah Gilbert, of Marlborough, 

1784. Old Plan of Aldbourne, 1807. Burderop Races, 

1830. Marlborough, Hancock family paper, Marlborough, 

Address to King. MS Copy of Articles for enclosing 

Axford fields, 1727. Inventory of Goods of John Smith, 

of Marlborough. 
„ „ Miss K. C. Powell : Five Wiltshire portraits, and four 

Wilts pamphlets. MS. Diary of Mr. Powell, of Hurdcot, 

1773—1784. 
„ „ Mr. J. J. Slade : A large number of Wiltshire newspaper 

illustrations, etc. 
„ „ Canon J. M. Fletcher, F. R. Hist. Soc. : Coloured drawing 

of Snachenberg arms. 



146 



Additions to the Library, 



Presented by Miss Eyre Match am : A large number of old deeds and 
other documents connected with South Wilts. 

,, „ Col. Hawley : Two recent volumes of Archaeologia, Nos. 

74 and 75. 

„ „ Mr. C. L. KuTTER : Two MS. Note Books containing extracts 

from Mere Churchwardens' Accounts, 1556—1853. Mere 
Parish Magazine, bound vol., 1882 — 88. Mere Home 
Messenger, 1893—99. Various papers connected with 
Mere. 

„ „ Mr. A. Shaw Mbllor : The Box Sentinel (Parish Magazine) 

for 1931. "Liber Valorum & Decimarum, &c., by John 
Ecton, 1728, 3rd edition." " The English Topographer, 
or an historical account (as far as can be collected from 
Printed Books and Manuscripts) of all pieces that have 
been written relating to the Antiquities, Natural History^ 
or Topographical description of any part of England. 
By an impartial hand. 1720. 8vo." Lacock Pageant 
Programme. Two Museum Catalogues. 

„ „ Mr. Maslen : " An abstract from a work entitled an Antidote 

against Distractions in Religious Worship. Devizes, 
1818." 
Mr. J. T. Jackson : Old MS. Map of Southbroom Estate. 
The Author, Sir Oliver Lodge, F.R.S. : " Past Years, 

an Autobiography," 8vo., 1931. 
Mr. W. H. Hallam : A number of Wiltshire Pamphlets, 

Reports, &c., connected with Swindon. 
Mr. J. Green : Supplement to Salisbury Journal for July 

28th, 1849. 
Canon E. H. Goddard : Wiltshire Pamphlets and Ex- 
cerpts from Magazines and Papers. Salisbury Diocesan 
Year Book, 1931. North Wilts Church Magazine, 1930, 
1931. Diocesan Ga^zttte, 1929—1931. "The Pottery 
found at Silchester. By T. May," 1916, 4to, 

„ „ Capt. B. H. Cunnington : Schedule of Coporation Property 

of Devizes Borough, MS. 1932. Old Print, "Druids 
Sacrificing to the Sun in their Temple called Stonehenge." 
Large MS. Map of the Parish of Rowde, by John 
Overton, 1721, on vellum. Interim Report of the Com- 
mittee on House of Commons Personnel and Politics, 
1264-1832. 

„ „ Mr. H. W. Dartnell : Wiltshire Pamphlets, Papers, &c. 

Amesbury Deanery Magazine^, 1926 — 31. Salisbury, St. 
Paul's (Fisherton) Parish Magazine, 1926 — 1931. 

„ „ Mr. H. R. Pollock : Nine Photographs of old Wiltshire 
Houses, &c. 

„ „ Mr. W. L. Bowne : A large parcel of Wiltshire Deeds. 

Printed and Published by C H. Woodward. Exchange Buildings, Station Road, Devizes- 



8 OCT \^ 



THE SOCIETY'S PUBLICATIONS {Continued) 

STONEHENGE AND ITS BARKOWS, by W. Long, Nos. 46-47 of the 
[agazhie in separate wrapper 7s. 6d. This still remains one of the best and 
lost reliable accounts of Stonehenge and its Earthworks. 

WILTSHIRE— The TOPOGRAPHICAL COLLECTIONS OF JOHN 
UBREY, F.R.S., A.D. 1659-1670. Corrected and enlarged by the Rev. 
anon J. E. Jackson, M.A., F.S.A. 4to, Cloth, pp. 491, with 46 plates, 
rice i'2 10s. 

WILTSHIRE INQUISITIONES POST MORTEM. CHARLES I. 8vo, 
3. vii. -}- 510. 1901. With full index. In 8 parts, as issued. Price 13s. 

DITTO. IN THE REIGNS OF HEN. IIL, ED. L, and ED. 11. 8vo, 
■). XV. 505. In parts as issued. Price 13s. 

DITTO. THE REIGN OF ED. III. 8vo., pp. 402. In six parts 
1 issued. Price 13s. 

A BIBLIOGRAPHY of the GREAT STONE MONUMENTS of 
ILTSHIRB, STONEHENGE, and AVEBURY, with other references, 
^ W. Jerome Harrison, F.G.S., pp. 169, with 4 illustrations. No. 89, Dec, 
■fOl, of the Magazine. Price 5s. 6d. Contains particulars as to 947 books, 
ipers, &c., by 782 authors. 

THE TROPENELL CARTULARY. An important work in 2 vols., 8vo, 
>. 927, containing a great number of deeds connected with property in many 
'iltshire Parishes of the 14th and 15th centuries. Only 150 copies were 
Inted, of which a few are left. Price to members, £,1 10s., and to non- 
embers, £2. 

THE CHURCH BELLS OF WILTSHIRE, THEIR INSCRIPTIONS 
ND HISTORY, BY H. B. WALTERS, F.S.A. Published in III. Parts, 
ice 168. (N.B. — Separate Parts can no longer be sold.) 

A CALENDAR OF THE FEET OF FINES FOR WILTSHIRE, 1196 
3 1272, BY E. A. FRY, 8vo., pp. 103. Price 6s. 



WILTSnii^E TOiCENS. 
The Society has a considerable number of 17th and 18th 
;>ntury Wiltshire Tokens to dispose of, either by sale, or exchange 
•r others not in the Society's collection. 

Apply to Capt, B. H. Ounnington, F.S.A. Scot., Curator, 
[useum, Devizes. 



POKBINDING. Books carefully Bound to pattern. 

i Wilts Archaeological Magazine bound to match previous volumes 
Or in Special Green Cases. 
We have several back numbers to make up sets. 

H. WOODWARD, Printer and Publisher, 

Exchange Buildings, Station Road, Devizes. 



The North Wilts Library aiad Museum at Devizes. 

In answer to the appeal made in 1905 annual subscriptions 
varying from £2 to 5s. to the amount of about £30 a year for this 
purpose have been given since then by about sixty Members of 
the Society and tlie fund thus set on foot has enabled the 
Committee to add much to the efficiency of the Library and 
Museum. 

It is very desirable that this fund should be raised to at least 
£50 a year in order that the General Fund of the Society may 
be released to a large extent from the cost of the Museum and 
Bet free for the other purposes of the Society. I 

Subscriptions of 5s. a year, or upwards, are asked for from allj 
Members, and should be sent either to Mr. D. Owen, Bank Cham- 
bers, Devizes, or Canon E. H. Goddard, F.S A., Clyffe Vicarage 
Swindon. 



THE HISTORY OF 

* THE HUNDRED OF RAMSBURY,^' 

By the late Ed. Boraa Webb (Architect), Folio 1890. 

A few copies of the above work, some bound and some unboumj 

may be obtained from 
MRS. DORAN WEBB, Netton, Middle Woodford, Nr. SaHsbur 

Wilts. 

The book is out of print. 

Price : 4/- for bound copies, 2/6 for unbound. 



H. BAILEY, Bookbinder, 

14, Queen Street, Salisbury! 

Bindings, l^e-tolndinQs, and i^enovations. 
Old Books and Documents Restored. 



Estimates for all classes and all quantitus of hool^hindivg work 



Wiltshire Birds. 

The Eev. M. W. Willson, 59, Vicarage Street, Warminster 
collecting notices of Wiltshire Birds, with a view to an ann 
report to be published in the Magazine. He would be greajy 
obliged if observers would send him notes of anything of inteijifc 
at the above address. ! 

Woodward, Printer, Dkvizes. 



No. CLVIII. JUNE, 1933. Vol. XLVI. 



THE 

WILTSHIRE 

Archaeological & Natural History 

MAGAZINE, 

Published under the Direction of the 

SOCIETY FOEMED IN THAT COUNTY 
A. D. 1 8 5 3. 



EDITED BY 

CANON E. H. GODDARD, F.S.A., Clyffe Vicarage, Swindon. 

[The authors of the papers printed in this " Magazine" are alone responsible for all 
statements made therein.] 




DEVIZES 
Printed foe the Society by C. H. Woodward, 
Exchange Buildings, Station Koad. 



Price 8s. Members , Gratis. 



NOTICE TO MEMBEKS. 

TAKE NOTICE that a copious Index for the pieceding eight 
volumes of the Magazine will he found at the end of Vols, 
viii., xvi., xxiv., and xxxii. The suhsequent Volumes are 
each fully indexed separately. 

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WILTSHIRE 
Archaeological & Natural History 

MAGAZINE. 



No. CLVIII. JUNE, 1933. Vol. XLVI. 



Contents. 



PAGE 



Wiltshire in Pagan Saxon Times : By Mrs. M. E. Cunnington, 

Hon. F.S.A. Scot 147—175 

Parliamentary Surveys of the Crown Land in Braden 

Forest (1651) : Transcribed by Canon F. H. Manley 176—184 

Some Domestic and Other Bills op the Wyndham Family 

(Salisbury): By C. W. Pugh, M.B.E 185—197 

Excavations in Yaenbury Castle Camp, 1932: By Mrs. 

M. E. Cunnington, Hon, F.S.A. Scot 198—213 

Report on Three Skeletons from Yarnbury Camp : By 

M. L. Tildesley 214—217 

A Middle Bronze Age Urnfield on Easton Down, Winter- 
slow: By J. F. S. Stone, D.Phil , 218—224 

Excavations at Easton Down, Winterslow, 1931—1932: 

By J. F. S. Stone, B.A., D.Phil , , 225—242 

Eeport on the Birds of Wiltshire for 1932 : Edited by the 

Rev. M. W. Wilson, 59, Vicarage Street, Warminster 243—258 

Old Sarum Pottery : By F. Stevens, O.B.E., F.S.A 259—269 

Roman Remains from Easton Grey : By A. D. Passmore 270—272 

Wilts Obituary , 273—280 

Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles 280—295 

Additions to Museum and Library 296 

Accounts of the Society for the Year 1932 297—300 



11 

ILLUSTRATIONS. 

Yarnbury Castle Camp Excavations 1932. Plates I. to XVII., 
Plans and Sections, Flint Curbing, Postholes, Bone 
Implements, Chalk objects, Pottery 202 

Middle Bronze Age Urnfield on Easton Down, Winterslow, 

Plates L to III., Plan and Sections, Urns 218 

Excavations at Easton Down, Winterslow, 1931 — 1932. Plates 
I. to IX., Sections of Pitshaf t and workshop floor. Plans of 
Neolithic Houses, Pottery from Dwelling Pits, Bronze Age 
Urn and Whetstone, Flint Implements, Rostro-carinate 
Hand-axe, Plan of Pit Dwellings 234 

OldSarum Pottery. 'Plates L to VII 266 

Roman Sculpture found at Easton Grey 270 

Head of Roman figure with cross incised on cap. Found at 

Easton Grey... 272 



J^ 



^^iSuP"^ 



Devizes: C. H. Woodward, Exchange Buildings, Station Road. 



THE 



WILTSHIRE MAGAZINE. 



MULTORUM MA.NIBUS GRANDE LEVATUR ONUB."—Ovid. 



No. CLVrri. June, 1955- Vol. XLVI. 



WILTSHIRE IN PAGAN SAXON TIMES. 
By Mrs. M. E. Cunnington, Hon. F.S.A., Scot. 

Comparatively few relics of the pagan Saxons have been found in Wilt- 
shire. This needs some explanation, for in Roman and earlier times, the 
area that is now Wiltshire seems to have been regarded with no little favour 
as a place for settlement by the peoples who have successively inhabited 
Britain. 

Wiltshire is included in the area occupied by the West Saxons, and 
formed part of the kingdom of Wessex. To understand what is found 
within the narrow limits of the county it is necessary to look beyond them 
to wider aspects of the Saxon conquest. 

According to the Saxon Chronicle the West Saxons only landed on the 
south coast (perhaps Southampton Water) in 495 ; Old Sarum was not 
taken till 552, and the first recorded battle in the Thames valley, at a place 
called Wibbandune, was not fought until 568. 

This late date agrees well enough with the archaeological evidence for 
Wiltshire itself. But, on the other hand, archaeological evidence in Berk- 
shire and Gloucestershire shows that there were Saxon settlements in the 
upper Thames valley some sixty years earlier. 

Mr. Leeds has shown in a striking manner how the earlier Saxon advances 
were made along the rivers, and that the earlier settlements were grouped 
along the valleys, curiously enough appearing rather to avoid Roman roads 
and the neighbourhood of well-known Roman centres. 

Thus it was from east to west up the Thames that the earliest settlers 
reached the Thames valley, on the northern fringe of the county. These 
early settlers pushing their way along the Thames and settling in its 
vicinity, rather avoided Wiltshire as a whole, thus accounting to a great 
extent for the comparative rarity of pagan Saxon relics in the county. 

Archaeological evidence shows that there must have been considerable 
VOL. XLVI. — NO. CLVIII. L 



148 Wiltshire in Pagan Saxon Times. 

settlements in the upper Thanaes valley at the beginning of the sixth cen- 
tury at latest. That is to say some sixty years earlier than the date of the 
first recorded battle in the Thames Valley at Wibbandune (? Wimbledon). 

Mr. Leeds suggests that this discrepancy, between historical records and 
archaeological evidence, can be explained on the supposition that the 
historical accounts deal only with the doings of invaders led by chieftains 
from whom sprang the royal House ; " nothing is more natural than that 
their campaigns should have claimed the chief attention of the historian." 
In other words the earliest settlements along the Thames valley, as testified 
to by archaeological evidence, were not recorded by the chroniclers, and 
Wiltshire was not greatly affected by them. 

With few, if any, exceptions, the relics found in Saxon graves in Wilt- 
shire are not of early date. Speaking particularly of Harnham and Basset 
Down, but the words would apply just as well to other known sites, Mr. 
Leeds says " there is nothing to which anything like an early date can be 
assigned, in fact nothing that could not have been deposited there at or 
about the time at which the events recorded by the Chronicle are placed." 

There seems to be no record of a Saxon cremation burial for Wiltshire, 
though it is of course possible that these have been found and not recog- 
nized as such. The practice of cremation among the Saxons was an earlier 
one than that of simple burial, and its occurrence implies an earlier date. 

As Mr. Leeds has pointed out cremation occurs more frequently lower 
down the Thames than it does higher up the valley, and eventually dis- 
appears altogether, so that the practice seems to have been dying out even 
at th« time of the first invasions. This is of course distinct from, and in- 
dependent of, burial rites introduced later with Christianity. 

With the acceptance of Christianity burial in churchyards became obli- 
gatory, and with the abolition of pagan customs the archaeological evidence 
afforded by Saxon graves comes to an end. 

Saxon archaeology depends more on evidence from burials than that of 
any other period. Before Mr. Leeds discovered and excavated a Saxon 
village site at Sutton Courtney, in Oxfordshire, no habitation site of 
the period was known for the whole of England. 

That inhabited sites of the period are so scarce is probably due to many 
of the early sites being identical with those of our modern villages. As the 
Saxon houses would have been of wood or of wattle and daub, after all 
these centuries of continuous habitation, discoveries of archaeological value 
could scarcely be expected. 



The dating of the pagan Saxon period in Wiltshire. 
As to the actual dating of the pagan period in Wiltshire it is not possible 
to be very definite. The pagan Saxon period in England may be said to 
begin when the first Anglo-Saxon settlements were effected soon after— if 
not actually before— the final separation of Britain from the Roman Empire, 
in 410 A.D., and to have ended with the arrival of Augustine's mission at 
Canterbury in 597. But these dates obviously have no meaning for Wilt- 
shire or for the greater part of the country. 



By Mrs, M. E, Cmmington. 149 

There is no archaeological evidence for an early Saxon settlement in 
Wiltshire. Old Saruni was not taken till 552, and there is not likely to 
have been much eflfective settlement in the southern part of the county 
before that date. Or in the north before the battle of Deorham in 577, 
when three British kings were defeated and slain, and the towns of 
€rloucester, Cirencester, and Bath fell into the hands of the Saxons. 
One of these kings seems to have ruled over a British state including 
parts of the counties of Gloucester, Somerset, and Wilts, 

Thus the Saxon occupation of Wiltshire, according to historical sources, 
■dates from the latter half of the 6th century, and this agrees quite well with 
the evidence for a late settlement adduced on purely archaeological grounds.^ 

The first Christian missionary to Wessex seems to have been one Birinus, 
who had vowed to work in some field where no other missionary had been 
before him. He baptised the king of Wessex and was established at Dor- 
chester (Oxon) about 635. The king's son and successor at first rejected, 
and then accepted, Christianity in 648. So it could not have been until to- 
wards the close of the 7th and beginning of the 8th century, that Christianity 
made much impression in that part of Wessex that is now Wiltshire. 

It appears, therefore, that the pagan Saxon period extended in this part 
of the country from about the middle of the 6th to about the end of the 7th 
century, roughly some 150 to 200 years. 



The following are some publications in reference to the Anglo-Saxon 
period. 

" The Anglo-Saxon Bounds of Bedwyn and Burbage." O. G. S. Craw- 
ford, F.S.A. W.A.M., xli , 281—301, map. 

" An attempt to determine the course of the Saxon Boundaries of Fovant." 
Tf.^.if., xliv., 101. 

" The Anglo-Saxon Land Charters of Wiltshire." G. B. Grundy, D. Litt. 
Arch. Jour., 1919, vol. Ixxvi., 143—301 ; reviewed W.A.M,, xlii., 514, and 
list of charters dealt with. 

The same. 2nd Series. Arch. Jour.., vol. Ixxvii., 1920 ; reviewed W.AM.., 
vol. xliii., 123 (with list of charters). 

" Ancient Highways and Tracks of Wiltshire, Berkshire, and Hampshire, 
and the Saxon Battlefields of Wiltshire." G. B. Grundy, D.Litt. Arch. 
Jour., 1918,vol. Ixxv., 69—194 ; reviewed W.A.M., vol. xlii., 93. 

"The Place Names of Wiltshire," by Einar Ekblom, Uppsala, 1917 ; re- 
viewed W.A.M., xl., 433. The review points out certain difficulties in 
accepting some of the author's derivations of " Saxon " place names. 



^ Remains of early type may yet be found in the north of the county con- 
nected with the early advance up the Thames valley, but so far nothing has 
been found comparable with the cemeteries of Gloucestershire and Berkshire. 
If such discoveries are made it would not affect the general argument for a 
late conquest of Wiltshire as a whole. 

L 2 



150 Wiltshire in Pagan Saxon Times. 

" The Place-Names of Wiltshire," by G. B. Grundy, D. Litt. W.A.M., 
xli.,335— 353. 

Abstract of lecture given by O. G. S. Crawford, F.S.A., before the Royal 
Geographical Society, 1923; "Agriculture in Ancient Wilts, Lynchers^ 
Celtic and Saxon." Wiltshire Gazette, March 29th, 1923 ; reviewed W.AM.^ 
xlii., 393. 

"Air Survey and Archseology," by O. G. S. Crawford, B.A., F.S.A. Re- 
printed from the Geographical Journal for May, 1923 ; reviewed W.A-M.y 
xlii., 616. 

" Air Survey and Archaeology," by the same author, Ordnance Survey 
Professional Papers, 1924 ; reviewed W.A.M.y xliii., 128; 2nd edition, 1928. 

" Britain and the Roman Empire," by R. G. Collingwood, in England 
and the World." Essays edited by F. S. Marvin, 1926 ; the question of the 
Saxon conquest of Wiltshire is discussed : reviewed W.A.M., xliii., 566. 

" The Early Wars of Wessex," by Albany F. Major, F.S.A., 1913; re- 
viewed W.A.M.. xxxviii., 512. 

W.A.M., xxxviii., 85, note on desertion of upland sites as a result of 
Saxon occupation of the country. 

"The Mystery of Wansdyke," Albany Major and E. J. Burrows, 1926 ; 
reviewed W.A.M.^ xliii., 560, where the authors' views as to the progress of 
the Saxon occupation of Wiltshire, and its bearing on the Wansdyke are 
criticised. 

Analysis of Hoare's Anglo-Saxon discoveries, Archseologia^ xliii., 286—7 ; 
in this Thurnam includes two barrows at Woodyates, in Dorset (note b). 

" The Transition from Roman Britain to Christian England, A.D. 368 — 
664," by Gilbert Sheldon, 1932. 

" The Evolution and Distribution of some Anglo-Saxon Brooches," by 
Reginald A. Smith, F.S.A. Arch* Jour,, vol. Ixv., p. 65. 

" The Archaeology of the Anglo-Saxon Settlements," by E. Thurloe Leeds, 
M.A., F.S.A., 1913. 

" British Museum Guide to the Anglo-Saxon Period," 1923. 

" The Arts in Early England," by Professor Baldwin Brown. 

'■ The Anglo-Saxons in England during the early centuries after the In- 
vasion." Nils A*berg, 1926. A°berg suggests that the foreign influences 
and actual foreign objects, such as garnets and decorative shells from the 
Indian Ocean (occasionally found in Anglo-Saxon graves in England) were 
ultimately due " to the last of the great political convulsions of the period 
of migration, the invasion of Italy by the Lombards " in 568, thus opening 
the way to "the Mediterranean thereby rendering possible the establish- 
ment of connections with the flourishing Byzantine civilisation and the 
Orient (page 6). This applies more especially to the rapid and brilliant 
development of the Kentish culture though reflected to some slight extent 
elsewhere in England as in the jewellery from Round way (see Barrow 1,. 
Roundway Hill, page 160). 



By Mrs, M. E, Gunning ton. 151 

The Saxon remains are classified as follows, the entries in each class 
being arranged in alphabetical order of parishes, 

1. — Cemeteries, i.e., groups of burials.^ 

2, — Primary burials under barrows, Le. those for which the barrow was 
made. 

3. — Secondary burials in barrows, i.e. burials in barrows of an earlier 
period. 

4. — Burials of unknown or indeterminate character. 

5. — Isolated finds. 



Primary and Secondary Burials under Barrows. 

It is difiicult, indeed now impossible, to determine in some cases whether 
a burial in a barrow is primary or secondary, i.e., whether the barrow was 
made for the burial found in it, or an older mound re-used. There is clear 
evidence that sometimes original Bronze Age burials were disturbed to make 
room for Saxons. When barrows have not been examined with sufficient 
care it is quite possible that traces of a primary burial may escape notice ; 
or it may have been thrown out or destroyed when it was disturbed in 
Saxon times, so as to leave little or no trace. On the other hand Saxons 
did sometimes build barrows themselves, and that on King's Play Down, 
there is every reason to believe, was one of these. The others included in 
this list under the heading of " Primary Burials under Barrows," are at 
least as likely to be of this nature as they are to have been secondaries. It 
may be noted that the barrows that are presumed to have contained primary 
Saxon burials in Wiltshire are usually small low mounds, though elsewhere 
the mounds are sometimes of great size, as at Taplow, Berks. 

The secondary Saxon burials in barrows seem to have been generally 
those of men. Weapons are not infrequently recorded as having been found 
with them, and Hoare sometimes describes the remains as those of a 
^' stout " or " robust " man. There are few instances of what appear likely 
to have been the remains of a woman as a secondary burial in a barrow. 
The skeleton found together with that of a child in Sherrington long barrow 
may have been a woman, but the date of this burial is by no means certain ; 
the burial at Yatesbury found with a knife and what is known as a " work- 
box " or needle case, may also have been that of a woman. 

It seems therefore a fair inference to make, that in many cases when ad- 
vantage was taken of a pre-existing mound, it was for some warrior who 
had fallen by the way, and for whose burial little time or labour could be 



^ Burials in cemeteries were sometimes covered by mounds, as at Harn- 
ham ; at Winklebury on the other hand the graves appeared as slight hol- 
lows, so it seems there never could have been any mounds over them. If 
the ground was levelled after the burials took place a sinking would result 
naturally in the course of time. 



152 Wiltshire in Pagan Saxon Times. 

Difficulty in distinguishing Saxon burials. 

It is not always possible to determine whether skeletons found without 
relics, in the upper parts of barrows, or in isolated graves, are those of 
Saxons. Generally speaking if the skeleton is extended,^ and near the sur- 
face, especially if other burials with objects of Saxon type are found near- 
by, it is fairly safe to assume that they are Saxon. These are the consider- 
ations that have guided the inclusion of doubtful cases in this list. As far 
as we know early Iron Age and Romano- British peoples did not often bury 
in the barrows of previous peoples, and we know that the Saxons frequently 
did so. 

Note explanatory of the Tables. 

The presence of weapons (including shields) is regarded as indicating a 
man's grave, even if there is no other evidence available. 

It seems that knives are not uncommonly found in the graves of women^ 
so failing other evidence, when only a knife occurs, these are entered a& 
uncertain. 

Of the secondary burials in barrows only two seem to be indicated as 
likely to be those of women (Sherrington and Yatesbury), though of course 
some of the " uncertain " ones may have been women. One child is in- 
cluded, though its claim to be Saxon is doubtful (Sherrington). 

Of the seven regarded as primary burials in barrows, only one can be re- 
garded as almost certainly that of a woman, on account of the jewellery 
found with it (Roundway). 



Cemeteries. 

Winkelbury Hill, parish of Berwick St. John. 

Broadchalke. 

Broughton Giflford ? 

Chisenbury, West, parish of Enford. 

Harnham, parish of East Harnham. 

Basset Down, parish of Lydiard Tregoze. 

Purton. 

Salisbury (St. Edmund's College). 

Swindon 1 

Winterslow 1. 

Winterslow 2. 



Winkelbury Hill, parish of Berwick St. John, O.S. 74 N.E. A number 
of long narrow depressions noticed in the turf close to some barrows led 
to the discovery of 31 Saxon graves, varying in depth from l|ft. to 3 ft. 



* Saxon skeletons are usually in an extended position, but even this guide 
is not infallible. See under the cemetery at Broadchalke for exceptions 
cited. 



By Mrs. M. E. Cannington. 153 

Twenty-six skeletons lay with head to the west, and two to the east, these 
latter being both children ; in three graves no remains were found. 
The accompanying relics were not numerous or of particular importance ; 
they included two silvered bronze discs, ^ a bronze pin, six iron knives, a 
buckle, three glass beads, various iron bindings (of shields ?), etc. No 
pottery, no brooches, and no signs of coflBns were found, 

Pitt-Rivers, Excavations, II., 259. Objects at Farnham Museum, Dorset. 

For secondary burials in two barrows close to this cemetery see page 162. 

Pitt-Rivers's other Saxon discoveries, Wor Barrow, Handley Down, and 
Woodyates, are in Dorsetshire. 

Broadchalke, 400 yds. S.E. of the Church. O.S. 70 S.E. A cemetery 
where at least twenty-tive skeletons were found, in graves varying in depth 
from l^ft. to 4ft. 2in. ; there was no special orientation, the skeletons lying 
in all directions, and not all extended, some being more or less doubled up. 
An iron umbo, spearheads, knives, buckles, etc., were found. W.A.M., 
xliii., 94, figs., with report on the bones by Sir Arthur Keith, p. 214 (gift to 
Museum). Objects in Museum at Devizes. 

Contracted burials were also found at Kempton and Leagrave Common, 
Beds, and at Harnham. B.M. Anglo- Sixon Guides pp. 72, 75, 82. 

Broughton Gifford. O.S. 32 S.E. The following entry occurs in 
Thurnam's MS. Cat.: "175, 176, 177. An. Brit.? Probably of the 
Christian period, 5th to 8th century, A.D. From Graves at Broughton 
Giflford, near Melksham, 1862, in digging gravel for railway ballast. The 
skeletons were extended. Exhumed by Rev. John Wilkinson, Wm. 
Cunnington, and Thurnam." 

From the curious wording of the entry Thurnam was evidently doubtful 
about the age of these burials. These three skulls were included by Mr. 
Horton-Smith ' in his Table of West Saxon Graniat with indices of 84, 
81*7, 819 (the latter female). Mr. Horton Smith points out that the skulls 
in the Thurnam Collection from Harnham, an undoubted Saxon site, also 
" are brachycephalic or nearly so." See under Harnham, page 154. 

The age of these burials must for the present be regarded as uncertain. 
On the 1926 edition of the Ordnance maps the adjoining inhabited site is 
marked as a " Roman Station," but no definite evidence for this attribution 
seems to have been published. As an inhabited site of course it may have 
been successively occupied by Romano- British and Saxons. W.A.M., xlv., 
179, Dec. 1930. 

See also under Melksham, page 168. 

In answer to an enquiry, in July, 1931, Dr. VV. L. H. Duckworth, of the 
Anatomy School, Cambridge, replied as follows : — " Horton Smith remarks 



' See note, page 170 (the Windmill, Shrewton), for the use of these 
open-work rings, or girdle hangers ; their presence suggests the burial of a 
woman. 

^ The cranial characteristics of the South Saxons as compared with 
those of some other races of South Britain, by J. R. Horton-Smith, B.A, 
Jour. Anthro. Instit., xxvi., 1897. 



154 Wiltshire in Pagan Saxon Times. 

on the contrast in form between the Melksham skulls and the Saxon skulls 
generally. He refers to the greater breadth of the former. Horton Smith 
does not reject the Melksham skulls from association with " Saxons." He 
suggests, indeed he asserts, that they represent an admixture of British 
with Saxon elements. 

Before looking up Horton Smith's paper I endeavoured to trace and ex- 
amine the actual specimens, with the result that I rejected No. 176, but not 
on account of size or form, but on account of its state of preservation, the 
surface being less " weather worn " and generally being suggestive of a later 
period than that to which most " Saxon " crania are assignable. Later 
having found Nos. 175 and 177, I confirm the contrast noted by Horton 
Smith, and I consider that the contrast should be emphasized. It follows 
that if the Broughton Giflford skulls are to be judged by their form and by 
their state of preservation, they stand in contrast to " Saxon " specimens,"' 

Chisenbury, West, parish of Enford, O.S. 47 N.E. In July, 1928, an ex- 
tended skeleton was found in a shallow grave, with head to east ; near the 
head lay an iron socketed spearhead of Saxon type. The burial was dis- 
covered in digging a pit in the garden of some new houses ; in digging 
foundations for the houses several other skeletons were found but apparently 
nothing was found with them. This may be the site of a small cemetery. 
The site has been marked on the 6-inch reference maps in the Society's 
library at Devizes ; on the west side of the main road and one sixth of a 
mile north of the cross roads at West Chisenbury. Spearhead at Uevizes. 
W.A.M., xlv., 84. 

Harnham Hill, parish of East Harnham. O.S. 66 S.E. W. of Church, N. 
of Harnham Hill, in the " Low Field." Discovered in 1852, and excavated 
by J. Y. Akerman, 

Sixty-two inhumation graves were opened ; no traces of coffins. A num- 
ber of objects were found including weapons, brooches, toilet articles, rings, 
pins, and a bowl or dish of wood bound with bronze. The graves were once 
covered by mounds and it was this that gave the field its name, the word 
" low " being derived from the Saxon "hlaew" or " helow," meaning a 
mound. 

W.A.M., i., 196; Arch., xxxv., 259—279 (the fullest and illustrated 
account by Akerman, with notes by Thurnam and Professor Owen on the 
crania); Brit. Museum Guide, 75, 81 — 2; Gent's Mag. Library, II, 190, 
1886 (extracted from Gent's Mag., 1853, Pt. II., 514—5); Vic. Hist, of 
Somerset, I., 375 (1906) ; Gr. Brit., L, 248, 252, Nos. 3, 4, 5, 32—36; vol, 
II, (Skulls of Anglo-Saxons, III. ; Baldwin Brown, iv.). In Thurnam's 
MS. Cat. the following entry appears : " 20—24. Anglo-Saxon from 
cemetery at Harnham." 

Most of the objects are in the British Museum ; there are three amber 
beads in the Museum at Devizes, Gat. of Antiquities, II., p. 116, S.4, and 
in the Salisbury Museum two glass and two amber beads. 

Mr. Horton-Smith includes four skulls from Harnham in his Table of 
West Saxon Crania, two male and two female, with indices of 80*9, 792, 
80 6, 79, the two latter female. Jour. Anthro. Instit., xxvi., 1897. See 
also under Broughton Gifi'ord, page 153. 



By Mrs, 31, E. Cunnington. 155 

Harnham. Two saucer brooches and two clavicles stained with copper, 
in the Museum at Salisbury, were found in the Tennis Club ground (1931), 
and from the old Vicarage garden a bronze girdle ornament. 

Kemble. The well-known cemetery at Kemble described by Akerman 
(Archazologia, xxxvii., 113) and others as in " North Wilts," is not now in 
the county, the parish of Kemble having been transferred to Gloucestershire 
in 1896. 

Bassett Down, parish of Lydiard Tregoze. O.S. 15 S.W. Found in 1822 
in making pleasure grounds on the summit of the hill south of Bassett 
Down House. Two skeletons were discovered side by side {1 in one grave). 
"Each had a portion of a shield, a spear, a knife, fibulae, and a pair of 
clasps, besides strings of beads, some of which are of amber. A coin was 
also found, but too imperfect to give the date, and a portion of a spoon." 
Position of objects not stated. 

W.A J/., xxviii., 104, figs. ; DM. Cat., II., p. 1 17, Si to S25 inclusive, 
figs. ; including two iron umbos, two spearheads, three knives, two pairs of 
saucer-shaped brooches, bow-shaped bronze brooch, small iron penannular 
brooch, parts of four bronze pins, bronze ear-pick, part of metal spoon, 
spindle whorl of bone, beads of amber, rock crystal and glass, two lower 
jaws of skeletons. Leeds, Archaeology of the Anglo-Saxon Settlements, 1913, 
51 ; Baldwin Brown, iv. 

Other skeletons were found in 1839 " like the first " but no details of 
these have been preserved. The site, therefore, seems to have been that of 
a (? small) cemetery of the pagan Saxon period. 

PURTON. " The Fox." E. of Purton House and church, S. of Swindon 
road, in a quarry shown on O.S. 10 S.W. 

In quarrying operations in 1912, skeletons were discovered in shallow 
graves ; with one an iron seax or short sword, a blue glass bead, and two 
iron knife blades ; with another a socketed iron spearhead ; with a third 
an iron knife blade and oyster shell. Other skeletons were found, and for 
many years past skeletons seem to have been dug up from time to time, the 
only objects known to have been found with them being three glass beads. 
An iron spearhead, seax, and knife in the Ashmolean Museum at Oxford 
are labelled as from Purton, Wilts, and may have come from this site. 

W.A.M., xxxvii., 496, 606, figs. Objects at Devizes. 

Salisbury. St. Edmund's College. O.S.66S.E. " In 1771 and 1772, when 
Mr. H. P. Wyndham was levelling a portion of the rampart to form the 
lawn on the east side of the house, various antiquities were found, including 
between twenty and thirty human skeletons, also iron helmets,' pikes, spear- 



' The helmets were no doubt shield bosses, the plates of metal remains of 
shields or metal-mounted wooden buckets. There seems every reason to 
believe that this was a burial place of pagan Saxons. The house then 
occupied by Mr. Wyndham was afterwards known as St. Edmund's College 
and has recently become part of the Municipal Buildings of Salisbury. 



156 Wiltshire in Pagan Saxon Times. 

heads and plates of metal rivetted together." Charter of Henry III.^ and 
History of St. Edmund's College^ by Charles Haskins, 1927, 45—6. The 
rampart levelled is said to have been made in 1315. Mr. Wyndham, who 
thought the remains were those of a battle fought in 552, recorded his 
opinion on a pedestal surmounted by an urn. " This interesting memorial 
. . . will be carefully preserved." The present whereabouts of the ob- 
jects is not known, but an iron umbo from this site is in the Museum at 
Salisbury. See also Northy's Popular History of Old and New Saruniy 
1897, p. 14. W.A.M, xliv., 187. Baldwin Brown, iv. 

Swindon. O.S. 15 N.E. The following entry occurs in Thurnam's MS. Cat. 
" 270. Early English (or Anglo-Saxon ?), age 18 to 20 years. From an old 
cemetery at Swindon, Wilts, on the north side of Wood Street. An immense 
number of skeletons have been found lying in all directions, generally about 
three feet deep ; no objects of metal or pottery. Found in the winter of 
1867—8." 

Mr. Horton-Smith includes this skull in his Table of West Saxon Crania^ 
with an index of 75. 9. Jour. Anthro. Instit.^ xxvi., 1897. In answer to 
enquiry concerning this skull and the one from Durrington (see page l63). 
Dr. W. L. H. Duckworth wrote " The two skulls are remarkably similar in 
size and shape. They are small, almost certainly female. Until lately I 
should have been inclined to reject a claim made on their behalf to repre- 
sent ' Saxon * individuals. But the abundant ' material * from the viith 
century ' Saxon ' cemetery at Burwell, Uambs, shows that Nos. 1 20 and 270 
could be matched both for size and shape. I may add that their state of 
preservation accords with this view." 

Mr. A. D. Passmore writes: — " For some years it has been noticed that 
in nearly all excavations in new ground in a zone starting from Wood Street 
and roughly following Devizes road, . . . there are found large quanti- 
ties of human remains. Although nearly a hundred have now been ex- 
amined at different times, nothing has yet turned up by which the date of 
the interments can be ascertained. Some are dolichocephalic in cranial 
measurements while others close by are of an opposite shape. Some at the 
Westlecote end are certainly Roman, being buried in rubbish pits of that 
age, and others in shallow graves with dateable pottery." ir.il.i/., xxxviii., 
46, June 1913. 

Possibly there are both Roman and Saxon burials here as at Frilford, 
Berks. Leeds Archatology of the Saxon Settlements, 57 ; Arch, xlii., 417. 

Considerable Roman remains have been found in Swindon. W.A.M.^ 
xlv., 204, Dec. 1930. 

Swindon (Evelyn Street). A burial found at the railway bridge, near 
Evelyn Street, with an iron spearhead and knife, is away from the group 
referred to above. Vide a letter from Mr. A. D. Passmore. 

Roche Court Down, Winterslow. O.S. 61 S.E. (or 67 N.E.). A small 
pagan Saxon cemetery consisting of 13 shallow graves, containing 17 human 
skeletons, all lying roughly east-west ; probable date 6th or 7th century 
A.D. The remains were those of both sexes and of various ages. Two iron 
knives only were found (Salisbury Museum). 



By Mrs. M, U, Cunnington, 157 

The following may have come from this cemetery as the position seems to 
agree with it. *' Anglo-Saxon circular fibula and two fragments of end of 
sword scabbard found in digging stone for mending the roads on the Lon- 
don Road beyond Winterslow Hut. Autumn of 1870. With a skeleton^ 
part of lower jaw of young man about 20 years old brought with fibula.'* 
Extract from Blackmore Museum Accessions Book, page 24. 

Roche Court Down, Winterslow. At the junction of two ditches on 
this down, 18 human skeletons, " mostly decapitated, and bearing evidence 
of having been bound, were exhumed." Apparently Saxons executed^ 
either as prisoners of war, or for some other cause. 

Saxon Interments on Roche Court Down^ J. F. S. Stone, B.A., D. Phil., 
and a Report on the Human Remains, by M. L. Tildesley. W.A.M.^ xlv„ 
June 1932. 

See also Winterslow under Primary Burials in Barrows. 



Primary Burials Under Barrows. 



Site. 
1.— Alvediston 


Male.^ 

I 


Female. 


Sex 
Uncertain. 


Weapons 
1 


2.— Ashton Valley 
3. — Salisbury Race Course 
4.— King's Play Down 
5. — Rodmead 


1 
1 




1 
1' 


1 
1 


6.— Roundway 
7.— Roundway 
8. — Winterslow 


1 
I 


1 




1 
I 



Total 5 12 5 

Alvediston. Barrow Ic, on Middle Down, S. of Ridgeway Ox-drove. 
O.S. 69 N.E. In a low ditched mound a grave was found containing an 
extended skeleton, head to south ; with it were an iron umbo and knife^ 
and on the left side of the head a spearhead and ferrule lying together,^ 
showing that the spear shaft had been broken before burial. W.A.M.^ 
xliii., 435, with report on skull by Sir Arthur Keith. Objects at Devizes 'y 
skull in Museum of Royal College of Surgeons. 

Ashton Valley, parish of Codford St. Peter. Not on O.S. 52 SE, 
Goddard's " J^ist," No. lb. Among the Ashton Valley group of barrows^ 
in a mound not exceeding 18 inches in height, Wm. Cunnington found that 
" earth and chalk had been excavated to the depth of 1 1 feet in order to 
form a room . . . the sides were nearly as hard as a stone wall, and 
the angles quite sharp. Towards the centre lay a human skeleton, nearly 
south and north, extended at full length, and on its back." Two pieces of 

* The sex is inferred only from objects accompanying the burial. 
' This seems to have been a " cenotaph." 



158 Wiltshire in Pagan Saxon Times. 

"fine Roman pottery" were found "at a considerable depth." Near the 
bottom were numerous pieces of " charred " (? decayed) wood, and iron nails 
of •' various sizes from half an inch to five long, and generally with flat 
heads." A. W., L, 78, No. 3. D.M. Gat. of Antiqs., 1 , 295 (nails). 

Thurnam suggested {Arch., xliii., 286, note c) that this was a Romano- 
British burial on account of the pottery found in the grave ; but if this was 
lying on the surface it is just as likely to have got into a later, i.e., Saxon 
burial, as into a contemporary one. The Saxons had no prejudice against 
l)urying in barrows used by earlier peoples ; it is, therefore, unlikely that 
there would have been any dislike to making a new barrow among a group 
of earlier ones. There seems to be no known instance, in this part of the 
country, of a Roman burial, either primary or secondary, under a barrow, 
while of Saxons there are many. Moreover the Roman barrows that have 
been found elsewhere are of somewhat diflferent character, and are not found 
in close association with barrows of an earlier period. The great depth of 
this grave is certainly a little unusual, but Saxon graves were not always 
shallow. When Hoare speaks of a " room " it can only be supposed that 
he meant an unusually large grave, i.e., large enough to be likened to a 
small chamber.' No accompanying relics seem to have been found, but 
from the traces of wood and nails the burial seems to have been made in a 
coffin. 

For a secondary burial in one of the barrows of this group, page 163. 

Salisbuky Race Course, parish of Coombe Bisset, on Salisbury — 
Shaftesbury road, three miles from Salisbury, on north boundary of Coombe 
Bisset where the Roman road cuts the Shaftesbury road. O.S. 71 N.W. 

" There are three barrows on this ground in a line ; two of them a few 
yards to the left of the Roman road from Old Sarum; the third a very 
small one, to the right of the road." (Hoare). Opened by W. Cunnington 
in 1803. 

In the larger mound scattered remains of two skeletons were found. 
(Saxon secondary interments ?) 

Under the smaller mound (left ? of the road ^ ) on the floor of a " large 
oblong pit" 3|ft. deep, without any trace of human remains, an iron sword 
29in. long in the blade, the handle set in wood, with wooden scabbard ; 
three iron spearheads, two knives, the umbo and some circular ornaments 
belonging to the shield, a bronze buckle, several small iron buckles; close 
to the umbo four or five rings of silver wire, and one of gold ; two bronze 
pyramidal studs or buttons set with garnets in white enamel on gold 
chequered foil with bar for fastening at back; ^ a shallow bronze bowl with 



' Saxon graves were sometimes of great size, see one cited by Wright at 
Bourne Park, near Canterbury, 14ft. long by about half that width. The 
Celt, The Roman and the Saxon, 6th edit., 468. 

2 Hoare states that two mounds were opened without specifying clearly 
which two. 

^For similar studs from Faversham, Kent, see B.M. Anglo-Saxon Guide^ 
page 45, fig 44. 



By Mrs, M, E. Cunnington, 159 

handle, apparently attached to an outer bowl of oak wood ; two glass vessels, 
one of greenish colour, 3|in, in depth and diameter, with sixteen flutings 
round the side ; the other white thin glass, 6in. high, and Sin. in diameter, 
narrowing to an insecure base. AW. II., Roman Aera, 26, plates 36 — 7 ; 
Baldwin Brown, iv., 656. 

Objects at Devizes Museum, Gat. of Antiqs. I., Nos. 216 and 217, two 
silver rings and gold rings; 217a, bronze buckle; 221, two studs; 244, 
umbo ; 300, bronze bowl ; 355, fragments of glass vessels. 

See also under secondary burials, page 163. 

Hoare states that " not the slightest marks of any interment could be 
traced, though the earth was completely examined." Apparently richly 
furnished tenantless " graves " of the Saxon period do occur. One was 
found at Bourne Park, near Canterbury, where a very large grave, 14ft. 
long, was richly furnished with objects suitable to a man's grave. " There 
was not the slightest trace of a body ever having been deposited in this 
grave ; the appearances were decisive against it." It was suggested that it 
was a cenotaph to some warrior slain in battle whose body could not be re- 
covered. Wright, The Gelt, The Roman and the Saxon, 6th edit., 1902, 468. 

King's Play Down, parish of Heddington. O.S. 34 N.W. Goddard's 
" List," la. A very low scarcely perceptible mound, actually 1ft. raised at 
centre, 24ft. in diameter. In a large grave under the centre of the mound 
the well-preserved skeleton of a man was found, extended at full length on 
its back, head to west. No relics with it except 36 iron nails with wood 
adhering, showing that the burial had been made in a wooden coffin. 
Tr.il.J/.,xxxvi.,313, with report by Dr. Beddoe on skull, etc., 316. Baldwin 
Brown, iv., 654. 

There is every reason to believe that this was a primary burial for which 
this small barrow was made. The chalk filling the grave was quite clean 
and in lumps as first dug out, showing that it must have been filled in 
again almost at once, and certainly could not have been previously moved. 

BoDMEAD Down, parish of Maiden Bradley. O.S. 57 S.W. Goddard's 
" List," 6. A barrow opened by Hoare in 1807, who found a fully-extended 
skeleton, with head to N.E. With it, at the feet, was a bronze bowl, gilt 
inside, the outside protected by a covering of wood ; there was also an iron 
umbo, two silver-plated studs,^ a buckle or clasp of bronze, an iron sword 
30 inches long, two knives, and two spearheads, all of iron. No dimensions 
of barrow or grave are given. A.W., I., 46 — 7, PI. iv. Of these objects 
there are at Devizes the umbo, bronze bowl and buckle ; Gat. of Antiqs. ^ I., 
290, 291, 292. Baldwin Brown, iv., 656. 

RouNDWAY Hill, parish of Round way. O.S. 34NW. Goddard's "List" 
Barrow, 7. 

In a grave under a low barrow, opened by Wm. Cunnington in 1807, was 
found a skeleton lying west-east ; with it were an umbo and an iron ring, 
and thirty pieces of bone (described by Hoare as ivory), " in form and size 
like children's marbles cut in two," and " a large quantity of decayed wood." 



^ Nails or rivets with rounded heads found near the shield boss (umbo). 



160 Wiltshire in Pagan Saxon Times. 

It has been suggested that the bone pieces were for playing some game 
such as draughts. A. W. IL, 98 ; D.M. Gat. ofAntiqs. 1,271 (the bone pieces). 

This barrow was re-opened in 1855, and the bones examined by Thurnam ; 
the skull is now at Devizes. W.A.M. vi., 159—161, Barrow 3 ; Gat. of 
Antiqs. II., p. 141, S. 12. Thurnam at first doubted the age of this barrow, 
but was eventually convinced that it was Saxon. Arch, xliii., 472. 

Somewhat similar bone objects, but with dots on them, were found in a 
barrow in Derbyshire by Bateman, together with two bone combs and 
fragments of iron. Ten J ears Digging, New Inns, p. 179. Others have 
been found near Basingstoke; Proc, Socty. Antiq.^ xxii., 12, fig. 21. 

See also B.M.A.S, Guide, p. 82, fig. 82, etc. 

Round WAY Hill, parish of Roundway. O.S. 34 N W, Goddard'a " List " 
Barrow, 1. A small barrow, E. of Oliver's Camp, opened in 1840 ; " at a 
depth of 7ft. the workmen reached the natural chalk level, and came to a 
skeleton very much decayed, which had previously been enclosed in a 
wooden cist bound round and clamped together with strong iron plates or 
hoops." The skeleton lay with head to west, at the feet were the remains 
of a yew wood bucket with bronze mountings ; near the neck four barrel- 
shaped beads of spirally twisted gold wire ; seven pendants of dark red 
paste or enamel, and of garnets set in gold ; two gold pins with heads set 
with garnets joined together by a fine gold chain, also hanging from the 
chain a small circular medallion of dark paste set in gold with cruciform 
pattern. " The bones of four animals were also found in the corners, said 
to be those of a dog, and a cat, a horse and a boar." (Merewether, 112). 

The objects are at Devizes, but some of the ornaments seem to have been 
scattered and lost at the time of discovery. W.A. M., I., 197, note ; vi., 164, 
no, 7; D.M. Gat. of Antiqs., 11, p. 116, S. 6a— S. 7 ; Smith, Antiq. of N. 
Wilts, p. 67, c. ; Akerman, Pagan Saxondom, PI. I., Arch Instit., 1849, p. 
III.,fig.36(\lerewether) ; Baldwin Brown, iii., ,371 ; iv., 428— 9, 657. Leeds 
Archaeology of the Anglo-Saxon Settlements, 52. 

See note to Nils A'^bergs books on page 150. 

Professor Baldwin Brown ascribes the jewellery to the 7th century. Mr. 
Leeds says " the central boss to which the pins are attached is in technique 
so akin to late Kentish work that it can hardly be dated before the close 
of the 6th century." 

Similar jewellery was found at Desborough, Northants,' and a similar 
bead of silver wire in a Saxon barrow at Woodyates, Dorset ; D.M. Gat. 
of Antiqs., I., 195 ; A. W., L, 235, PI. 32. A similar pendant, and a pin with 
chain attachment' are shown on PI. V. (L) figs. 5, 6, of Douglas' Nenia 
Britannica, from a barrow on Chatham Down, Kent. The same author 
illustrates a bucket mounted with somewhat similar triangular pieces of 
metal, PI. 12, fig. IL 

* B.M. Anglo-Saxon Guide, 75—6, PI., iv. 4. 
2 These are sometimes called " union pins " and resemble modern lace 
pins connected by short chains. P]xamples have been found on several 
Kentish sites, but the nearest parallel to the Roundway example is said to 
be from Little Hampton, Worcestershire. A.S. Guide, 44—5. 



By Mrs. M. E. Cunnington. 



161 



Roche Court Down, Winterslow. A small barrow opened by Dr. J. 
F. S. Stone, in 1931, contained as primary interment a 6th century Saxon 
inhumation burial of a young man about 6ft. in height. An iron knife, 
and iron fragments, possibly parts of a buckle or clasp, were found. W.A.M.f 
xlvi., p. 583, Barrow 2 (June 1932). See also Winterslow, under 
*' Cemeteries." 



Secondary Burials in Barrows. 



Site. 


Male. Female. 


Sex 
Uncertain. 


Weapons 
Knives. 


Silbury Hill 


1 




K 


Winkelbury Hill (1) 




1 




Winkelbury Hill (2) 


1 




K 


Bratton Camp 




3 




Brigmerston (Silk Hill) 


1 




1 


Broad Town 




1 


1 


Ashton Valley 


1 






Salisbury Race Course 


f 


2 




(Coombe Bissett) 








Durrington 




I 




Everley 


I 






Grafton 


1 




1 


Grafton 




1 




Bowl's Barrow 




3 




Knook 




4 




Knoyle 


1 


'^ 




Knoyle 


1 




1 


T-ake Field 


1 




1 


Silk Hill 


1 




1 


Ogbourne 


1 






Sherrington 


2 


4 


2 


Tilshead 


1 


1 


I 


Warminster 


1 


2 


1 


Ell Barrow 


1 






Normanton 




1 




Winterbourne Stoke 




1 


K 


Winterslow 


1 




1 


Yatesbury 


1 




1 K 


Total 


17 1 


25 


15 




K=Knife. 







162 Wiltshire in Pagan Saxon 'Times, 

SiLBURY Hill, parish of Avebury. Stukeley records that " in 1723, Mr. 
Holford order'd some trees to be planted on this hill, in the middle of the 
area at top, ... the workmen dug up the body of the great King there 
buried in the center, very little below the surface; the bones extremely 
rotten, . . . Six weeks after, I came luckily to rescue a great curiosity 
which they took up there, an iron chain, as they called it, which I bought 
of John Fowler, one of the workmen : it was the bridle buried along with 
the monarch, being only a solid body of rust. I immerg'd it in a limners* 
drying oil, and dry'd it carefully, . . . it is now as fair and entire as 
when the workmen took it up. There were deers horns, an iron knife with 
a bone handle, too, all excessively rotten, taken up along with it." Abury^ 
41, PI. 36. A, W., II., 79 (quoting Stukeley). 

It is probable that this was a Saxon burial, for in Wilts at least, no other 
race is known to have utilised existing mounds in this way ; the shallow 
grave and the iron knife are normal ; a bridle bit is recorded from a richly- 
furnished " cenotaph " grave found at Bourne Park, near Canterbury, and 
horse trappings from a grave at Faversham, Kent. Wright's The Celt, The 
Roman and The Saxon^ 6th edition, 1902, 468 ; B.M. Anglo-Saxon Guide 
45. 

WiNKELBURY HiLL, parish of Berwick St. John, O.S. 69 S.E. Barrow 1. 
A ditched barrow with causeway across ditch and slight bank on outside. 
Under the centre of the mound an oblong grave was found, 8|ft. X 6ft. lOin., 
3jft. deep ; stake holes at each corner of the grave ; grave east and west. 
In the grave were iron bands, presumably from a wooden coffin, and re- 
mains of skeleton. Apparently the barrow was of British origin used for 
later burials. The mound had been opened and the later burial disturbed. 
Pitt- Rivers was doubtful about the date of this secondary burial, but as he 
points out the probability of its being Saxon is much strengthened by the 
discovery in Barrow 2 (see below) and of the Saxon cemetery surrounding 
both barrows. Excavations, II., 257. 

For Saxon " cemetery " close to this barrow see under '' Cemeteries." 
Similar objects were found in a barrow at Woodyates with knife and 
spearhead of Saxon types. A. W.^ I., PI. 31. 

WiNKELBURY Hill, parish of Berwick St. John. O.S. 69 S.E. Barrow 
2. A low mound surrounded by a slight ditch with causeway. In the 
centre an oblong grave was found, b^it. X 2^ft., 2|ft. deep, containing two 
interments, a primary and a secondary one. Fragments of the primary one 
were found scattered throughout the soil ; the secondary — a male skeleton 
— lay extended on its back, head to west ; above it an iron knife of Saxon 
type was found. Excavations, II., 259. 

Long Barrow in Bratton Camp. OS. 45 N.W. Three skeletons 
were found by Wm. Cunnington near " the top " at the east end. No 
details known. A. W., I., 56. Saxon ? 

Briomerston, Silk Hill. 55 N.W. "In the largest and most con- 
spicuous barrow on the hill " Hoare found as a secondary burial a skeleton 
with a small socketed lance or arrowhead of iron. Saxon ? A. W., I., 194 ; 



By Mrs. M. E. Gunnington, 163 

D.M. Cat., I., 116a; Goddard's " List," No. 21a {W,A.M., xxxviii., p. 289, 
Milston and Brigmerston). 

Broad Town. O.S. 22 N.W. In 1834 (or 1836) while removing the top 
of a barrow on the edge of the hill above Thornhill Lane, skeletons were 
found ; with them an iron arrow head, one bead of amber and one of glass, 
and fragments of a glass bottle. Saxon ? W,A.M., vi., 256; xxix., 86 
(don. to Museum); D.M. Cat. of Antiqs , IL, p. 115, Si— la— lb. Not on 
O.S. or in Smith. Baldwin Brown, iv., 656. 

AsHTON Valley Group of Barrows. O.S. 52 S.E. Parish of Codford 
St. Peter. Goddard's " List," No. 6. At a depth of 3ft. 9in. in this barrow 
the skeleton of a man was found lying south-west to north-east. Remains 
of a bronze-mounted fir wood bucket ^ were found at its side, and by " the 
right side a considerable quantity of corroded iron " and " small bits of 
cloth." A.W., I, 79, No. 9 ; D.M. Cat. of Antiqs., IL, 227. 

For what seems to have been a Saxon primary burial in one of the bar- 
rows of this group see under " Primary Burials." 

Salisbury Race Course, parish of Ooombe Bisset. O.S. 70 N.W. In 
one of the barrows here, opened by Hoare, scattered remains of two skele- 
tons were found. In a neighbouring barrow undoubted Saxon remains were 
discovered. A.W., II., Roman Aera, 26. 

Saxon ? See also under *' Primary Burials." 

If these were indeed Saxon, it makes the second instance in which ap- 
parently primary and secondary Saxon burials have occurred in the same 
group of barrows, the other being the Ashton Valley group, parish of Cod- 
ford St. Peter. 

DuRRiNGTON. The following entry occurs in Thurnam's MS. Cat. 
" 120. Anglo-Saxon. From a so-called Pond barrow on Durrington Down, 
near Stonehenge. A. W. 84, no. 94. ^ The interment was perhaps secondary 
and Anglo-Saxon, or even later." 

Mr. Horton-Smitb includes this skull in his Table of West Saxon Crania, 
as a female with index of 725. Jour. Anthro, Instit , vol. xxvi., 1897. 
See also under Swindon, page 156, for note on this skull. 

Everley. O.S., 42 SW. One of the Everley Group of barrows. 
Goddard's No. 1 . A bell-shaped barrow opened by Thurnam who found as 
a secondary burial " the skeleton of a tall man . . . about a foot from 
the summit, laid at full length and with the head to the south, The arms 
were close to the side of the skeleton, the thigh bones measured 19iin. 
. . . notwithstanding the discovery of a few fragments of coarse Roman 
pottery^ close by, the interment may be attributed to the Anglo-Saxon 

^ Hoare thought that the remains were those of a shield, 
' There seems to be something wrong with this reference to A. W. 
Hoare's no. 68, was a pond barrow, A.W., I., 166. Goddard's, 10, 
II J) 108, „ „ „ 168, „ 51a. 

„ 120, „ „ „ 169. „ 62b. 

* There is a Romano- British village site close to this group of barrows 
W.A.M,, xlv., 200, No. 132. 

VOL. XLVI. — NO. CLVIII. M 



164 Wiltshire in Pagan Saxon Times. 

period." W.A.M., vi., 332, No. 26 ; Cr. Brit , I., 252, No. 6. The following 
entry appears in the MS. Cat. "25. Anglo-Saxon. From a skeleton 
stretched at full length near the summit of a bell-shaped Brit, (barrow) 
at Everley, Wilts. A secondary interment." 

Grafton, East. O.S. 43 N.W. Close to boundary of Shalbourne on 
edge of Great Botley Copse. In this disc barrow a skeleton was found 
with an iron spearhead and a bronze buckle of Saxon type. Parts of a 
second skeleton were found below it, and the primary cremated burial in a 
cist. Opened in 1910 by Messrs. O. G. S. Crawford and H. J. E. Peake. 
Newbury Museum. W.A.M.^ xxxviii., 260 (3) ; Wessex from the Air, 1928, 
p. 13, note. 

Compare this find with that from the disc barrow at Winterbourne Stoke. 

Grafton, East. O.S. 43 N.W. Great Botley Copse. Goddard's No. 4. 
A skeleton was found as a secondary burial in this bowl-shaped barrow 
and presumed to be Saxon. Opened by Messrs. O. G. S. Crawford and 
H. J. E. Peake, 1910. Newbury Museum. W.A.M., xxxviii., 360 (6), 

Bowls Barrow, parish of Heytesbury. O.S. 52 N.W. This long bar- 
row was opened by Wm. Cunnington in 1801 ; he found near the east end, 
at a depth of 2ft. 9in., a skeleton lying S.W. by N.E. ; there were with it a 
" brass buckle " and " two thin pieces of the same metal," Further west- 
wards were two more skeletons with heads to the south. A. W., I., 87 ; 
Arch., 42, 180, B vi. 

The barrow was re-opened by'Thurnham for the sake of the skulls, and 
the following entry occurs in his MS. Cat, : — " 214. From Bowls Barrow. 
The interment to which these skulls belonged was near the summit of the 
tumulus ; it must have been secondary, and was probably Anglo-Saxon." 
Whether this skull was one of those found earlier by Wm. Cunnington it 
is not now possible to say. 

Knook. O.S. 52NE. Goddard's No. 2. This long barrow was opened 
by Wm. Cunnington in 1801 — 2, near the centre at a depth of about 18in. 
he found four headless skeletons lying N. to S. " which appeared to have 
been deposited with very little ceremony." A. IF., I., 83 ; Saxon ? 

Knoyle, West. About one mile S. of Keesley Lodge " the skeleton of 
a large man " was found "a few inches under the turf." In an empty cist 
or grave below were beads of " jet " and amber. A. W., I., 49. Saxon ? 

Knoyle, West. Hoare opened in 1807 "two very low tumuli on a fine 
piece of down attached to West Knoyle Farm." In the smaller of the two 
" we discovered the skeleton of a robust man, extended on his back at full 
length in a large cist." Between his knees were found the iron umbo of a 
shield, on the left side a spearhead and knife, both of iron. A.W., I., 48. 
D.M. Cat of Antiqs., II., 299, 305. 

The adjoining mound yielded only a cremation mixed with the soil, 
and Hoare doubted if it was the primary. 

Lake Field, parish of Wilsford (S. Wilts). Stukeley notes, 1763, that a 
spearhead, dagger (knife?) and an " iron head-piece " (shield boss ?) were 
found with a body buried near the surface of a barrow. W.A.M.^ xli., 426. 



By Mrs. M. E, Cunnington. 165 

81LK Hill, parish of Milston with Brigmerston. O.S. 55 N.W. Hoare 
found in "the loftiest and most conspicuous tumulus on the hill," some- 
where in the mound above the primary burial, a skeleton with "an iron 
lance placed near the head." A.W., I., 194 ; D.M. Gat. of Antiqs., I., 116a. 

Barrow in churchyard at Ogbourne St. Andrew. Goddard's No. 
^. O.S. 29, N.W. This large barrow, in the N.E. corner of the churchyard, 
was opened by Henry and Wm. Ounnington (junior) in 1885. Some twenty 
skeletons of both sexes, without coffins, or relics, heads to the west, were found 
scattered throughout the mound at a depth of about 3ft. It was thought 
that these may have been medieval. Near the centre of the mound, 5ft. 
deep, the skeleton of a man was found buried in a coffin of fir wood with 
iron clamps, head S.W. by W. The coffin was surrounded by a considerable 
quantity of wood ash. It was thought that this was a Saxon burial. A 
cremated burial, believed to be the primary one, was found below this. 
W.A.M., xxii., 345—6. . Baldwin Brown, iv., 654. 

Saxon skeleton and iron fragments at Devizes Mus. Cat. of Antiqs., II., 
p. 1 42, c. 26. 

Sherrington Long Barrow. O.S. 58 N.E. Goddard's No. 1. In the 
exploration cf this barrow, Wm. Cunnington found in 1804, near the N.W. 
end (this barrow was exceptional in that the higher and broader end was 
towards the N.W.) four skeletons about 16in. below the surface, lying S. byN . 
Near the centre of the mound, 18in. below the surface, another skeleton was 
found lying W. to E,, with an iron spearhead on its right side. Still further 
to the east at the same depth, the skeleton of " a stout man " was found also 
lying W. to E , on its right side was a two-edged sword, 2ft. long, with 
remnants of wooden scabbard, on the right side of the head an iron spear- 
head, and on the left the umbo of a shield, "an iron buckle, a piece of 
leather, a stirrup of brass perforated in several places, a thin bit of silver, 
an iron knife, with several pieces of corroded iron." Yet again to the east 
of this "in the same direction," the skeleton of an adult and of a child of 
4 or 5 years of age, with these a " small knife and a piece of corroded lead." 
AH these objects seem to be lost. A. W., I., 100 ; Arch , xv., 34, Pis. 18—19. 

TiLSHEAD Lodge Long Barrow. OS. 53 N.W., parish of Tilshead. 
Goddard's No. 5. Opened by Hoare and Wm. Cunnington who found 
under the turf, near the east end, a skeleton lying from W. to E. A. W.^ I., 92. 

The barrow was re-opened by Thurnam and the following entry appears 
in his MS. Car "232. Anglo-Saxon. P'rom a secondary interment about 
a foot below the turf near the centre of the same barrow, the skeleton 
stretched at length with the head to the west. On the neck and upper part 
of the chest were the remains of a shield consisting of the umbo, handle, 
and four studs, all of iron. Close to the head were the decayed remains 
of a small situla, or bucket of wood, bound with thin strips of brass." 
Arch., xlii., 180 (A. 112, B.X.), 195—6. Mem. Anthro. Socty., III., 57. 

The discovery by Thurnam of this undoubted Saxon burial strengthens 
the probability that the skeleton found by Hoare and Cunnington was 
also Saxon. 

M 2 



166 Wiltshire in Pagan Saxon Times. 

Mr. Horton-Smith includes this skull in his Table of West Saxon Crania^ 
Jour. Anthro. Instit., xxvi.. 1897. 

King Barrow, Boreham, parish of Warminster. Opened by Wm. 
Cunnington in 1800, who found, 18 inches below the surface, three skele- 
tons lying S.W. to N.E. ; an iron seax with remains of oaken handle was^ 
found near the thigh of one of these. A. W., I., 72. 

Hoare says the blade of the sword was about 18 inches long and 2 inches 
wide, so this may be the one catalogued as " locality unknown," see under 
Isolated Finds, 

Ell Barrow, parish of Wilsford (N. Wilts). O.S 46 N.E. This long 
barrow was opened by Thurnam who found a large male skeleton stretched 
at full length, a foot or so below the turf, which was probably Anglo-Saxon. 
The skull was cleft apparently by a sword blow. Arch.^ xlii., 196, note. 
Cr. Brit, I., P. 252, No. 7. 

The following entry appears in Thurnam's MS. Cat. : — " 148. Anglo- 
Saxon. From the centre and near the summit of the long barrow, Ell 
Barrow, on Salisbury Plain. A secondary interment stretched at length. 
There is a clear cleft thro' the right parietal bone, probably the death 
wound." 

NoRMANTON, parish of Wilsford (S. Wilts). O.S. 60 N.W. Goddard's 
No. 30. At the larger end of this long barrow a skeleton was found at a 
depth of 18in. No further details known. A. W., I, 206 (No. 17.3) ; Arch.^ 
xlii., 180, No. A., xvi. Saxon 1 

WiNTERBOURNE Stoke. O.S.53S.E. Goddard's" List " No. 61. When 
the large disc barrow, in the corner of the bank'and ditch that encloses the 
West, or Oonygar group of barrows, was opened by Hoare and Wm. 
Cunnington in 1809, "it appeared that the primary interment had been 
moved to make room for the subsequent deposit of a skeleton, which also 
had been disturbed at some still later period. In examining the cist which 
contained the skeleton, we observed that the feet had not been displaced ; 
near them was an iron knife." A. W., I., 113, No. I. 

Compare this burial with that at Grafton. 

WiNTERSLOw. O.S. 67 N.E. *' In the large Colossal Barrow adjoining 
the Hut enclosures" a large skeleton was found "2ft. from the top, with 
the umbo of a shield, a spearhead, a buckle, and a covering for the arm 
made of wood and hooped round with brass. Mr. Guest took an oil painting 
of these relics for me, the latter of which has since crumbled to dust, except 
the brass hoops. . . . With respect to the covering, which I suppose 
was for that arm to which the shield was fastened. I remember having 
seen twelve years since, a fragment of the kind at your late friend's house at 
Heytesbury ; and if you compare the said fragment with my oil painting 
you will perceive at once it was similar to it." From a letter from the 
Rev. A. B. Hutchins, who opened the barrow in 1814, to Sir Richard Colt 
Hoare, printed in Modern Wilts, vol. V., 209. 

The object described as a " covering for the arm" was probably a wooden 
bucket with bronze mountings, The friend referred to, who lived at 



By Mrs, M. E. Cunnington, 167 

Heytesbury, was no doubt Wm. Cunuington, who died in 1810, and whose 
collection of antiquities, etc., was acquired by Uoare. 

This is not the same barrow as that described by Hutchins in Arch, Jour.^ 
I., 156, in which four iron arrowheads are said to have been found with a 
cremated burial in a wooden box. 

Yatesbury. O.S. 27 N.E. Goddard's "List" No. 4. About 1833, 
when the large barrow in Barrow Field was lowered, two skeletons were 
found lying at full length. There was " a little box of metal, 3 inches long ; 
it had a lid at one end, and a chain fixed in the middle, and it had been 
fastened to the end where it opened ; it was round." There were found 
also three " terra cotta " beads and *' a knife fit to stick a pig." Froc. Arch. 
Instit., 1849 (Merewether) ; Smith, Antiqs, of N. Wilts, p. 87, c. ; W,A,M., 
xviii., 332 (Smith). The accounts are all practically identical. Merewether 
obtained his information on the spot from one Henry Shergold, who had 
been employed in levelling the barrow. The former height of the mound 
was said to be 20ft. and it was lowered 9ft. 

A small cylindrical metal box with lid was found in a barrow at Chatham 
Lines, Kent, and is figured by Douglas, Nenia Britannica, PI. 18, fig. 13. 
Similar bronze boxes — described as work-boxes^ — were found in graves at 
Kempston, Beds, and at Burwell, (Jambs ; and others are in the British 
Museum; needles and thread have been found in some of these. Apparently, 
therefore, they denote the graves of women. B.M. Anglo-Saxon Guides 
p. 74, fig. 83. Recent Excavations in Anglo-Saxon Cemeteries in Cambridge- 
shire and Sufolh. T. C. Lethbridge, 1931 . 

Burials of Uncertain or Indefinite Character. 

Sex Weapons 

Site Male Female Uncertain Knives 

Bedwyn, Great 

Easton Royal I K 

Ebbesbourne Wake 1 1 

Elston 1 K 

Marlborough, near 1 1 

Melksham 

Mildenhall 

Netheravon 

Overton 

Salisbury 

Shrewton 

Standlynch (Witherington) 

Tilshead 

Wanborough 

Winterslow 



1 

K 

1 

1 
1 

10 



^ Perhaps " needle cases " would be a better description of these small 
boxes. 



168 Wiltshire in Pagan Saxon Times 

Ceofton, parish of Great Bedwyn. O.S. 36 S.E. A large number of 
skeletons have been found from time to time in the chalk pit near the 
pumping station at Urofton. It has been said that these are Saxon, but no 
relics are known to have been found with them, and nothing is really known 
as to their date. W.A.M., xxvi., 413 ; xxxviii., 188; xli., 312. 

A fine earthenware pot of early Iron age, La Tene I.itype, was found here 
a few years ago and is now on loan in the Museum at Devizes. 

Easton Hill, parish of Easton Royal. O.S. 42 N.W. An iron knife 
with well-preserved wooden handle and a bone comb, were found with 
remains of a wooden coffin and iron nails (with remains of skeleton in a 
grave?) on the south side of the clump of trees on this hill. No further 
details known. The comb is double sided. D.M. Cat. ofAntiqs.., II., p. 
115, S. 2— 2a— 2b. 

Saxon ? There is a Romano- British settlement on Easton Hill. W.A.M.y 
xlv., 186. 

Baerow Hill, parish of Ebbesbourne Wake. OS. 70 S.W. While 
laying water pipes on Barrow Hill, about 100yds. down the south si ope, 
the men came upon an extended skeleton of a man in a shallow grave lying 
with head to the north. An umbo and circular ornaments for the shield were 
found on the left shoulder, and an iron spearhead near the right arm. 
W.A.M., xliii., 101, figs., with report on bones by Sir A. Keith. 

Elston, parish of Orcheston St. George. An iron knife was "found 
with a skeleton at Elston." No details are known. W A.M., iii., 267 
(notice of exhibition only). Saxon ? 

Near Marlborough. O.S. 29 S.W. A skeleton with an iron spearhead 
was found on top of the hill on the London road, near Savernake Hospital 
(circa. 1929). W.A.M., xliv., 244. 

This might have been in the parish of Marlborough, Mildenhill, or North 
Savernake. 

Melksham. The following entry appears in Thurnam*s MS. Cat. "260^ 
Late An. Brit. ? From a skeleton found in digging for gravel near the 
Grove, Melksham. It lay N. and S , with one leg stretched at length, the 
other bent at right angles. The spot had been an orchard belonging to 
Place House, now destroyed. Nothing was found with the bones, not even 
traces of wood or nails. Some supposed that the bones were those of a 
murdered man; but there is no proof of this. The skull (very brachy- 
cephalic and therefore not like modern Wiltshire skulls) is not unlike those 
found within a mile's distance, on the other side of the Avon, in parish of 
Broughton Gifford, 1862 (see Nos. 175—177). Pres. by E. L. Barnwell, of 
Melksham House." 

Mr. Horton-Smith includes this in his Table of West Saxon Crania, as a 
male skull with index of 87*4. 

See also under Broughton Gifford, p. 1 53. 

MiLDENHALL. O.S. 29 S.W. Found with a skeleton burial (of which ' 
no details are known) in 1827; — a fine pair of gilt bronze saucer-shaped 
brooches, bronze pin, two iron knives, 21 beads of amber and glass, and a 



By Mrs, M. E. Cunnington. 169 

"brass ring" upon one of the fingers. W,A,M., iv , 259 (note of exhib.), 
xxxvii., 611 — 613, figs. ; Baldwin Brown, iv., 656. Uevizes Museum, 

Aviation School, parish of Netheravon. In 1913, in excavating for the 
Officers' Mess, a sljeleton was found in a shallow grave, extended on its 
back, head to west. A bronze pin was found close to the right side of the 
skull, and somewhere among the bones an iron spearhead ; there were also 
some narrow strips of iron and rivets, with wood adhering, probably remains 
of a shield. W.A M., xliii., 400, figs. Objects in the Devizes Museum. 

Another skeleton was found a few yards away from the first, but there 
seems to have been nothing with it. 

Overton. In 1678 on " the lands of one Captayne Grubbe " in making 
" new boundaries to enclose for French grass," there were found on Overton 
Hill, as recorded in a letter from Dr. R. Toope, of Marlborough, to John 
Aubrey, a number of human skeletons, about 80 yards east of the Sanctuary, 
Dr. Toope wrote " I perceived their feet lay toward the Temple, and but little 
more than a foot under the superficies. At the feet of the first order, I saw 
lay the heads of the next, as above, their feet tending to the Temple ; I 
even believe the whole plaine, on that even ground, is full of dead bodies, 
(IT.^.iJf., iv.,327), 

With some of the bones Dr. Toope " made a noble medicine that relieved 
many of my (his) distressed neighbours." 

East of the Ridgeway and south of the London road may still be seen 
slight banks that are perhaps relics of the enclosures made in 1678. Mr. 
H. 0. Brentnall has suggested the possibility that these burials were those 
of men slain in the battle between the Danes and Saxons in 1006. The 
Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records the battle as " aet Cynetan," and Professor 
Grundy has sugsjested that this was Kennet, and that the battle was fought 
where the great Hidgeway crossed the river Kennet.' 

Though this battle falls within the Christian period, and the burials if 
connected with it outside the scope of this list of pagan Saxon remains, it 
seems desirable to put Mr. Brentnall's interesting suggestion on record. 

Salisbury (Kelsey Road). O.S. 68 S.E. " 1 2th of Dec, 1878. Inmak- 
ing a road across Mr. E. Kelsey's Milford Hill Building Estate, the work- 
men dug up on the east side of the road, an Anglo-Saxon skeleton witK 
which was an iron spearhead, a small knife, and an iron chisel. Skeleton 
head and feet N. W. and S.E." Spear-head socket split, 10|in. Extract 
from the Blackmore Museum Accession Book. 

The Windmill, Shrewton, Hoare states that when the Windmill was 
built a skeleton was found lying on its back ; two wheel-shaped ornaments 
of bronze, decorated on each side with circular and triangular punch marks 



^ Arch. Jour.f vol. Ixxv., 1918, p. 193. "Ancient Highways and Track 
ways of Wilts, Berks, and Hants, and the Saxon Battlefields of Wilts." 



170 Wiltshire in Pag on Saxon Times, 

and cord pattern, with holes for suspension ; ^ a thick bronze wire armlet, 
and an iron knife were found on its right side, and " between the legs a 
drinking cup." One of the wheel-shaped ornaments and the armlet are at 
Devizes, the other things seem to be lost. A.W., I., 174; D.M. Cat. of 
Antiqs., I., 93—4. Arch., xliii., 286, note. 

It is greatly to be regretted that the " drinking cup " cannot be identified, 
as no Saxon pottery from a burial is known from Wiltshire. Thurnam 
(writing many years later) says there was a " barrow levelled," but Hoare 
distinctly states that there was " no appearance of a barrow." 

Callas Hill, parish of Wanborough. O.S. 16 S.W. In 1927 a skeleton 
was found by the side of the road by workmen ; with it was an iron spear- 
head, 14in. long, and a knife. W.A.M., xliv,, 244. Objects at Devizes. 

Cross Roads, parish of Tilshead. The following entry occurs in 
Thurnam 's MS. Cat. "71. English. From grave at Cross roads, near 
Tilshead, Wilts, pres. by Elgar Sloper, Esq. Bones of a dog and iron nails 
were said to have been found near." 

Mr. Horton-Smith includes this skull in his Table of West Saxon Crania, 
as female with an index of 73*1 . 

Without any archaeological evidence the age of this burial must be 
regarded as very uncertain. 

WiNTERSLOW. " Beyond Winterslow Hut on London road from Salisbury, 
1870," circular bronze brooch and fragments of sword scabbard. Salisbury 
Museum. 

WiTHERiNGTON, NEAR Charford, parish of Standlynch. O.S. 72 S.W. 
In digging out a ferret in 1874, on the lynchets below the earthwork at 
Witherington, a skeleton was found lying north by south ; by its side an 
iron two-edged sword with pommel having an *' inscribed pattern "^ on one 
side, iron spearhead and ferrule, on the chest an umbo with point of bronze ; 
four rivets that fastened the umbo to the shield were of silver ; handle, etc., 
of the shield. " About 20 yards from this interment is a tumulus which 
the keeper says contains other human remains, but no relics associated with 
them." From an account of Dr. H. P. Blackmore, quoted by Heywood 
Sumner, Farthwork.^ of the New Forest, 86 — 7. The objects are in the 
Museum at Salisbury. 



* It has been shown that these wheel-like open-work rings were girdle 
hangers, to which small objects such as keys, etc., were attached with wire, 
the rings themselves being suspended from the girdle at the waist. They 
are usually found in the graves of women, near the hips. They are said to 
have affinities with Kentish, Frankish, and Swiss girdle hangers. The 
girdle hangers suggest that this was a woman's grave. See Recent Exca- 
vations in Anglo-Saxon Cemeteries in Cambridgeshire and Suffolk . J. C. 
Lethbridge, F.S.A., Cambridge Antiquarian Society, 1931. Burwell 
Cemetery, fig. 29, grave 55 ; fig. 36, grave 121. Similar objects were found 
at Winkelbury. Pitt-Rivers, Ex., II., 259. 

^ I have examined this carefully and I think " chased " would have been 
a better word. There is certainly no trace of writing.^0. G. S. C. 



By Mrs. M. E. Cunnington. 171 

Among the objects found by Wm. Cunnington and Sir Richard Colt 
Hoare, now in the Stourhead Collection at Devizes, are some Saxon finds 
from barrows just outside the county, near Woodyates in Dorsetshire. 
These are : — Ivory armlet and gold pendant with chain, AW., I., 235 ; Dev. 
Mus. Gat. of Antiqs., I., Nos. 193, 195, 196. Button saucer-shaped brooch, 
bones, beads, A.W., I., 236, D.M. Cat. of Antiqs., I., Nos. 199, 199a, 200, 
222b. (This latter described as from Fovant.) Iron spearhead and knife, 
A.W., L, 234; D.M. Cat. of Antiqs., I., Nos. 242, 242a. 



Isolated Finds. 

Axe-heads — Downton. 

Heads — Great Cheverell, Winterbourne Stoke. 

Bronze bowl — Wilton. 

Bronze objects (bowl attachment ?) — Liddington, Kingston Deveril. 

Brooches— Alderbury (or Downton), Cold Kitchen tlill( Brixton Deveril), 
Everley, Mildenhall, Stratford-sub-Castle, Winterslow. 

Glass vessel — Locality unknown. 

Pottery fragments — Marlborough College (Preshute). 

Pottery vessel — Preshute. 

Pottery rings — Kennet, East. 

Spearheads — Amesbury, Barbury, Bishopstoae, Bulfor 1, Hinton Down, 
Mere, Shrewton, Woodford, Liddington Hill. 

Spindle whorl — Bishops Cannings. 

Swords — Knap Hill (Alton Priors), Toyd, Barbury Castle (Wroughton), 
Locality unknown. 

Sword chape — Winterslow. 

Amesbury. Spearhead, half of iron shears, bronze ring and pottery 
fragments. Barrow 85, but apparently not with a burial. WA.M,, xlv., 
432. Salisbury Museum. 

Amesbury, Stonehenge. Silver belt ornament. Salisbury Museum. 

Alderbury ? In the Museum at Salisbury are two pieces of brooches, 
a hair comb, and a button, said to be " probably from Alderbury or Downton 
District." 

Knap Hill, parish of Alton Priors. O.S. 35 S.W. An iron two-edged 
sword of 6th century Saxon type, was found without other relics or human 
remains, 18 inches below the surface in the long mound in the Plateau en- 
closure (Romano- British) adjoining the older camp on this hill. Some at 
least of the dwellings in the enclosure seem to have been destroyed by fire 
and then abandoned. This suggests a catastrophe with which the owner 
of the sword may have been connected. W.A.M., xxxvii., 54, fig. 4. 

Bishops Cannings Churchyard. A conical-shaped spindle whorl of 
fine grained limestone engraved with cabalistic signs representing the Alpha 
-and Omega. W.A.M., xlii., 246, fig. Christian period. 

BiSHOPSTONE (S. Wilts). Iron spearhead with split socket, 9:^in. long, 
1860. Salisbury Museum. 



172 Wiltshire in Pagan Saxon Times. 

Cold Kitchen Hill, parish of Brixton Deverill. O.S. 57 N.W. Thre& 
almost indentical disc shaped applied bronze brooches were found within 
a few feet of each other on this site. They are probably of the 5th century^ 
They are made of two thin circular plates of bronze, the ornamented plate 
being applied to, and covering the whole of the surface of the under one. 
The design is a barbaric version of a Koman coin or medallion, showing a 
mounted soldier on a rearing horse, with round shield on right arm, and 
spear ? in left ; beneath the horse a figure — perhaps a vanquished enemy ; 
in front of the horse three or four standing figures of men ; three stars 
appear above the horse ; the whole enclosed in a ribbed pattern border. 
Antiq. Jour., April, 1931, vol. xi., 161, fig. W.A.M., xliii., PI. II., A. B. 0. 
(Nan Kivell.) In Devizes Museum. 

Speaking of brooch forms that are found in the districts from which 
tradition brought the Anglo-Saxons, more especially in reference to Hanover, 
Mr. Leeds says that among the more prevalent forms is the disc brooch 
with applied ornament. At Dorchester, Oxon., in what appears to be one 
of the earliest Saxon burials known in the country, a back-plate of this type 
of brooch was found, the objects with which it was associated being purely 
Teutonicincharacter, and identical with those of the culture to which this 
brooch form belongs in North Germany. The date of these burials is 
said to be the " early half of the 5th century at the latest." Anglo-Saxon 
Settlements, 55—6 ; Arch , vol. Ixiii., 193, and note. 

These brooches, therefore, seem to be the earliest objects of Saxon type 
as yet recorded from the county, and their decorative motive altogether 
exceptional It is remarkable that at least four brooches of the applied 
disc type should have been found on this British hill-top site ; a foundation 
plate having been found here some years previously {W.A.M., xxvii , 288, 
fig. 8) 

A foundation plate of the same type of brooch was found also by Pitt- 
Rivers at Woodyates. Excavations, III., page 134, fig. 17. 

The settlement on Cold Kitchen Hill seems to have been occupied from 
the early Iron Age (All (Mannings Cross) to the end of the Romano- British 
period. The presence of these brooches does not necessarily indicate a 
Saxon occupation of the site, or settlement in the neighbourhood. The 
brooches might have been taken from invaders who had been overcome, 
or brought in some chance way from another part of the country. 

BuLFORD. Found on Bulford Down in 1861, an iron spearhead with 
split socket (Saxon type). D.M, Gat. of Antiqs., II., p. 62, No. 522 ;. 
W.A.M., ix., 25. (No details known). 

Cheverell, Great. Bead of black glass with chevron pattern in white 
inlay. P^und above Knowtham Pond, near where some years earlier bones 
and a sword were found. D.M. Cat. of Antiqs , II., p. 116, S3. Saxon ? 

DowNTON. Though apparently later than the Pagan period, it may be as 
well to mention three iron axe-heads found here in 1930, and now in the 
museum at Salisbury. W.A.M., xlv,, 489, Dec. 1931. 

Everley. Bronze brooch with square panel in red, white, and blue 
enamel, diam. ij inches. Found near Barrow 17 of the Everley Group^ 



By Mrs. M, E. Cunnington. Vj% 

A.W., L, 184, note, PL 22 ; D.M. Cat. of Antiqs., I., No. 109. Saxon or 
Romano- British ? 

HiNTON Parva. An iron spearhead from Hinton Down is in Mr. A. D. 
Passmore's collection. 

Kennet, East. Two rings of baked clay were dug up in the foundations 
during alterations to the Manor House {circa 1928). They are similar to 
those found by Mr. Leeds in a dwelling of the Saxon period at Sutton 
Courtney, Oxon, and are in all probability loom weights. W.A.M., xliv., 
264; Arch., Vol. Ixxiii., i47, Fig. 3, PI. 2H (1922). Preserved in the Manor 
House. Probably not of the pagan period. 

A similar ring from Clyflfe Pypard is in the Museum at Devizes. Cat of 
Antiqs., II., p. 35, No. 250. 

Kingston Deverill. A bronze object in the form of a fish, said to be 
a belt ornament, is in the Museum at Salisbury. 

LiDDiNGTON. Found near Liddington Castle a gilt bronze object with 
green enamel, possibly an escutcheon for attachment to a bronze bowl. 1 h 
of an inch in length. W A.M., xxxviii., 584, PI. iv., Fig. 5. 

The crescent-like figure is one not infrequently found on Saxon brooches, 
etc., and is apparently a debased convention intended to represent the 
human face. Arch., vol. Ixiii., 164, Figs. 6, 8b, 10a, etc. For similar design 
on a escutcheon of a bowl found at Mildenhall, Suflfolk, see Proc. Soc. Antiq.y 
xxii., p. 74, Fig, 4. 

Mr. A. D. Passmore has in his collection an iron spearhead from Lidding- 
ton Hill. Saxon ? 

Mere, Charnage. " Iron spearhead. Found on ploughed field at 
Charnage, Mere, by Mr. C. R. White, 1922." Length 5^ inches ; socket 
split. Salisbury Museum. 

Mildenhall (near Marlborough). Mr. A. D. Passmore has in his col- 
lection a fine gilt bronze saucer-shaped brooch. Nothing seems to be 
known as to the circumstances of its discovery. W.A.M., xl., 358. 

Is this a stray from the site at Mildenhall described above, page 168 1 

Temple Down, parish of Preshute. In the Brook Collection in the 
Museum at Devizes, dug up on this down in 1895 (without other history) 
is an earthenware vessel that appears to be certainly Saxon. It has a 
bulbous body with bottle-like neck, rim missing ; surface of ware smoothed, 
brownish. 

Marlborough College, parish of Preshute. On OS. 29 S.W., the fol- 
lowing entry appears — " Saxon pottery, etc , found here, A.D. 1888 " 1901 
edition. It seems that in levelling the ground for a tennis court at 
Summerfield House (Marlboro' College), debris from a dwelling was found, 
including roofing slabs, nails, pottery, etc., and a coin of Trajan and a 
Saxon "styca." It was suggested that this was the site of a Roman villa^ 
but later the pottery was said to be Saxon. Marlborough College Natural 
History Society Report, 1888, p. IL W.AM., xxxviii., 311 (no further de- 
tails). The present whereabouts of the pottery, etc., does not seem to be 
known. 



174 Wiltshire in Pagan Saxon Times. 

Shrewton. Iron socketed spearhead. Blackmore Museum, Salisbury. 
Length 9iin., socket split. W.A.M., xxxviii., 321 ; Baldwin Brown, 657. 

Stratford-sub-Oastle, Old Sarum. Two combs and brooch with scroll 
ornament, 9th century ? Salisbury Museum. 

ToYD. A Saxon sword found at Toyd is in the Salisbury Museum. 

Wilts ? Little Toyd Down and Little Toyd Farm are in Wilts, but 
Toyd Farm— with — AUenford is in Hants. 

Wilton. Found about 1860, in drainage works, between the Abbey and 
Kingsbury Square, a remarkable bowl of bright yellow alloy, lOfin. in 
diameter, and 4^in. high. Attached to sides are hooks with animal's heads 
holding hooks for suspension. Arch., lix., 40, fig. ; Proc. Socty. Antiq., 
xxii., 67. Nightingale's Church Plate of Wilts, 28, fig. ; W.A.M., xxvi., 
185, (ex. at Wilton House) ; 327, fig., xxxviii., 355 ; Arch. Jour., xiv., 174. 
Baldwin Brown, iv., 656. At Wilton House.^ 

WiNTERBOURNE Stoke. A glass bead found in a disturbed grave with a 
few fragments of burntibones. A. W., I., 119, Barrow 10. 

This is described as Saxon, D.M. Gat. of Antiqs.f I., 79. It is of opaque 
glass with spiral lines of blue and white, diam., |in, 

Pitt-Rivers found a bead with two others on the neck of a skeleton in 
the Saxon cemetery on Winkelbury Hill that he describes as " drab or 
pale blue and white spiral stripes," and adds " a nearly similar bead to 
this last is figured by Hoare (but) it does not appear certain from its 
associated relics whether this also may not have been found in a Saxon 
grave. At any rate the two beads appear perfectly identical." Excavations, 
IL, p. 119, No. 29. 

Between Woodford and Lake. "1863. Between Woodford and Lake, 
spearhead." Extract of a note left by the late Dr. H. P. Blackmore. Now 
in Museum at Salisbury, length 10 Jin. 

Barbury Castle, parishes of Wroughton and Ogbourne St. Andrew. O.S. 
22 S.E. An iron sword and other objects in the Museum at Marlborough 
College from Barbury Castle are believed to be Saxon. Information con- 
tained in a private letter from Mr. H. C. Brentnall. 

Mr. A. D. Passmore also has in his collection an iron spearhead from 
this site. 

Locality Unknown. A handled cup or bowl with nearly rounded base 
of hard dense clay with mica grains. Height 3|ins., with furrows round 
shoulder. D.M. Cat, of Antiq s., I., 357. Saxon ? 

Locality Unknown. A single-edge sword or seax, total length 222ia., 
width of blade igin. D.M. Cat. of Antiqs., I., 243. This may be the sword 
found in the King barrow, Warminster, see under Secondary Burials. 

Locality Unknown. A glass vessel with four indentations, or flutings, 
of very thin white glass. Height 3|in. D.M. Cat of Antiqs., I., 354. 
Saxon or Roman ? 



On the use of these bowls see Antiquiti/f June 1932, p. 161. 



By Mrs. M. E, Gunnington. 175- 

Wansdyke.* It has often been suggested that Wansdyke is of Saxon 
origin. If this were true it would be one of the most interesting and im- 
portant Saxon relics in the country. But although the dyke is almost 
certainly late Roman or post-Roman, it is not therefore necessarily Saxon. 
It is at least as probable that its only connection with the Saxons is that it 
was thrown up as a defence against them, as that they themselves raised it. 
For the present, the origin of Wansdyke can only be regarded as an unsolved 
problem. Someone has said it is a monument to a lost cause ; it is not 
only that, but a monument to a lost chapter in British history. 

A useful summary of what is known of the dyke, with full maps, etc,,, 
will be found in The Mystery of Wansdyke, by E. J. Burrows, 1926. 



We have to thank Mr. F. Stevens, Controller of the South Wilts and 
Blackmore Museum, at Salisbury, for information with regard to Saxon 
objects in that Museum. 



The following abbreviations have been used : — 
Arch. =Arch8eologia. 
Baldwin Brown=The Arts in Early England, by Professor Baldwin 

Brown. 
Cat.=Catalogue of Antiquities in the Museum of the Wiltshire and 

Natural History Society at Devizes. 
MS. Cat. or Thurnam's Cat. = The MS. catalogue compiled by Dr. 

Thurnam of the Thurnam Collection of Skulls, now at Cambridge. 
W.A.M. = Wiltshire Archaeological Magazine. 
D.M.=Devizes Museum. 



* The latest theory as to the origin of the dyke seems to be that of Sir 
Charles Oman, who sees in it a boundary between two petty British king- 
doms in the " dim sixth century," A.D. Arch. Jour.^ vol. 87, 1930, p. 60. 



176 



PARLIAMENTARY SURVEYS OF THE CROWN LAND 

IN BRADEN FOREST (1651). 

Transcribed by Canon F. H. Manley. 

These surveys were made during the Commonwealth as part of a general 
policy for ascertaining the true value of the property of the Crown which 
had now been seized by Parliament. They are interesting as showing how 
within 20 years this part of Braden Forest had been completely converted 
into farm holdings, exactly on the lines contemplated when the disafforest- 
ing was effected. 

The map given with the previous article on the disafforesting corresponds 
with these surveys and contains a large number of the place names which 
occur in them, names which now have completely disappeared. 

Survey No. 23. 

Wilts. Great Lodge de Braden. A Survey of all that Messuage or 
Farm House commonly called or known by the name of the Great Lodge, 
with several parcels of Ground thereunto belonging called Cheq"^' Lands 
being parcel of that disafforested Forest of Braden within the Parish of 
Cricklade called by the name of the Dutchie Lands parcel of the Revenue 
of the Dutchie Pallatine of Lancaster near unto the aforesaid Forrest Lands 
adjoining within the Countie aforesaid being now converted into meadow, 
pasture & arable with the rights, members and appurt* thereof late parcel 
of the possessions of Charles Stuart, late King of England made and taken 
by them whose names are hereunto subscribed in the month of Feb^^ 1650 by 
virtue of a commission grounded upon an Act of the Commons of England 
assembled in Parliament for sale of the Honors and Lands heretofore be- 
longing to the King, Queen &, Prince under the hands and seals of 5 or 
more of the Trustees in the s*^ Act named & appointed. 

Cheq"" Lands. All that Messuage or Farm house afore- 
said with the scite thereof consisting of a Hall, a Parlour, a 
Kitchen, a Larder, a Butterye with 5 Chambers above 
stayers & 4 Garrets over them — tog' with a Brewhouse or 3a. 2r. 20p. 
Bakehouse, a Milk House nere unto the foresaid Farmhouse, 
adjoins^ which one Barn, containing 5 Bays of Building, one 
Stable, two Oxstalls with several outhousing to the same 
belonging with one orchard, 3 gardens, one Court Yard & 
two fould Yards, All which contain together 3a. 2r. 20p. 
■which at an improved Rent we value to be worth per annum vi;^ xiijs. iiijd. 

The Plecks. All that parcel of meadow Ground being now 
■divided into 3 severals commonlie called or known by the 
name of the Plecks near unto the foresaid scite adjoining 
bounded with the Lands called the Lower Lane towards the 20a. 2r. lOp. 



Parliamentary S^irveys of the Crown Lands in Braden Forest. 177 

East & with that parcel of Ground called by the name of the 
Eavenhurst towards the West, conteyning 20a. 2r. lOp. which 
^t an improved Rent we value to be worth per Annum xx£ xis. ijd. 

Lower Lane. All that parcel of Meadow & arrable 
Ground commonly called or known by the name of the 
Lower Lane being also divided into three severalls bounded 
with that parcel of Ground called the Quid Lodge Hill & 
the Upper Lane towards the North and the foresaid Plecks 40a. Or. lOp. 
meadow towards the West & parcel of the Dutchie Lands 
in farm unto M' Philip Jacobson towards the South con- 
teyning 40a. Or. lOp. which at an improved Rent we value 
to be worth per Annum XX;^ xs. Od. 

Upper Lane. All that parcel of Meadow k Arable 
Ground commonlie called or known by the name of the 
Upper Lane now divided into two severals bounded with 
the foresaid Ould Lodge Hill toward the East and y* fores*^ 60a. 2r. 20p. 
Lower Lane towards the South West & the Lands of the Lord 
Chandays towards the North conteyning 60a. 2r. 20p. which 
at an improved Rent we value to be worth per Annum xxp^" vijs. iiijd. 

Ould Lodge Hill. All that parcel of pasture & arrable 
Ground commonlie called or known by the name of the Ould 
Lodge Hill being now divided into three divisions bounded 160a. Or. 20p. 
with the Lands of Mr. Phillipe Jacobson towards the East & 
with other lands of the said M'. Jacobson & M'. James 
Duart being parcel of the s*^ disafforested Forest of Braden 
towards the South, & the foresaid Lower and Upper Lanes 
towards the West & the Lands of the foresaid Lord Chandoys 
towards the North, conteyning 160a. Or. 2p. which at an im- 
proved Rent we value to be worth per annum ;{"lxij. vjs. viijd. 

Raven Hurst. All that parcel of pasture and Coppice 
Wood commonlie called or known by the name of the Raven- 
hurst being now divided into six severals bounded with the 152a. Ir. 38p. 
foresaid Plecks meadow towards the East & the Coppice in 
farm to the said Mr. James Duart called Dutchie Coppice 
toward the South, with the Lands belonging to the Earl of 
Berkshire towards the West <fe with the Lands of the Lord 
Chandois & the Lands also in farm to the foresaid Mr. 
Jacobson called Barslade & Ravenhurst towards the North 
conteining 152a. Ir. 38p. wch at an improved rent we value 
to be worth per annum Ix;^ Is. od. 

Dutchie Lands. All that parcel of Arable & Pasture 
Ground commonlie called or known by the name of the 
Dutchie Wood being parcel of the Revenue of the Dutchie 
Palantine of Lancaster (but now divided into five divisions) 
with one Tenement thereon, a building bounded with the 
Dutchie Lands in farm to the foresaid M'. Jacobson towards 
the East, with the Commons belonging to the Parish of 



178 Parliamentary Surveys of the Grown Lands in Braden Forest. 

Pirton towards the South and with the Lands also in farm 
to the foresaid M'. Jacobson called Chequer Lands towards 
the North conteining 162 acres, which at an improved Rent 
we value to be worth per annum Ixxij;^ ijs. xijd. 

Dutchie Marsh. All that other parcel of Dutchie Lands 
commonlie called or known by the names of the Dutchie 
Marsh & Dutchie Moore being divided into twelve severals, 180a. Or. Op. 
whereon are 4 Tenements latelie built, bounded with the 
Lands of M^ Hungerford called the Temple Closes towards 
the East, with the foresaid Common of Pirton towards the 
South, with the Dutchie Lands in farm to the foresaid M^ 
Jacobson called Mare Moore toward the West & his lands 
called Chequer Cocksalls with the lands allotted to the poor 
of Pirton towards the North, conteining 180 acres which at 
an improved Rent we value to be worth per annum XC;^ iiijs. xd- 

And all wastes, waters, ways, passages, liberties, priv^", 
franchises, jurisdictions, profits, commodoties, advantages, 
& appurts whatsoever in & about the said Lodge or Farm 
house with the severall parcels of Ground before menconed 
or with them or anie part of them usuallie occupied or en- 
joyed as part, parcel or member of them or anie of them. 

Memorand : The foresaid Lodge or Farm House with the scite thereof, 
together with all and singular the several parcells of the disafforested Lands 
before certified weare by the late King Charles by his Letters patent under 
the Great Seal of England, as allso under the Seale of the Countie Palla- 
tine of Lancaster bearing date the 11th daye of Aprill in the IS"' year of 
his Reign for the consideracons therein at large menconed granted unto 
Roger Nott of London, Merchant tayler together with all waifs, estrays, 
treasure troves, all goods & chattels of felons, of fugitives & outlawed per- 
sons, with all tithes of corn, hay, wool, flax, and all other Tithes whatso- 
ever & the said premises to be acquitted from all manner of tithes as amplie 
freed fullie as the said king or his predecessors held or enjoyed the same or 
ought to have or enjoy the same with freechase & freewarren (except all 
mines and quarries) Habend the said premes from the Ladie Day 1636 un- 
to the full end & term of 60 yeares Yielding & paying for those lands called 
or known by the name of the Chequer Lands the sum of £2S Us. 4d. and 
for those lands called the Dutchie Lands the yearlie Rent of ;^24, which 
said Rents are to be paid at Michaell & Ladie daye by even & equal por- 
tions with Covenants that if the the said yearlie rent bee not paid within 
40 days after either the said dayes whereon the same ought to be paid that 
then & soe often the said Lessee or his Assignes is to forfeit 40s. in name of 
a paine — and the said late King by his Letters patent aforesaid did graunt 
unto the said Roger Nott all Woods and underwoods, timber and Trees 
then growing or to grow upon the said premises during the said Term of 
60 years to be cut down, grubbed up, converted, and disposed of at the 
will of the said Lessee his Assignee or Assignes without any further 
account to be given, then at the ensealing of the said Letters patent was 



Trajiscrihed hy Canon F, H. Manley, 179- 

answered & paid & to convert to meadow, pasture <fe arable anie of the Cop- 
pices or Coppice wood within the said premes. The Lessee is to keep all 
the edifices, buildings, & premes in good & sufficient repair with the quick- 
set hedges then planted or to be planted & so to leave and yield up the same. 
And the said Lessee for the space of tenne yeares before the expiration of 
the foresaid Terme shall not plow, erre up or convert into tillage any part 
or parcel of the foresaid premes but shall employe the same to meadow or 
pasture And shall not within the said tenne yeares fell cut up or plott anie 
of the quick hedges (being the out mounds of the said premes) or any young 
Trees growing thereon but shall leave & yield up the same in good & hus- 
bandlie manner. All which said premes as they are converted as aforesaid 
according to the particulars before certified we value to be worth at an im> 
proved Kent over & above the lij;^ lis, 4d. present Rent per Annum 
cccv^ vs. ijd. 

There are 45 yeares to come & unexpired of the said Letters patent at 
Ladie daye 1651. 

Parliamentary Surveys No, 38. 

Wilts. Langhopshill Lodge als Hattons Lodge. A Survey of all that 
Messuage or Farm House with the Scite thereof commonlie called or known 
by the name of Langhopshill Lodge als Hattons Lodge with several parcels 
of Land there unto belonging called the Dutchie Lands being parcel of that 
disafforested Forest of Braden within the Parish of Cricklade k parcel of 
the reputed Revenue belonging to the Dutchie Pallatine of Lancaster lying 
& being within ye Countie of Wilts and neere adjoining unto the dis- 
afforested Forest of Braden commonlie called or known by the name of ye 
Chequer Lands which said Forest lands are lyeing and being within ye 
parish of Cricklade in the Countie of Wilts aforesaid, all which premes are 
now converted into Meadowe, pasture and arable with ye Rights, members 
and appurtences thereof being parcel of the possessions of Charles Stuart 
&c (as on p. 176). 

Dutchie Lands. All that Messuage or Farme house afore- 6a. 3r. 13p. 
said with the Scite thereof set, lyeing, & being on part of 
that parcel of ground called or known by the name of ye 
Dutchie Wood, consisting of a Hall, a Parler, a Buttery, a 
Kitchen, a Larder, a Milkhouse, a Brewhouse, a Bakehouse, 
with some other rooms & nine chambers above stayers and 
two Garratts over them, one Barn conteining six Bayes of 
Building, one Stable, one Oxestall, with some other out- 
housing, with two Gardens, one Orchard, one Courtyard, 
two Fould yards with one Close of land adjoyning, called 
the Plecks, All which conteyning in the whole 6a. 3r. 13p. 
we value at an improved Rent per annum viij^ xs. Od. 

All that parcel of meadowe, pasture & arable ground com- 
monly called or known by the foresaid name of the Dutchie 
Woods as it is now divided into five severalls called or known 165a. Or. 3p, 
by the names of (viz) the Lower Plecks, conteyning II a. 2r. 
15p. Homeberne Wood conteyning 38a. 3r. lOp., [Jpper 
TOL. XLVI. — NO. CLVIII. N 



180 Farliamentary Surveys of tlie Crown Lands in Brade7i Forest, 

Bernewood conteyning 25a. Ir. 8p., Dutchie Lake conteyn- 
ing 50a. 2r. 24p. and Langhops hill conteyning 38a. 2r. 26p. 
which said fields or closes are bounded with the lands in 
farme to Mr. Roger Nott called Langhopshill being parcel 
of the said Dutchie Lands toward the East with the 
Common belonging to the parish of Pirton towards the 
South, with the lands in farm to Mr. James Duart called 
the Maplesalls being also parcel of the said Dutchie Lands 
towards the West and with the lands also in farm to the 
foresaid Mr. Nott called the Ould Lodge hill and Tornetrow 
Meer towards the North conteyning in the whole 165a. Or. 
3p. which we value at an increased Rent to be worth per 
Ann™ Iviij;^ xs. Od. 

All that field of pasture ground commonlie called or known 
by the foresaid name of Dutchie Wood being bounded with 
the foresaid Dutchie Lands called Maplesalls in farm to the 180a. Or. Op. 
said Mr. Duart towards the East with Pirton Common called 
Momes Land towards the South, with the wood above in 
farm to the said Mr. Duart called Dutchie Coppice towards 
the West and with parcel of the lands in farm to the fore- 
said Mr. Nott called Chequer Lands on the North conteyn- 
ing 180a. Or. Op. which at an improved Rent we value to be 
worth per Ann" liiij^ xvjs. Od. 

All that parcel of ground called or known by the foresaid 
name of Dutchie Lands als Dutchie Wood as it is divided into 
fourteenseverallfieldsor closes called orknowneby the names 368a. Ir. Op. 
of (viz ) the Great Mere More conteyning 27a. Or. 15p., Little 
Mere More conteyning 38a. 2r. Op., Lower Mere More con- 
teyning 17a., Middle Hurst conteyning 28a. 3r. 28p., Lower 
Longhopshill conteyning 38a. Ir. lip, West Borden Bridge 
Cleere conteyning 28a. 2r. Op., East Borden Bridge Cleers 
conteyning 24a. Ir. 33p , North Marrish conteyning 18a. 2r. 
Op., South Marrish conteyning Ua. 3r 24p., West Marrish 
conteyning 8a. Ir. 17p.j Middle Marrish conteyning 1 8a. 2s. Op. 
and East Marrish conteyning 21a. Ir. Op., all which fields 
and grounds are bounded w*^ the Dutchie Lands in farme to 
y' foresaid Roger Nott towards the East & West, with the 
Common of Purton towards y* South & w'^y' lands in farme 
to Mr. Philip Jacobson called Chequer Lands towards y* 
North conteyning in the whole 368a. Ir. Op. which at an 
Improved Rent we value to be worth per annm cxlvi;^ iiijs. Od. 

Chequer Lands. All that parcel of meadowe, pasture & 
arable ground commonlie called or known by the name of j 

the Chequer Lands parcel of the foresaid disafforested i 

Forest of Braden as they are now divided into nine several 1 

iields or closes called or known by the names of (viz.) the 420a. 3r. 6p. j 
Further Cheq' Cocksalls conteyning 45a. 3r. 18p., Homeward 



Transcribed hy Canon F. H, Ma7iley, 181 

'Cheq' Cocksalls, conteyningTla. 3r. 26p., Cocksalls Langott, 
■conteyning I3a. Ir. 2p., Iveede Slowe cooteyning 51a. 2r. 21 p., 
Tornetrowe Meere, being arable, conteyning 58a. Ir. 26p., 
Stoniehurst Coppice, conteyning 25a. 2r. 8p., Tornetrowe 
Meere, being pasture conteyning 49a. 3r. 2(>p.. tlie Three Gut- 
ters conteyning 64a. 3r. 6p., and the Burge Fields conteyning 
39a 2r. Op., which said several lands and fields are bounded 
with the lands which upon the disaflforestacion were allotted 
to the poor of Pirton towards the East, with the lands in 
farme to the foresaid Mr. Nott called Cocksalls and Lang- 
hopshill and Auld Lodge hill towards the South and West 
and with the lands of the Lord Chandois called the Ragg 
Bury hill and Pirton Stoke Common towards the North, 
conteyning in the whole 420a. 3r. 6p. which at an improved 
Rent we value to be worth per annm cxlvii;^ xs. Od. 

All that other parcel of meadowe, pasture and arrable 
ground commonlie called or known by the said name of the 
Chequer Lands allsoe parcel of the said disafforested Forest 
with one Tenement thereon built, as they are divided into 
five severals called by the names of (viz') West Raveiihurst 184a. Or. 9p. 
conteyning 82a. 3r. 26(). Ravenhurst Langott conteyning 
15a. 3r. Op. East Ravenhurst conteyning 30a. Or. Op. Hore- 
thorne conteyning 5a. Ir. 15p< and Barslade conteyning 
50a. Or> 8p., All which said fields or closes are bounded with 
the lands of the Lord Chandois towards the East, with the 
lands in farm to the forsaid M"^ Nott parcell of the said dis- 
afforested Forest called the Lower Plecks and Ravenhurst 
towards the South and West and with the lands of the Lord 
Chandois and certain inclosures belonging to the parish of 
Myntie towards the North conteyning on the whole 
184a. Or. 9p. which at an improved Rent we value to be 
worth per Ann™ Ixiv;^ viijs. Od. 

And all wastes &c (same as on p. 178 but Lessee Philip Jacobson of 
London, Merchant and date of Lease 31 March 13 Chas. i., Rent for Chequer 
Lands ;^35 7s. Od. & for Dutchie Lands ;^43 10s. Od., Improved Rent 
;^401 Is. Od.). 

Another Memorandum as to the attempt of inhabitants of Pirton to 
charge rates upon the Dutchie Lands which is altogether against the terms 
of the Crown grant. 

An Abstract. 

The present Hents reserved in the foresaid Letters Patent 
are per Ann"* Ixxviij;^ xvijs. Od. 

The future improvement coraeth unto per Ann™ ccccj;^ js. Od. 

Summe totall of the present Rents & future improvement 
Cometh unto per Ann™ cccclxxix;^ xviijs. Od. 

This Survey presented Hugh Webb 

S'^ day of March 1650 Jo. Filke 

Ex<i per W" Webb Surv. Gen^ Fr. Conigrave 

N 2 



182 Parliamentary Surveys of the Crown Lands in Braden Forest. 

Parliamentary Surveys No. 46. 

Wilts. Slyefield Lodge de Braden. A survey of all that Messuage or 
Farme commonlie called or knowne by the name of Slyefield Lodge with 
several parcels of ground thereunto belonging called the Chequer Landa 
being parcel of that disafforested Forest of Braden set, lyeing and being 
within the parish of Cricklade in the County of Wilts. As also of certains 
lands called or known by the name of the Dutchie Lands parcel of the re- 
puted Bevenues belonging to the County Pallatine of Lancaster in or neere 
unto the Forest afforesaid adjoining within the Countie of Wilts aforesaid 
which premises are now converted into meadowe, pasture and arable with 
y* Bights, members and appurtences thereof being parcel of the possessions 
of Charles Stuart &c (as on p. 176). 

All that Messuage, Lodge or Farme house aforesaid with 
the Scite thereof consisting of a Hall, a Kitchen, a Buttery 
with four Chambers above Stayers with one Garrat over 2a. Or. Op» 
them together with a Brewehouse, a Bakehouse and two 
Chambers abovestayers and two Garratts over them were- 
unto the foresaid house adjoining, with some other lowe 
Roomes with one Stable, one Oxestall, two Gardens, one 
Courtyard and one Fould yard all which conteyne in y^ 
whole two acres, which at an improved Bent we value to be 
worth per Ann*" cvjs, viijd. 

The Flecks. All those two parcels of meadowe ground 
Commonlie called or Knowne by the name of the Flecks 24a. Or. Op, 
neere unto the foresaid Lodge or Farmhouse adjoyning, con- 
teyning twenty four acres, which at an improved Rent we 
value to be worth per Ann" xiiij;^' viijs. Od. 

Benmores. All those two feilds of meadowe or pasture 
ground commonlie called or knowne by the name of the Two 
Benmores lyeing towards the East of the foresaid house 85a, Or. Op, 
conteyning eighty five acres which at an improved Rent we 
value to be worth per ann"' xlvj^ xvs. Od. 

Windmill Grounds. All those fields of meadowe or pas- 
ture ground commonlie called or knowne by the name of 
Windmill Grounds or Closes being now divided into four 78a. Or. Op. 
severals, conteyning seventy eight acres which at an im- 
proved Ftent we value to be worth per Ann"" xxxvj;^ iiijs. Od. 

Annyem' Hill. All that close or parcel of ground com- 
monlie called or known by the name of Annymer Hill con- 24a. Or. Op. 
teyning twenty four acres which at an improved Rent we 
value to be worth per Ann" ix;^ xijs. Od. 

Upper and liOwer Santridge. All those two closes of land 
commonlie called or known by the names of the Upper and 
Lower Santridge, conteyning twelve acres which at an im- 12a. Or. Op. 
proved Rent we value to be worth per Ann" xcvjs. Od.- 



Transcribed hy Canon F. H. Manley. 183, 

Godfreys Hill. All that parcel of pasture ground corn- 
lie called or known by the name of Godfreys hill, conteyning 56a. Or. Op, 
•fifty six acres which at an improved Rent we value to be 
worth per Ann™ xxijj^" viija. Od. 

The Marshes. All those three fields or closes called or 
known by the name of the Marshes, conteyning together 25a. Or. Op. 
twenty five acres which at an improved Rent we value to be 
worth per Annm x£ Os. Od. 

The Sales. All those two feildes or closes commonlie 
-called or known by the name of the Sales conteyning one 11 Oa. Or. Op. 
hundred and ten acres which at an improved Rent we value 
to be worth per Annm xlviiij;^ Os. Od, 

All that close of land called or known by the name of 
Berriehill conteyning fifty eight acres which at an improved 58a. Or. Op. 
Rent we value to be worth per Annm xxiij^" iiijs. Od. 

Little More Coppice. All that close or parcel of mead owe 
or pasture ground called or known by the name of Little 
More Coppice, conteyning ninety eight acres which at an 98a. Or. Op. 
improved Rent we value to be worth per Ann^ xxxix^" iiijs. Od. 

All that close of meadow and pasture ground commonlie 
called or known by the name of Rogers Plott, conteyning 38a. Or. Op. 
thirty eight acres which at an improved Rent we value to be 
worth per Annm xv;^ iiijs. Od. 

Callowe Hill. All that close of land called or known by 
the name of Callowe Hill conteyning twenty four acres 24a. Or. Op. 
which at an improved Rent we value to be worth per Annm ix;^ xijs. Od. 

White Spire. All that parcell of ground commonlie called 
-or known by the name of the White Spire, divided into four 198a. Or. Op. 
feilds or closes conteyning one hundred ninety eight acres 
which at an improved Rent we value to be worth per Annm Ixviiij;^' iijs. Od. 

Barslade Marsh. All that feild or close of pasture ground 
commonlie called or known by the name of Barslade Marsh 29a. Or. Op. 
conteyning twenty nine acres which at an improved Rent 
we value to be worth per Annm xiij;^ js. Od. 

White Spire Coppice. All that parcel of ground common- 
He called or known by the name of White Spire Coppice 62a. Or. Op. 
now divided into three severalls conteyning sixty two acres 
which at an improved Rent we value to be worth per Annm xxiiij;^ xvjs. Od. 

All which foremenconed parcels of ground being converted into meadow, 
pasture and arable as aforesaid are bounded with the lands in farm to M' 
Phillip Jacobson at or neere a place called Whore Thornes towards the 
South and West with a river called Sanburne unto a place called the Two 
Sandfords towards the North and West with a Highway called Cricklade 
highway unto a place called Princes Corner and with certain ancient In- 
•closures of Chelworth towards the North with a certain piece of land 



184 Parliamentary Surveys of the Crown Lands in Braden Forest,. 

belonging to the poor of the parish of Cricklade and Chelworth and the 
lands called the Dutchie Hagg towards the North and East and with the 
said Dutchie Ragg and the lands in farm to the foresaid M'' Jacobson 
towards the East and South which said lands are parcel of the foresaid 
disafforested Forest of Braden called the Chequer Fiands, except two hun- 
dred and twenty six acres being parcel of those lands called the Dutchie Hagg. 
■which extendeth itself through manie of the foresaid feilds about two miles 
in length and the same soe distinguished and set out by land markes. 

West Dutchie Coppice. All that parcel of pasture and 
wooddie ground commonlie called or known by the name of 
the West Dutchie Coppice being now divided into two 180a. Or. Op« 
severalls, bounded with the lands in farme to the foresaid 
M' Jacobson called Dutchie Wood towards the East, with 
the Commons of Cleverton, Garsden and others which at the 
disafforestacon thereof were allotted unto them towards the 
South, with the lands of the Earle of Barkeshire towards 
the West and with the lands in farm to M' Roger Nott to- 
ward the North conteyning, one hundred and eighteen acres 
which at an improved Rent we value to be worth per Annm Ixiij^ Os. Od.. 

Maplesalls. All that parcel of Dutchie ground commonlie 
called or known by the name of the Maplesalls, bounded 180a. Or. Op. 
with the lands of the foresaid Mr. Jacobson toward the East, 
with the Commons of Pirton and the lands of the Lord 
Chandos towards the South and the lands also in farm to 
the said Mr. Jacobson towards the West and with the lands 
in farm to Mr. Nott towards the North conteyning one 
hundred and eight acres which at an improved Rent we 
value to be worth per Annm Ixiij^ Os. Odi 

And all wastes &c (same as on pp. 178—9) but Lessee James Duart of 
London marchant and date of Lease 24 March 12 Chas. i, Rent for Chequer 
Lands £42 17s. Od. & for Dutchie Lands £36 Os. Od., Improved Rent 
£439 16s. 8d. 

Same note as to inhabitants of I'irton. 



An Abstract. 

The present Rents reserved upon the aforesaid Letters 
Patent are per annum Ixxviij^ xvs. Od. 

The future improvement cometh unto per Annm cccxxix;^ xvjs. viijd.. 

Somme totall of the present Rents and future improve- 
ments amounteth unto the somme of per Annm cccccxviij^^ xjs. viijdv 

This Survey was presented Hugh Webbe 

the lO'*" day of March 1650 Jo. Tilke 

ex«^ per Wm Webb Surv. Geni Fr. Conigrave 



185 



SOME DOMESTIC AND OTHER BILLS OF THE 
WYNDHAM FAMILY (SALISBURY). 

By a W. PuGH, M.B.E. 

A large number of old household and other bills relating to the affair:^ of 
the Wyndham family of Salisbury were recently given to the Museum by 
Mrs. J. J. Hammond. They cover a period of about 60 years of the late 
eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries (1775 — 1836), and form an inter- 
esting record of the manner of life of a country gentleman's family of that 
period. The collection has now been classified and bound up in a volume 
which has been placed in the Society's library. 

The connection of the Wyndhams with Salisbury seems to have begun in 
1657, when the property known as St. Edmund's College, a thirteenth cen- 
tury foundation which was confiscated by the Crown at the time of the 
Dissolution, was acquired by VVadham Wyndham, a lawyer who was sub- 
sequently knighted and made a judge of the King's Bench. His son John,, 
educated at the Canons' (now the Choristers') School in Salisbury and at 
Wadham College, became a Member of Parliament for Salisbury in 1681, 
and in 1726 was appointed Chancellor for Ireland and received an Irish 
Peerage. A later generation became connected by marriage with the Wilt- 
shire Penruddockes of Compton Chamberlayne, and a son of this union^ 
Henry Penruddocke Wyndham, on succeeding to the estate, soon identified 
himself with local interests, tie was elected as a Common Councilman of 
Salisbury in 1767, and four years later served as Mayor of the city. In 1772 
he was appointed Sheriflf of Wiltshire. In 179-1 he commanded a local 
troop of cavalry (yeomanry) which had been raised in Salisbury at the time 
of the threatened Napoleonic invasion. A year later he was chosen as one 
of the Members of Parliament for Wiltshire, and he continued to represent 
the county for the next seventeen years. 

Henry Penruddocke Wyndham was clearly a man with considerable in- 
tellectual tastes. The antiquary John Britton refers to him as " an assiduous 
cultivator of topography and local history, with a great attachment to 
literary pursuits, who also took a share in the duties of active public life." 

He was the author of several works on topographical, archaeological, and 
historical subjects, among them being '* A Tour through Monmouthshire 
and Wales" (1774— 77), which went through two editions; " A Picture of 
the Isle of Wight delineated upon the Spot" (1793); and two articles in 
Archeeologia, on '* An Ancient Building at Warneford " (Hants), and "A 
Roman Pavement at Caerwent." He also edited the Diary of George Bubb 
Doddington, Baron of Melcombe Regis, and that part of Domesday Book 
which deals with Wiltshire, with a translation and an index giving the 
modern equivalent of the ancient names, and a plan for the general history 
of the county. This, for its day, was quite a notable work. 

As another example of his cultured interests may be mentioned the fact 
that at the time of Wyatt's disastrous operations on Salisbury Cathedral!, ha 



186 Some Domestic and other Bills of the Wyndham Family. 

bought and preserved by erecting in his grounds, the north porch which 
Wyatt had removed from a transept of the Cathedral. It must surely have 
been qualities of a dififerent kind which made him a great favourite with 
George III., who on one occasion gave a considerable impetus to the cloth 
trade in Salisbury by expressing admiration for a coat which Wyndham 
was wearing, which had been made in the city. 

He died in 1819 at the age of 82, and was succeeded by his son Wadham, 
who followed his father's example by taking an active part in public duties. 
For fourteen years he represented the city in Parliament ; but was unseated 
on petition at the Reform election of 1832, the third candidate, Admiral 
Bouverie, being declared elected. Wadham was, however, elected again 
three years later, and thenceforth Salisbury continued in its allegiance to 
him until his death in 1843. He left no direct heir, and the estate passed 
to his sister Caroline, wife of John Campbell of Dunoon, who assumed the 
name of Wyndham. 

In 1871 his Salisbury property was sold, and was shortly afterwards 
converted into a school by the Uev. G. H. Bourne, D.C.L., on whose death 
it was acquired by the Salisbury Corporation, and is now used as Municipal 
OiBBces. 

The bills which form the subject of this article relate to the period 
covered by the lives of these two men, H. P. Wyndham and his son Wad- 
ham. They appear to form almost a complete series, dealing with every 
possible kind of transaction, from the management of property to the pur- 
chase of groceries and clothes. Among the most interesting are those deal- 
ing with the supply of uniforms, etc., to the troop of cavalry already men- 
tioned. Wyndham as commander was apparently responsible for the 
equipment of the force, and the following extracts give a good idea of their 
requirements :— 

Captn. Wyndham. Bot of Thomas Goddard. 
Salisbury £ s. d. 

1794 Octr 28th— 29 pair Cavalry Spurs— lis. pr. 

Best hard plate 15 19 

(followed by a list of names of those to whom they were sent). 

Capt. Wyndham Salisbury. 

Bought of Stevens and Blackmore Dec. 23. 1794. 

Successors to Mr. Ogden 

Woollen Draper to their Majesties, His Royal Highness 

the Prince of Wales, and Royal Family 

37 Helmet Caps and Feathers cost 18/- 33 6 

37 Sabre Belts compleat 7/- 12 19 

37 Plates for Do 9d, 17 9 

.•^7 Sabre Knots 12d. I 17 

i 'lid for Carriage & packing cases 14/6 14 6 



.£50 4 3 
I'ciid Deer. 30 1794 to Edward Stevens. 



£ s. 


d. 


67 17 


6 


4 





1 10 





4 





J69 15 


6 



By C. W, Pugh, M.B.E, 187 

1794 Capt. Wyndham to Richd. Rogers. 



To 3 Uneform Jacketts & Weastecoats at 52/6 

To Extra Buttons, Scarlett cloths and Twist to 

Sergant Uneform 
1 pair Epaulets 
1 pair Skirts Ornaments 



Mr. Hillary Wyndham 
To Extra on Superfine cloth's Buttons &c. to Mr. H. 

uneform 
1 pair Epauletts 
1 pair Skirts ornaments 



1794 Settle by Cash Decb. 30 By Richard Roger. 



A long bill from Geo. Hawker for small items and repairs to harness, etc., 

includes such items as : — s. d. 

New frunt to Bridle and frunting 2 6 

Large peice Sponge 5 6 

New Mailpillion and a Cruper 8 6 

Fastening the handles of Portmantle 8 

A Spook Brush 1 4 

The bootmaker sends in an account for service boots, headed in large 
written letters, CALVETRY, from which it appears that " Master Wadham 
Whindham Esqr." and twenty-four others were supplied with boots at 21/- 
a pair. (On the same sheet he adds a personal account for civilian boots, and 
repairs, which shows that " Master Heller," " Master Whindham," Pen 
Whyndham Esqr.," and " Master Pen," frequently required their shoes 
^' sold and heeled," and in the course of a year, bought between them, 31 
.pairs of pumps, boots, and shoes, at prices ranging from 6/6 to 12/-). 

George Hawkins, in October, 1794, renders an account amounting to 



12 





1 10 





4 





^2 6 






J£l23 8s. 6d., made up of such items as : — 


£ 


s. 


d. 


20 Goatskins 


8 








24 Sircingales 


3 








24 Crupers 


1 


16 





24 Bridles 


16 


4 





3 Goatskins very large lin'd & edged all round wh. 








black bear skin 


6 


6 





And so on. 









188 Some Domestic and other Bills of the Wijndham Family. 

The troop was still in Mr Wyndham's charge three years later : — 
H. P. Wyndham Esqr. to W. Dodsworth. 
1797 May £ s. d» 

62 Uniforms for the Salisbury Troop of Yeomen 

Cavalry at 36/- 111 12 

8 Yds. of Gold Lace for the Sergeants & Corporals at 

3/8 1 9 4 

Altering the Trumpeter's Uniform 2 6 



^113 3 10 



The following memorandum, undated, seems to be in Mr. WyndhamV 
own writing : — 

Hawker, Sadler, Piccadilly, for Helmets, Cross Belts & Sword Belts, 
^ Plates, &c. 

Mr. Gill of Birmingham for Swords like Grove's 20/6 
Pistol 17/6 from Probin 

Goatskin surcingle & Crupper from Hichardson of Sarum at 12/- 
Bitts & Bridles 9/6 from Clark & Doud (?) Birmingham, Holsters 
from Do. at 8/- 

Government Allowance. 
Swords 18/- Pistol 17/10, Sword Belt 4/- Cartouch Box 2/6 Waist 
belt 2/- Trumpet or Bugle 3:5:6. 
Another account, dated August, 1798, records the purchase of : — 
7 Helmets with Leopard Skins— 26/- 9 2 

Box 2/6 Carriage 4/6—7/- 7 

9 9 



There are two other items of military interest, though not directly con- 
nected with the Yeomanry Force. One records the purchase of a Com- 
mission : — London 21st Febry. 1793 
Sir, 

We have the favour of your letter of yesterday's date with your draft 
on Messrs. Hoares for Two hundred and sixty two Pounds & 10 
Shillings, for the purchase of a Lieutenancy in the Earl of Pembroke's 
Regiment of Dragoons for Cornet Wyndham. 

I have the|honor to be, 
Sir, 
Your most obedient humble Servant, 
For M. Lambe Esq. & Self 
H. Penruddock Wyndham Esq. Flock (?) 

The other is a very different document". Attached to an account from 
Chrisr Lance to Lieut. Wyndham for oats supplied to his recruiting party 
at Basingstoke, dated 1802 — 1803, is the following letter : — 

Brighton Deer. 11 th 1805. 
Sir, 

Understanding you have left the King's Dragoon Guards, have sent 
you again the Account of Oats supplied by me to you at Basingstoke 



By C. W, Pugh, M.B.E. \m 

so long since, and which you must have received the Money for ut the 
time, must therefore desire that will by no means fail to send me the 
Amount in an Order or Bill on some Person in London, directed to me 
Urosvenor Street, Pimlico, as otherways must take measures, which 
will be extremely unpleasant. There was no Profit but a loss on the 
Oats and the Interest of the Money ever since have inclosed a printed 
Order what the Secretary at War & Comg. Genl. directed. 
I am Sr. your Obed. Servt. 

0. Lance. 
Unfortunately, there is nothing to show whether this appeal bad the 
desired effect, or whether Christr. Lance was obliged to resort to " measures 
which will be extremely unpleasant." 



Turning to civilian matters, we find some remarkable school bills, which 
"will surely make parents of the present day envious. Here is one, for the 
board and education for half a year of Mr. H. P. Wyndham's four boys. 
The name of the school does not appear on the bill, which is written on a 
plain sheet of foolscap paper, but a note accompanying it, signed G. I. 
Huntingford, is dated from Warminster. Huntingford was a man of some 
distinction. In Schomberg's " List of Scholars and Fellows of Winchester 
born or beneficed in Wiltshire," his record is stated thus : — 

1762. Huntingford, George Isaac. Sch. New College, DD. Fellow 

. 1766—85. R. of Corsley. Mr. of Warminster School. Fellow Win-^ 

Chester 1785. Warden 1789. Bp. of Gloucester 1802. Bp. of Hereford 

1815. Ob. 1832. 

Whether the " Warminster School " referred to was the foundation now 

known as TiOrd Weymouth's Grammar School (founded 1707), or a private 

venture on the part of Dr. Huntingford, is not clear ; the former suggestion 

seems probable. The bill is set out as follows : — 

Mastr. Wyndham Senr. £. s, d. 

For J years Board & Schooling to Midsummer 1788 

Writing Pens & Ink 
Books -£!. 5. 2. Battlingsll/6 Buckles 2/9 
Carr. fm. Deptford 8/- Extra Washing 1 : 3d. 
Locks 1/8 Cutting Hair 4d. 
Letters tfe Garters 

Gloves 1/8 Attending the Philosophr. 2/6 
Letters Parcels & Paper 



Mr. Davis 
Mr. Seagram 
Taylor 
Shoe Mar. 



13 


5 


6 


I 


19 


5 




9 


3 




2 




7 




4 


2 




6 


9i 


16 


7 


~^h 


1 


6 







13 





\ 


3 





2 


1 





^21 


10 


~8i 



13 


5 


6 


1 





4i 




11 


10 




2 


6 


:15 





2i 



190 Some Domestic and other Bills of the Wyndham Family. 

Master Wyndham Secundus. £ s. d. 

For J years Board & Schooling to Midsummer 1788 

Writing Pens & Ink 
Bool3:s 15/5 Paper IMd.J Lock 1/8 Ruler Slate &c. 1/9 
Cutting Hair 4d. Battlings^ 11/6 
Attending the Philsospher 



Similar accounts follow for " Mastr. Wyndham 3tius," and " Mastr. 
Wyndham Junr." (Dr. Huntingford's Latin has gone a little astray here) ; 
but these two boys did not have the privilege of " Attending the Philosopher." 
One would like to know what that mysterious phrase means ! 

The total bill for the four boys for the half-year amounted to £67 Is. 1 Jd. 
Mrs. Huntingford includes a modest, though lengthy, account amounting 
to iCl lis. 2d., made up of items such as these : — £ s. d. 

To mending Mr. Thos. Coat 6 

To mending Mr. Wad. Coat 9 

To mending Mr. P. Breeches & Waistcoat 10 

IJ Dozn. Butts. I 6 

To mending Mr. H. Coat 9 

and so on. 

Miss Wyndham's education was considerably more expensive : — 
1722 Penruddocke Wyndham Esqr. Dr. to Ann Stewart and L M. Dinham. 

Jan. 8st Boarding Miss Wyndham J a year 

Dancing 2. 2. 0. Writing 1. 19. 0. Music & Tuning 5. 5. 0. 

Minister 10/6 Tea & Sugar 1.11.6. Allowance 1.6.0. 

Hook's Lessons 6/- Shoes 18/6 Ribbons 2/6 Stamps 4d. 

Cap washed & trimmed 4/6 Tape 1/6 Laces l/- 

Letters & Messages 5/6 Comb 9d. Gloves 2/- 

Hair cutting & washing 9/6 Grammar 1/6 

Prayer Book 2/6 Speaker 3/6 french Grammar 1/6 

Spelling book 1/6 Tomkin's poems 1/6 

Collar repaired 7/6 Sampler 2/- Medicines 4/- 

Winter's Fiddle 7/6 Pins 1/- 



£ 


s. 


d. 


15 


15 





9 


6 





3 


8 





1 


7 


4 





7 








8 


3 





11 







7 


6 





3 








13 


6 





8 


6 



£32 15 1 



Three years later Miss C. Wyndham runs up a bill with Jos. Corfe for 
music and lessons ; but as the price of her lessons works out at about 2/7 
each, and her " Hornpipes," " Rondos," '* Sonatas," and " Variations on God 
Save the King" at about 1/- a piece, she could not complain of overcharges. 



' Wykehamists will not need an explanation of this word. For the benefit 
of others it may be explained as signifying " pocket-money." 



By G, W. Piigh, M,B.E. 191 

Mr. H. P. Wyndham's literary tastes are perhaps indicated by an account 
for books bought at a sale, October 1809. 
Life of Mrs. Carter 

Correspondence of Hartford of Pomfret 3 vols. 
Brooke's St. Helena 

Deuce's Illustrations of Shakespeare 2 vols, 
Satyrist 

Gass Travels in N. America 
Laing's History of Scotland 4 vols. 
My Pocket Book 
Theory of Dreams 2 vols. 
Blagdon's Travels in Africa 2 vols 



Mr. Wadham Wyndhara buys from " F. C. & I. Rivington, Booksellers 
Extraordinary to His Majesty, to their Royal Highnesses the Duke of 
Cambridge, the Dutchess of Kent, & to the Society for Promoting Christian 
Knowledge":— £. s. d. 

3 Sunday Lessons 8vo Calf lettd. bands and lettd. on 

the side 111 6 

Debrett's Peerage 2 vols. 14 

Byron's Doge of Venice 12 

And his interest in local history is shown by his having subscribed for 
Hoare's Histories of the Wiltshire hundreds, at €6 6s. a volume. It is worth 
noting that Wadham Wyndham seems to have been one of Hoare's coadjutors 
in this work, since one section (Alderbury Hundred) is dedicated to him. 



£ 


s. 


d. 


1 


1 







10 


6 




7 


6 


1 


1 











6 




5 





1 


10 








2 


9 





5 








6 


6 


£5 


9 


9 



Magisterial duties were not 


performed without cost, and it 


may surprise 


the County Magistrates of to-day to know 


that attending the Grand Jury 


at the Assizes of 1802 resulted 


in the folio 


wing expenditure :- 


— 






1802 Aug. 2nd. 


Grand Jut 


y- 


£ 


s. 


d. 


Pens Ink paper &c. 








17 


6 


Ham 








18 





Tongue 








7 





Bred 








9 





Cheese 








8 





Butter 








4 





Beer & Porter k Cyder 








7 





Wines 






2 








Breakfasts 






2 


4 





Wood & Coales 






1 


1 





For the use of goods 








10 


6 


[Illegible] 








7 





Cleaning Rooms 








5 





Soda Water 




Paid 




1 







£9 


9 


0' 



192 Some Domestic and other Bills of the Wyndham Family. 

In August, 1790, the family took a holiday in the Isle of Wight, staying 
there for two months. This visit was probably the occasion of the topo- 
graphical description referred to on page 185. Mr. Wyndham kept a care- 
ful note of the cost of the holiday, which amounted to no less a sum than 
JcMb 10s. 6d. The account is too long to print in full, but the following 
are some of the most interesting entries : — 

12 lb. of Wax Candles 

The Passage 

Boat 

A pound of tea 

Weekly Bills for Meat, Bread, fish, &c. 

Newport, tea party 

At Binstead k for Guiding boys 

Needles etc. 

Shanklin Chine 

A Cheese 

House Bills 

Filberts and fish 

Fitzgerald's yacht 

Lodgings 8 weeks & 5 days 

Lodgings for Servants and Strong Beer 

Sundry Bills to Nanny 

jkllard for Wines 

Horses, stables, &c , tfec. 

Newport Ball 

Carriage, Porterage, Boats for Horses & Baggage 

There are records of other diversions besides this summer holiday, Play- 
ing cards — *' Superfine Great Mogul" seems to have been the particular 
kind in favour— were bought on several occasions in lots of six dozen packs 
at a time, the price being 32/- a dozen. For fishing rights there is a receipt 
in the following terms, endorsed " Houghton Fishing Club " : — 
Entrance & Subscription ^£5 

1825 8 8 

Subscription 1826 8 8 

Paid by Check at Messrs. Hoares June 8th 1826 
Eight guineas a year seems moderate— if the water was good. 
Receipts for copies of the " Racing Calendar," and a bill for £8 12s. 6d. 
for expenses connected with the Salisbury Race Course, of which Wadham 
Wyndham was a steward, show that this form of national sport was not 
^neglected. The Race Course bill is worth quoting : — 

1797 Wadham Wyndham Esqr. of Salisbury, steward 
Paid the Drumer 
I'aid the Farmer 
Paid the Carpenter Bill 
J 'aid for cleansing the Ditch 
Paid a Man for outing of Furze 
I'aid for the use of Harnham Downs 
Paid for a Cock 



£ 


s. 


d. 


I 


16 








16 








2 


6 





8 





15 











7 








3 





1 


2 








18 








6 


6 


10 


4 


8 





5 


6 





2 


6 


45 


10 


6 


7 


2 





4 


10 


6 


11 


6 





31 


12 








5 





3 


7 


6 



% 



£ 


s. 


d. 





6 





1 








3 


3 








18 








2 





1 


1 








2 





1 



By C, W, Pugh, M.B.E, 193 



The details of the carpenter's bill are given : — 
for worke on the Rase ground 
for 6 men at ye Tjines and Clearing Cors 
Bear {sic) for the men 
6 pile posts 



£ s. 


d. 


1 1 





18 





15 





9 





3 3 






Many bills for groceries and other provisions give interesting information 
respecting the cost of living, but space will not permit more than a few ex- 
amples. A butcher's bill shows that in 1783 the price of beef and mutton 
was 4d. a pound, and veal 5|d. A " Tung " cost 2/-, " Ualv's Hed " (a fre- 
quent entry) 5/-, and two " Swetbreds " could be had for 1/-. Groceries 
were not correspondingly cheap. Tea, of course, was expensive — 8/- to 12/- 
a pound; but four "fine old Cheshire cheeses" weighing 413 lbs., were 
bought at the rate of lOd. a pound. The following bill from a greengrocer 
shows the costliness of exotic fruit in 1818 : — 

4 Pine Apples £6 

3 Melons £l 10 

Box &c. 3 



£7 13 



These were the days of copious drinking, and the wine merchants' 
accounts are numerous and large, though the prices of wines do not seem to 
have been high. Port and Madeira were each 18/- a dozen, and in 1792 Mr. 
H. P. Wyndham presented the Kev. Hy. Jacob with a dozen of " Champain " 
at a cost of £4 5s. 6d. Such modest quantities, however, were by no means 
the rule, sherry being usually bought by the hogshead and port by the pipe, 
while spirits —brandy, rum, and gin — were never ordered in less quantities 
than two gallons at a time. In the year 1818 Wadham Wyndham paid over 
j£530 to various wine merchants. 

The habits of the time are reflected in the following bill for a dinner given 
by Wadham Wyndham at the Clarendon Hotel to " 24 gents " : — 

Clarendon Hotel. 
1822 Wadham Wyndham. Esq. 

-June 10 Dinner & Dessert for 24 Gents 
Turtle 

2 Haunches of Venison 

Dressing Do, Gravy french beans, currant jelly &c. 
Punch 

3 Bottles Select Champaign 

3 Do. Sparkling 
2 Do. Sauterne 

4 Do. Old Hock 



16 16 





15 15 





10 10 





1 1 





1 1 





2 2 





1 17 


6 


1 1 





3 12 






£ 8. 


d» 


53 15 


6 


1 16 





1 16 





10 


6 


1 4 





15 4 


6 


1 5 





10 





1 2 


6 


2 2 





1 7 


6 


£80 13 


6 



194 Some Bornestic and other Bills of the Wyndham Family. 



Carried forward 
4 Do. Madeira 
6 Do. Sherry 

1 Do. E. I. Ditto 
4 Do. Port 

29 Do. Claret 

Ice 

Beer & Soda Water 

15 Servants 

Wax Lights 

2 Decanters 1 Cooler, & I Glass broke 



Considering the quantity of wine consumed, the last entry can hardly be 
surprising, unless by its moderation. 

Mr. H. P. Wyndham was clearly annoyed by a charge for a small dinner 
in 1809, as the following memorandum in his own handwriting shows : — 
Warnford Bill for 4 farmers only, Dec. 13, 1809. 
Dinners 18 

Beer 2 

Punch 
Tobacco 
Brandy 
Supper 
Beer 
Fire 
Rum 



Waiter. A copy from the bill. 



Coach builders' and wheelwrights' accounts are numerous, and in 1807 
repairs to a '* chariot " and a " currical " amounted to close upon £50, from 
which, however, an allowance of £15 was deducted for an '* old coach." A 
new " Barouch " in 1825 cost £252, less discount for ready money at 7^ per 
cent. Ten years later prices seem to have declined, for in 1835 " W. Wynd- 
ham Esqr. M.P„" could obtain a " New Cabriole Pheaton suspended on a 
sett lof Eliptic springs patent axles open futchels . . . Painted rich 
Ultra marine blue and lined with rich tabernet silk cloth and lace to 
match " for only £65. 

Particulars of house-furnishings are scanty, excepting in the matter of 
plate and other goldsmith's supplies, upon which both father and son seem 
to have spent considerable sums. A " rich chas'd silver Tea Vase" cost 
.^52 3s. 4d. (1790) plus 4/6 for engraving Arms and Crests on it ; "two 



1 


12 


6 





1 








2 







6 


3 




1 


4 




2 










8 


3 


5 


9 


ill. 




Exorbitant, 



By a W. FiigK M.B.E. 195 

Silver Dishes & Covers, 2 Warmers for Do., Engraving Arms on dishes," 
£76 7s. 6d. (1817) ; and in 1819 :— 

A very elegant circular antique lamp shaped teapot, 

fluted body, foot k mouth with white Ivory £25 7 

A sugar bason fluted & with vine border to suit teapot 

and gilt inside 17 14 

A Cream ewer to suit Do. 13 6 3 

And in the same year : — 

4 Circular gadroon and shell edge corner dishes with 

raised fluted & shell covers ^135 15 

It is interesting to find, in 1822, a certain "J. F. Eagles, Manufacturer 
of Paper Tea Trays to their Majesties and the Royal Family " charging 
£5 15s. 6d. for a Paper Tea Tray, and ^£4 4s. for a " Waiter " — presumably a 
smaller tray. These were no doubt the papier mache trays, inlaid with 
mother-of-pearl, which some of us can remember as being still used in our 
early days, and which, judging from present-day prices, seem to be coming 
into fashion again. 

Mrs. H. P. Wyndham died in 1817, and the undertaker's account for 
funeral expenses has been preserved and gives a clear picture of the 
pomp and circumstance which were considered fitting to such occasions. 
It is too long to print in detail, covering, as it does, four large foolscap 
pages, closely written. It must suffice to say that the total cost amounted 
to £202 Is. 7d. "Richest black double twilled Silk Sarsenet Bands & 
Scarves and black Gloves " were supplied to (apparently) all the Cathedral 
clergy, as well as to those of St. Thomas' and St. Edmund's Churches, and 
bands and gloves of a lesser quality to the sextons, clerks, vergers, and 
undertakers and their assistants. A black velvet pall, 19 black cloaks, 
black ostrich feathers, black fringed gowns for staff-bearers, were hired for 
the occasion ; and fees were paid for tolling bells at the Cathedral and the 
two churches mentioned above. Two years later Mr. Wyndham died, the 
same paraphernalia of woe being displayed at a cost of over £175. 

There are many other accounts of great interest, but this article is already 
long enough and they must only be briefly mentioned. Clothing was an 
expensive matter, especially the provision of liveries for servants. Prices, 
however, do not seem to have been much higher than they are to-day, a 
rather elaborate suit with fancy waistcoat, silk breeches, and cloth coat with 
gilt buttons, costing £7 16s. 6d. Wigs, too, form a not inconsiderable item 
of expenditure ; and there is a long hairdresser's bill, chiefly for powder 
and pomatum. (Hair-cutting occurs as an item about once in every two 
months.) There are many lawyer's bills and accounts for surveying, 
measuring of land, and other details connected with the management of an 
estate, all too lengthy to transcribe in this article. But there is one account 
•^for the despatch of a Postal Express — which may be given in full to show 
the contrast between " then " and " now " : — 
TOL. XLTI. — NO. CLVIII. 



196 Some Domestic and other Bills of the Wyndham Family. 

Post OflSce, Salisbury 

November 1, 1788 
H. P. Wyndham Esqr. to G. M. Keele. 
For an Express from Salisbury to Swindon. £ s. d. 
Horses Keeping at Marlborough 2 4 

Paid the Post Master at Marlborough for Horse and 

Duty 4 6 

Paid the Postmaster of Swindon his Fee on delivery 

of the Express 
Paid the Man for going from Salisbury to Swindon 
Horse from Salisbury to Marlborough 
Office fee for dispatching an Express 



Received the Contents 

U. M. Keele. 






2 


6 





3 


8 





7 








2 


6 


&\ 


2 


6 



(Since the above article was written, the following holograph Abstract of 
the Will of Mr. H. P. Wyndham's father has been found among some papers 
given to the Society by Miss Eyre Matcham, and it may be of interest to 
print it here) : — 

Abstract of my Will 19th Augt. 1786. 

My body to be decently Buried in my Vault in St. Edmund's Church 
in Sarum. 

To the Poor of St. Edmunds £30, to St. Thomas and St. Martins 
£20 Each, to ye Close £20, to Dinton £1, for those that don't receive 
Alms. 

As I paid for my Son Wadham three Commissions up to ye rank of 
Lieut. Colonel, upwards of £3200 and as a further Love to him, I 
give him .£2000 at Six months after my Death over & above what is 
settled on my Younger children of my Marriage Articles 10th July 
1735 which is £4000. 

I give to my Daughter in Law Caroline Wyndham, & my Son in Law 
Wm. Pierce a' Court <femy Daughter Mrs. a' Court ^6105 Ea. 

I give to all my Grandchildren at my Death £100 Ea. to be paid to 
their Parents for ye Children use. 

I give to Cha. Penruddocke & Wm. Benson Earle Esqrs. £50 10. 0. 
Clear of taxes in Trust for ye Salisbury Infirmary, 

I give my Housekeeper Betty Robbins if with me at my Death as a 
Servant £10 a yearly life Annuity. 

I give my Butler James Purchase if with me at my Death as a Ser- 
vant £5 a yearly life Annuity & my old Cloath & Shirts. 

I give my housemaid Jane Curtis if with me at my Death as a Ser- 
vant &b a yearly life Annuity. 



By C. W. Pugh, M.B.E. 197 

And if the said Betty Robbins, James Purchase, Jane Curtis, all or 
either of them are living with me as Servant at my Death I order each 
mourning or £5 in lue of it at my Executors Option. 

And I order for all my other Servants that have lived with me a year 
Mourning or £4 in lue of it at my Extr. Option. 

I give to Ann Wiltshire who I relieved Quarterly £2 2. 0. 

I desire Ch. Penruddocke William Wyndham & Wm. Benson Earle 
Esqrs. see this my Will performed, to whom I beg their Acceptance of 
£2i to Ea. 

I give my four Copyhold Estates of Inheritance in Droxford & One 
in Bishop Waltham which I have surrendered to my Will, I give to my 
son Hen. Pen. Wyndham <fe Heirs for Ever according to ye Customs of 
ye Manors. 

I give all I am seized of or in Revertion to my Son H. P Wyndham 
& make him Sole Executor. 



2 



198 

EXCAVATIONS IN YARNBURY CASTLE CAMP, 1932. 
By Mrs. M. E. Cunnington, Hon. F.S.A., Scot.^ 

The excavations in Yarnbury Castle, lasting three weeks in June, 1932^ 
were undertaken with the sole object of proving the date of the inner earth- 
work. 

Yarnbury Castle is a fine camp of the " plateau " type, divided between 
the parishes of Berwick St. James and Steeple Langford, on a comparatively 
level down overlooking the Wylye valley, and the strength of the defences 
could have been little, if at all, aided by natural features. 

The area is about 28| acres. The entrenchment has triple banks, with an 
elaborately defended entrance on the eastern side ; there are gaps through 
the banks on the north and west, either of which may be original, though 
the ditches seem to be continuous at both places ; there is also a gap on the 
southern side, but this was almost certainly made in connection with the 
annual fair that was held in Yarnbury until 1916. It is unlikely that such 
a large area would have had only one entrance, but excavation alone can 
prove which, if either, of the gaps are original. 

Outside the camp, on the western side, is an enclosure formed by a slight 
bank and ditch, sometimes known as the annex. This appears clearly to be 
later than the camp, and during the excavationslMr. E. V. W. Young picked 
up a piece of wheel-turned pottery, apparently Romano-British, under the 
bank where it is cut into by a cart track. 

Within the earthworks of the camp, roughly concentric with them, are 
traces of an inner enclosure consisting of a single bank and ditch, every- 
where much defaced, traceable on the south and west, but practically 
obliterated on the north and east. 

This inner work appears on the earlier editions of the ordnance maps, but 
later it was removed, and its existence seems to have been pretty well for- 
gotten until photographs from the air revived the memory of it, and it is 
now reinstated on the latest edition (1924) of the map. It was also shown 
on Hoare's plan of the site, but was not referred to in his letterpress {An. 
Wilts, I., p. 89). 

From certain irregularities on the surface of the filled up ditch, visible on 
the ground, and emphasized in photographs taken from the air, it was 
thought that the inner ditch was of the "causeway " or *' interrupted " type, 
like that of the late Neolithic settlements on Knap and Windmill Hills in 
Wiltshire, and the Trundle and Whitehawk Camp in Sussex.' 

^ The Society is indebted to Mrs. Cunnington for the greater part of the 
cost of the blocks illustrating this paper. 

^ An account of the camp, illustrated by a photograph taken from the 
air, appeared in Crawford and Keiller's Wessex from the Air^ 1928, pp. 66 — 
71. The inner work was referred to in a paper on " Neolithic Camps " in 
Antiquity, March, 1930. In both these publications attention was drawn 
to the apparent causeways, which are said to have stood the test of the 
bozer, i.e., they responded as solid undisturbed ground on being sounded. 

In the latter paper it was suggested that several other Wiltshire sites 
have ditches of the causewayed type, including the inner work in Scratch- 



Excavations in Yarnhury Castle Camp, 1932. 199 

It was, therefore, in the expectation, as well as in the hope, of finding an 
€arly settlement that the work was begun, but doubts were felt almost at 
once on account of the scarcity of flint flakes and of worked flints of any 
kind ; and when the first section of the ditch was cleared there was no longer 
any doubt that it was of Iron Age date. The most conspicuous '* cause- 
ways " on the west and south-west sides were dug through and found to be 
due only to the unequal filling of the ditch as described below, the ditch 
in fact being continuous except for a normal entrance causeway. 

The area, both within the outer and inner banks, seems never to have 
been under plough, since the site ceased to be inhabited. 

The Ditch-— Plates XL, IV., V. 

The ditch is a large one, with an original depth of from 11 ft. to 13ft., and 
a. very uniform width at the bottom of about Ift. ; the original width at the 
top is uncertain as it depends on the amount of weathering, but assuming, 
as is probable, that the cutting was continued to the top at the same slope 
as the lower part, it would have been about 18ft. or 20ft. 

The normal filling of a chalk ditch consists of silt coarse at the bottom 
and becoming finer and more mixed with mould towards the top, but south 
of the entrance a fine mouldy deposit was found at the bottom, and the 
usual bottom coarse silt was hardly anywhere to be seen. The suggestion 
was made that heavy rain, perhaps something in the nature of a cloud- 
burst, washing from the interior through the entrance and into the ditch on 
either side of the causeway, might account for the unusual nature of the 
filling. There are many objections to the " flood " theory, but perhaps re- 
peated and heavy rainfall might account for the unusual conditions found 
in this ditch. 

bury Camp, that is very much in the same relative position as that at 
Yarnbury, but the present writer sees little or no justification for this 
attribution in the appearance of the ditch. 

Another site is Uybury Camp, but this has been so much defaced by 
stone diggers that it is at the best doubtful. The knoll on Clifford's Hill 
to the south of Rybury, has been claimed as an " outpost " to the camp, and 
as having a ditch of the causewayed type. Much of this ground was dug 
over about the beginning of the I9th century, for a particular bed of 
hard chalk, and the appearances here may well be due to the diggers follow- 
ing along the strata where it outcrops at the knoll, and it is at least very 
doubtful whether any inhabitants older than these chalk diggers are re- 
sponsible for the surface irregularities round about the knoll. It is the fre- 
<juent practice of stone diggers to follow along an outcrop, and the result is 
sometimes a misleading resemblance to a causewayed ditch. An excellent 
example of this may be seen on a hill about a mile north of Battlesbury 
Camp, west of the road from Warminster to Imber, This hill presents at 
first sight the alluring prospect of a hitherto unrecorded earthwork of 
" Neolithic " type, but a little examination reveals its true character, and 
the outcrop with its attendant digging may be followed across the road and 
up the combe beyond. 



200 Excavations in Yarnhury Castle Cani'p, 1932. 

It seems fairly clear that the ditch was allowed very soon to fill up, for 
the lower half shows little or no signs of weathering. 

It is also evident that at an early period the bank was made level, as it is 
now, with the interior area ; at the same time some of the material from 
the bank'seems to have been thrown into the ditch, and this unequal dump- 
ing from the bank accounts for the inequalities in level that led to the 
belief that the ditch was of the causeway type. It is suggested that a layer 
of mould, seen in the sections, shows the depth of ditch at the time the 
bank was levelled. 

It was found that the level of the ground has been artificially lowered 
outwards from the edge of the ditch (sections 1 and 3, PI. IV.). It will 
be seen that at present the ground slopes up from the outer edge of the 
ditch, while the normal slope is in the contrary direction. It is possible 
that some of this chalk was taken to increase the size of the outer 
banks, calculation showing that on this southern side a considerable 
amount of material in addition to that from the ditches was used in their 
construction. 

In addition to sections cut to the bottom of the ditch at A, B, C, D, E, 
F, on plan, a cutting was made in the ditch at G, where there were appear- 
ances of a " causeway," but on this appearance proving to be illusory the 
cutting was not continued (Plate I.). 

Pottery and other relics were more plentiful in section F than elsewhere^ 
the ditch here was hardly perceptible on the surface, and this extra filling 
may indicate a more intensive occupation of this part of the area both in 
pre-Roman and Roman times. 



The Bank. 

Cuttings in the bank were made north of the entrance (PI. III.), and to 
the south of it (Section A., Plate II.), The greatest height of the bank 
above the old turf line was 3ft. and 2^ft. respectively. 

At some time during the occupation of the site the bank must have been 
intentionally lowered and made level with the inner area, as it is to-day^ 
and much of the material was thrown into the ditch, accounting for the 
irregularities in the filling in. Subsequently dwellings seem to have been 
erected on the levelled bank, as well as in the partly filled-in ditch, because 
pits were found dug into the subsoil through the remnant of bank, and into 
the silt of the ditch. 

Beneath the bank, north and south of the entrance, a row of holes was 
found, and it is believed that these holes held posts for revetting, i.e.y 
supporting the bank on its outer side (Pis. II.— III., Nos. 1—6 and 9—12). 
Details of the holes are given below. 

The pits dug through the bank, referred to above, had obliterated some of 
the revetment post holes as shown on plan in the northern cutting. In the 
southern cutting beyond hole 12, some later disturbance had also taken 
place. 

In both sections of the bank, i.e„ north and south of the entrance, 
Romano- British pottery turned up in and immediately below the surface 



By Mrs. M. E. Cunnington, Hon. F.S.A., Scot. 201 

turf, and a few small fragments of hand-made pottery in both the old turf 
lines, but nothing in the actual bank itself. 

Size op Revetment Post Holes in inches. 

Hole No. ... 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 

Diameter ... 15 15 24 14 15 15 17 20 13 13 13 13 

Depth in chalk... 10 13 18 9 12 17 21 13 20 9 22 13 

Total depth ... 1 ? ? 1 1 11 ? 30 19 32 23 

The Entrance— Plate III. 

This was a normal entrance causeway, lA^it. in width, the ends of the 
ditch being found on both sides of it. 

The "disturbed" area on plan, on the inner side of the entrance, shows 
where the chalk had been dug out to a depth of 2§ft., and was probably the 
site of a hut of some kind ; fragments of wheel-turned Romano-British 
pottery were found right to the bottom of the hole, and there can be little 
doubt that it belongs to a comparatively late time in the occupation when 
the causeway had ceased to be defensive. 

Tht Flint Curbing— Plates III, and VIII. 

Perhaps the most interesting feature at the entrance was a curbing of 
large flints laid in two parallel lines, apparently the remnant of a roadway 
leading from the entrance into the interior. The way this curbing ends at 
the edge of the dug-out hut site, and at about the original inner edge of the 
bank, seems to show that the curbing is coeval with the original work, and 
certainly older than the hut site. If this were so the line of the road must 
have been somewhat curved. 

The width of the curbing is 16ft., or a little more than the present width of 
the causeway, but allowing for weathering of the edges of the latter, it may 
have been origmally of about the same width. 

The Gate Post Holes— Plate III. 

The holes Nos. 7 and 8, may have held gate posts; they are further apart 
than, but in line with, the revetment post holes, thus showing that the posts 
stood just at the outer edge of the rampart, a position in which gates might 
be expected ; their distance apart is reasonable,' and their position just in- 
side the lines of the flint curbing also suggests that they mark an entrance. 

The Pits. 

Eight pits, all probably for storage, were found, and considering that the 
excavations were confined to the bank and ditch the number is considerable, 
and suggests that the whole area is riddled with them, ranging, no doubt, 
throughout the period of occupation. 



* The distance apart of the two pairs of gate post holes at the entrance to 
Oliver's Camp was 13ft. W A.M., xxxv., 420. 



202 Excavations in Yarnhury Castle Cam'p^ 1932. 

Of these four are described below, the other four coutained nothing date- 
able or of interest. Of these No. 5 was under the bank a few feet south of 
No. 4 ; No. 6 was a small circular pit under the inner edge of the bank a 
little further to the north ; No. 7 was also a small round pit, on the south- 
west edge of the causeway ; and No. 8 was on the inner side of the ditch in 
section F. 

Pit 1. — This pit was interesting for having been dug into the silt of the 
filled-in ditch when it was nearly as full as at present, and it was a fortunate 
chance that the end of the cutting coincided with the centre of the pit, thus 
affording a good section (PI. II. A). 

The pit, about 6ft. deep, and S^ft. in diameter, yielded in the lower half 
hand-made pottery only, so that it seems to have been disused and 
allowed to fill up before the wheel-turned pottery was in use on the site. 

Pit 2. — This pit of unusual form was dug partly into the chalk bank and 
partly into the filling of the ditch (PI. II. A). The form seems to be 
unique among the hundreds of pits that have been examined on pre- 
historic sites in Wiltshire and the neighbouring counties. It may be de- 
scribed as funnel-shaped, about 2ft. deep (from the chalk level) and 5ft. in 
diameter at the top. The sloping sides and bottom were lined with a hard 
yellowish clay, mixed with broken flint, some Sin. in thickness ; a fiat slab 
of Chilmark stone. Sin. across, had been carefully laid on the bottom, with 
clay beneath and round, but not over it. In the chalky silt filling the 
pit were two chalk loom weights and numerous fragments of coarse hand- 
made pottery, including those from which the vessel shown in PI. XV., 6, 
has been restored. 

It is evident that this exceptional pit was designed for some special pur- 
pose, but what that purpose was is not known. The thick clay lining 
would no doubt have held water, but there were no pot boilers in or near 
the pit, or charcoal, to suggest that it was a cooking place (Plate V., 5). 

Pit 3. — This pit was dug through the silt into the undisturbed chalk on 
the inner slope of the ditch, after the ditch had fallen into neglect. It was 
pear-shaped, i.e., wider at the bottom than at the top, as storage pits often 
are, the diameter at the bottom being Sjft. and at the top 3|ft. (PI. 5). 

The pit contained a human skeleton, apparently that of a body that had 
been unceremoniously thrown in after the pit had silted up to a depth of 
from 6in. to Sin. — Skeleton No. 3. 

The pottery in the pit was nearly all of the hand-made variety, but near 
the top a few sherds of wheel-turned bead rim bowls were found, so that 
the burial may not be earlier than the introduction of this type of pottery, 
A fragment of an iron brooch was also found, but too imperfect and corroded 
to determine its type. 

Pit 4.— Under the bank north of the entrance. This was a circular pit 
that had been dug down into the subsoil through the partly levelled bank, 
breaking into the row of revetment post holes (PI. III.). 

A contracted human skeleton was found lying on the floor, on its left 
side, with hands crossed in front of the chest, head to north, facing west. 
A few fragments of wheel-turned pottery were found In the soil round the 






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mmiTiQnrmfflDLiTijmjijiDiririinjiirt WrTTTTn 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 n 1 1 1 1 1 f i 






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of ram^arlr 



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iiimiiiii 



Plate I.— Plan of Yarnbury Castle. Based on the Ordnance fSui vey maps by 
permission. 

Suggested reconstruction of rampart with revetment. 



^^0^ 




c 



-y^^.. .^g,.,c-i.hk. 




A 




Section tA-ro' inner 



Plate II.-YarBbury Castle.-Plan and Sections of excavations in the ditch 

1 -2, Sections across outer earthworks'; 3-4, Sections across inner bank and ditch. 



r -- 



/// 


















./ 



o e uf tJ »' ?■ <■ A 




Plate III.— Yarnbury Castle.— Plan of Entrance and Bank North of 

Entrance. 




^d around ci>\/f2. 



imirmrjU!^ 




Plate IV.— Yarnbury Castle— Ditch Sections. 





c kalk S ll^ fivtsily mevlJ aa-rT-k-j ^ayf larU^ 



Plate V. — Yarnbury Castle. — Sections of Ditch, Bank and Pits, and Plan of 

Ditch at F. 









'. ■■&•> i" .-.• -ffSMJiA'^t'mL 





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Plate VIII.— Yarnbury Castle.— Flint Curbing at Entrance. 



,^'d . v^.. '* *a->> " '--'. '. '1:-^ 









v;**/ 











Plate 



X.-Yambury CastK-Bone Implements, i 







Plate XL— Yarnbury Castle.-Chalk Objects, etc. f. 







Plate XII.— Yarnbury Castle,— Chalk Objects, f . 



^<-p^^ 



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Plate XIII.— Yarnbury Castle.— Iron and Bone objects, f . 




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i \ ' 



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Plate XIV.— Yambury Castle.— Pottery, i. 




l 






-.-z^z-x -y 





Plate XV.— Yarnbury Castle.— Pottery. 4 






fJ^?4-<-'/^i:^ 



I U U U l-fe 



Plate XVI. — Yarnbury Castle.— Pottery. J. 




^c^ 



,/7^^^«V_^£J^ / 



Plate XVIL— Yarubury Castle. Pottery. 



By Mrs, M. E. Gunimigton, Hon. F.S.A., Scot. 203 

bones, so the burial cannot be earlier than the bead rim period. This is an 
interesting example of a late contracted burial of an adult — Skeleton No. 2. 

H ON Plan— Plate I. 
On some of the photographs taken from the air a circle appears near the 
south-west corner of the inner enclosure ; the spot was measured off and a 
section 4ft. wide was cut across it, but nothing was found to account for 
the circle, and only numerous sherds of wheel-turned pottery were found. 
Possibly the appearance on the photograph was due to a fungus ring, or 
some other temporary cause. This was the only cutting made except those 
in connection with the ditch and bank already described. 

The Pottery. 

The pottery from the lower half of the ditch is very different from that 
from the upper part. 

Over the surface everywhere, reaching to a depth of not more than 2ft., 
were found quantities of Romano- British pottery ; with this were numerous 
fragments of wheel-turned bead rim bowls, and this latter type continued 
below the distinctively tloman pottery for another 1 Jft. to 2ft , i.e , to a 
total depth of about 4ft. 

Below this to the bottom of the ditch the pottery was all hand-made, and 
of fairly uniform character. 

Sherds of the cordoned and haematite coated bowls (PI. XIV., 1 — 2) were 
found near the bottom only, and it seems for this and other reasons that they 
are the earliest type found on the site. These are identical with some from 
the early Iron Age village at All Cannings Cross, but bowls with horizontal 
furrowing, such as were common there, are not represented at Yarnbury. 

This cordoned type, with ornament characteristically incised after baking, 
has occurred on several Wiltshire sites ' where the furrowed ware has not, 
and where the pottery as a whole is later than that of All Cannings Cross. 
It appears, therefore, fairly certain that the cordoned bowl as a type is later 
than the furrowed, and that it was in use at All Cannings Cross only in the 
later years of the occupation there. 

Another type of vessel, ornamented or plain, occurring comparatively 
frequently among the hand-made pottery, was that of straight-sided bowls 
as shown in PI. XIV., 4 — 7. A single fragment only of this type was found 
at All Canuiogs Cross (PI. 35, Fig. 1) but it is well known from later sites 
and seems to be typical of middle La Tene times ; it occurs frequently in 
the Glastonbury lake village. 

Other decorative fragments also show curvilinear lines and festoon orna- 
ment. Indeed with the exception of the haematite coated bowls, which 
it is believed represent the earlier years of the occupation, the ornamental 
designs on the hand-made pottery is for the most part curvilinear. 

Finger-tip impressions, so common at All Cannings Cross and elsewhere, 



» Chisenbury Trendle, W.A.M., vol. xlvi., 3 (Dec. 1932) ; Figsbury Rings, 
W.A.M. xliii., 48 ; Lidbury, W.A.M., xl., 12; Fifield Bavant, l^.^.ii., xlii., 
476, PI. 6, Fig. 5, p. 473; Swallowcliffe, W.A.M., xliii, 70, PI. 6, Fig. 6 ; 
Wilsford Pits, Devizes Museum Gat. II., 92. 



204 Excavations in Yarnhury Castle Camp, 1932. 

are represented only by a single fragment from a large vessel of coarse red 
ware, found 7ft. — 8ft. deep in the ditch. No handles were found. 

Sherds of the plain cooking pot type, though numerous are for the 
most part too fragmentary to allow of reconstruction of the forms ; those 
shown seem to be fairly typical (PI. XV., 4—6). 

The paste of the hand-made pottery is variously mixed with powdered 
flint, broken shells, sand, and not uncommonly with a quantity of rounded 
oolitic grains. 

Oolitic grains do not seem to have been used in the wheel-turned and 
later pottery, but as usual charred vegetable matter, and fragments of 
pounded brick or pottery, occur in the paste of the typical bead rim bowls. 

Though pottery was on the whole scarcer in the lower part of the ditch 
than in the upper, owing to the slower accumulation of the latter, there was 
nothing in the nature of a consistently barren layer to indicate any appreci- 
able break in the occupation of the site. It is clear that the ditch was 
being allowed to silt up for some considerable time before the wheel-turned 
pottery was in use on the site, so the disuse of this defence cannot have 
been due to the arrival of a people bringing with them this class of pottery. 
Nevertheless the appearance of the wheel-turned pottery seems to have 
been somewhat sudden, and there is no evidence of a gradual change from 
the crude hand-made cooking pots to the well-made bead rim bowls. 

Conclusions and Date of Earthworks. 

From the evidence obtained it seems that a strongly defensive enclosure, 
though only of a single bank and ditcb, was made by Iron Age people in 
early La Tene times, perhaps about 3oO B.C. This had an entrance to the 
west, and probably one also to the east. After no very long time this 
ditch was allowed to silt up, and eventually the bank was partly levelled 
off. The site, however, continued to be inhabited, apparently uninterrupt- 
edly, from the time when the inner enclosure was made, well into, if not to 
the end, of the lloman period. Habitations seem to have been erected on 
the surface of the silted-up ditch as well as on the top of the levelled bank 
as shown by pits, probably for storage connected with dwellings, that were 
found dug into the silt of the ditch and into the remnant of the bank ; huts 
seem also to have been built actually on the causeway. 

The date of the outer earthworks is not known, so that their age relative 
to the inner enclosure is conjectural, but there can be little doubt but that 
they are later. Perhaps these later works were thrown up because the 
older enclosure was found too small, or the defences were obsolete, and 
some new need for improved defence had arisen. From the character of 
the existing works it is probable that they were made towards the end of 
the pre-Koman Iron Age, perhaps in the 90 years interval between Caesar's 
invasions and the Claudian conquest, possibly as a result of the unrest 
caused by the Roman conquest of Gaul. 

It seems certain that the inner defences were derelict for some consider- 
able time before the introduction of wheel-turned bead rim pottery, so that 
events leading to its appearance, whether peaceful or otherwise, cannot be 
held responsible for the neglect into which they fell. This conclusion is 



By Mrs, M, E. Ctmnington, Hon. F.S.A., Scot. 205 

based on the fact that below, about 3ft.— 4ft. deep in the ditch, as well as in 
Pits 1, 2, and 3, dug wholly or partly into the silt of the ditch, the pottery 
was all of the coarse hand-made kind. Therefore if the outer works are 
indeed as late as suggested above, it looks as if there must have been an 
interval between the destruction of the inner defensive works and the 
erection of the outer ones though not in the habitation of the site. 



In addition to those illustrated the following objects were found :— 
Sling bullets, nine of baked clay and two of chalk. Water-worn pebbles, 
apparently collected, also may have been used as sling bullets. 

Perforated chalk discs, three of which may have been spindle whorls, and 
eight that appear too large for that use. 

Seven unperforated chalk discs, several with holes partially bored on one 
or both faces. Similar objects are common on Romano- British and Iron 
Age sites. It has been suggested that they were drill steadiers used with 
bow drills. See All Cannings Cross, p. 28, PI. 24, 6gs. 3, 4. 

Chalk loom weights. Two in Pit 2, one at the bottom of Pit 1, one in 
Pit 3, one in " hut " site on the causeway, two 3ft. deep in ditch Section 
A, and fragments of several others. 

Beyond a few rough flakes of black flint that from their colour are likely 
to be of Iron Age, or even Komano-British date, no flints of interest were 
found. 

In the Pioman layer, a few oyster shells, fragments of two iron and four 
bronze bow brooches, and one bronze penannular brooch, a few iron nails 
and a few other scraps of this metal. 

Fragments of rotary querns (in the lioman layers), mealing stones or 
saddle querns, of sarsen and millstone grit, and lava probably from Nieder- 
mendig. Numerous fragments of Chilmark stone. Comparatively few 
burnt flints or " pot boilers." 

Samian Ware. 
Dr. T. Davies Pryce, to whom the few sherds of Roman Samian were 
sent, has identified the following forms and maker's name, and writes — 
" The evidence of the sigillata indicates an occupation of your site, in the 
Koman period, from about 80 to 160 A.D." 
Form 18— 1st century, A.D. 
„ 27— Ditto. 
„ 29— Circa 80—85 A.D. A decorated sherd with birds, heads turned 

to left, and festoons. 
„ 30 — Decorated sherd, of the Hadrianic period. 
„ 33— 100 to 150 A.D. 

„ 31 — Hadrian — Antonine, circa 130—160, A.D. 
„ 37— Decorated sherd, circa 100 — 130. 
„ Uncertain. Period Domitian— Trajan. 

„ 27— With imperfect maker's name— GNATIVS. This potter 
worked in the Hadrian— Antonine period. His stamp 
occurs in the Antonine period at Newstead.^ 

1 This maker's stamp occurs among the pottery from Westbury in the 
Museum at Devizes. 



206 Excavations in Yarnhury Castle Camp, 1932. 

Coins. 

A British uninscribed silver coin was found in surface soil on the cause- 
way, it is of the usual concave or " dished " form on one side, and of the 
same general type as those found at Chute {W.A.M., xliv., 237). First 
century or late second century, B.C. 

A small Roman bronze coin came from the same area. It is of the Con- 
stantine period (Constantine I. ?), head with diadem to right, lettering 
illegible ; reverse, two soldiers standing with two standards between them, 
legend illegible. 

Another small coin also came from this area ; it is illegible and apparently 
a fraud as it is made of iron, or what appears to be iron, bronzed over. 



Human Remains. 

Skeletons were found in pits Nos. 3 and 4, but these pits seem to have 
been merely utilised as burial places, and not dug for the purpose. 

A grave containing a skeleton extended at full length on its back, head 
to south-west, was found on the inner edge of the causeway, dug partly in 
the solid chalk of the bank and partly into the silt of the ditch, showing 
that it must have been made after the ditch was nearly filled up. The in- 
dividual must have been buried in boots, as 44 iron hobnails, and 8 iron 
cleats, were found among the bones of the feet ; with these were fragments 
of leather with minute bronze studs or rivets adhering to it, showing that the 
uppers of the boots were of leather held together, or ornamented with these 
studs. No buttons or other trace of clothing or equipment were found. 
Fragments of wheel-turned pottery were in the soil filling the grave, so 
that the burial seems to have been made either late in the Iron Age or 
in the Romano- British period. The grave was 2ft. wide, its length in the 
silt was uncertain— Skeleton No. 1. 

A grave was found in Section B, dug into the silt, nearly in the centre of, 
and at right angles to the ditch. The grave was 3ft. X 20in., and 40in. 
deep from the present surface. It contained the much decayed remains of 
a child who had not lost its milk teeth. The skeleton was crouched with 
head to the east, facing south. Fragments of wheel-turned pottery, includ- 
ing those of bead rim bowls, were in the filling of the grave so that the 
burial was of the Romano- British period, or only slightly earlier. 

Another grave with skeleton was exposed in the west face of the ditch 
section F, but it was not further disturbed. 



Burials of Infants. 

Nine skeletons, or parts of skeletons, of newly born, or very young, infants, 
were found buried in the silt of the ditch. Five of these were in Section 
A, one in Section C, one in Section F, and two in Section D (south of 
causeway). 



By Mrs, M. E. Cunnington, Eo7i. F.S.A., Scot. 207 

The following detached fragments of humanity were also found : — 

Upper half of a femur, Sjft. deep in ditch section F. 

Upper half of a radius, 2ft. deep in ditch section E (north of causeway). 

Finger bone, S^ft. deep, ditch section B. 

Lower jaw with tine set of teeth, 7ft. deep in ditch at south edge of 
causeway. 

Shaft of a femur, 3ft. deep in ditch section C 

Frontal bone of skull, 8ft. deep in ditch section B. 

A tooth, 3jft. deep in ditch section C. 

The presence of burials close to the dwellings, often in pits not dug for 
the purpose, with evidence that the remains were deposited with little care, 
as in the case of Pit 2, as well as the frequent occurrence of detached and 
fragmentary human bones, is a persistent and interesting feature in con- 
nection with Iron Age sites. It has been suggested that the fragments of 
skull so frequently found bear evidence to a head-hunting custom, when 
the heads of slain enemies were brought home and kept as trophies. But 
this hardly accounts for the detached limb bones, etc. These might be ac- 
counted for on the supposition that the casual burials round about the 
dwellings, perhaps not marked on the surface, were subsequently disturbed 
when new pits for storage or dwellings were needed, and the bones scat- 
tered with other rubbish in the promiscuous way in which they are found. 

But a more interesting suggestion has been made, that seems worthy of 
consideration, connected with the religious ideas of the people. The Druids 
taught that after death the soul passed from one body to another, and 
Csesar says " This doctrine they regard as a most potent incentive to valour, 
because it inspires a contempt of death." A logical result of this teaching 
would be an indifference to what became of the body after death, and if 
this were indeed the case, it might to a great extent account for the remark- 
able rarity of rich and ceremonial burials of this period, and for the careless 
methods of burial within and about the settlements. 



Report on the Non-marine Mollusca 

By a. S. Kennard, A.L.S., F.G.S. 

A large quantity of material was examined from this site but mollusca 
remains were decidedly scarce. There were only nine species which could 
be considered as contemporary with the construction or occupation of the 
camp. They are : — 

Pupilla muscorum (Linn.). 

Vallonia excentrica (Sterki). 

Vallonia costata (Miill.). 

Cochlicopa lubrica (Miill.). 

Avion sp. 

Retinella pura (Aid.). 

Xerophila itala (Linn.). 

Trochulus hispidus (Linn.). 

Cepala nemoralis (Linn.). 



208 Excavations in Yarnhury Castle Camp, 1932. 

All the species were rare. Iq no case were there more than five examples. 
Two hsigments ol Pomatias elegans (Mull.) were also present but were 
obviously not of the same age. 

This is a typical downland faunule and clearly indicates that the climatic 
and geographical conditions were similar to those now existing. 

From •' the old turf under the bank " thirteen species were identified, 
viz. :— 

Pomatias elegans (Miill.) fragments. 
Pupilla muscorum (Linn.) common. 
Vertigo pygmaea (Drap.) common. 
Vallonia pulchella (Miill.) common. 

„ excentrica Sterki, six examples. 
„ cos^a^a (Miill.) three examples. 
Cochlicopa luhrica (Miill.) common). 
Avion sp., common. 

Limax arborum^ (Bouch. Chant.), one example. 
Xerophila itala (Linn.) common. 
Trochulus hispidus (Linn.). 
Clausilia rugosa, (Drap.), one apical fragment. 
Marpessa laminata (Mont.), one apical fragment. 
This old turf would obviously contain not only the fauna existing just 
previous to the construction of the camp but also the remains of shells that 
had existed there many years before. The faunule is in the main a down- 
land series but the presence of the three species represented by fragments 
shows that at some period long before the construction of the camp scrub 
or woodland conditions existed. 



I 



We wish to record our thanks to Mrs. Brockbank, of Little Bathamp- 
ton, and Mr. E. F. Andrews, of Steeple Langford, for permission to dig on 
their land. 

We are indebted to Lieut.-Colonel R. H. Cunnington (R.E. retired) for 
surveying and measuring the sections, and for help and advice on many 
points. 

We are grateful to Mr. A. S. Kennard for his report on the non-marine 
mollusca, to Mr. C. W. Pugh, M.B.E., for drawing the objects shown on 
Plates VIL, VIII., and IX., as well as for help throughout the excavations, 
and to Mr. W. E. V. Young for the photographs reproduced on Plates VI. 
to IX, and to Miss M. L. Tildesley for her report on three human skeletons. 

The objects found during the excavations have been placed in the 
Society's Museum at Devizes, with the consent of Mrs. Brockbank. 



By Mrs. M. E. Gunnington, Hon, F.S.A., Scot. 209 

Description of Plates. 

Plate I. 

Plan of Yarnbury Castle, showing inner earthwork and position of the ex- 
cavations, etc. 

A suggested reconstruction of rampart, showing use of revetment tim- 
bering tied into the chalk core of the v^all with cross pieces ; if the uprights 
were tree trunks with conveniently placed branches left on, these would 
have formed most efficient ties. 

A rampart walk could have been constructed along the top of the wall, 
perhaps with the aid of turf as easier to keep in place than chalk rubble. 
The whole outer face of the wall would have been masked by upright tim- 
bers, but only every two or three seem to have been strengthened by the 
butts being let into holes dug into the solid chalk. It was necessary to 
put the rampart some way back from the edge of the ditch to allow for 
weathering, the dotted lines indicating the outline that the ditch would 
quickly assume as a result of weathering away at the upper edges. 

Plate II, 

Plan and sections of the excavations in the ditch at, and south of, the 
entrance causeway ; also plan of the bank on the inner side of ditch section 
A, showing the position of the revetment post holes, Nos. 9 — 12. 

1 — 2, Sections through outer earthworks at 21 degrees east of north, 
and at 70 degrees. 

3 — 4. Sections through bank and ditch of inner enclosure at A and on 
plan. 

Plate III. 
Plan of entrance and of the bank on the northern side of the causeway as 
excavated, showing position of the pits, revetment post holes, Nos. 1 — 6, 
gate post holes (Nos. 7—8), etc. 

Plate IV.—Ditch Sections. 

1. — Section of ditch and bank on south side of section A on plan, showing 
outline of Pit I. in the silt on the face of the ditch, and old turf line and 
revetment post holes under bank. 

2. — Section of ditch on north side of B on plan ; there was a burnt layer 
over a considerable area in this part of the ditch rather suggestive of a 
burnt-out hay rick. 

3. — Ditch section on northern side of C on plan, showing how the ground 
has been lowered on the outer side of the ditch, and fine silt to the bottom 
of the ditch. 

4. — Section of ditch on south side of C on plan, showing fine silting to 
the bottom of the ditch, and " dug-out " hut sites on the inner bank. 

5. — Longitudinal section of ditch immediately south of the entrance, 
the quantity of fine silt and earthy material being remarkable and going 
some way to support the suggestion that wash after heavy rains might 
account for the deposit. It will be seen that the filling-in in all the 
ditch sections is scarcely normal for a silted chalk ditch, for fine silt 



210 Excavations in Yarnhury Castle Camp, 1932. 

appears at the bottom in nearly every case. It will also be seen that in 
most of the sections there is coarse chalk above a line of mould about half- 
way up the fillings; it is suggested that this line of mould represents the 
surface of the ditch when the bank was partly demolished, and that the 
coarse chalk rubble probably came from the bank. 

6. — Ditch section north of the entrance at E on plan. 

7. — Ditch section south of the entrance at D on plan. 

Plate V. 

1—2. Sections of ditch at F on plan (PI. I.). 

3. — Plan of ditch at F showing position of grave, storage pit, and " dug- 
out " hut sites. 

4. — Section of the bank on north side of entrance, showing old turf line 
and a storage pit beneath it. At this spot the subsoil was too decayed to 
admit of the comparatively small and shallow revetment post holes being 
clearly identifiable. 

5. — Section of Pit 2 (ditch section A, PI. II.), funnel-shaped and lined 
with clay, with flat stone on the bottom. 

6. — Section of Pit 3 (ditch section B, PI. II.), cut into the inner bank of the 
ditch, apparently after it partly silted up. 

Plate VI. 

1. — Photographic view of ditch, section A, showing Pit I. outlined in the 
silt on the face of the ditch. 

On the bank to the right the lip of Pit 2 can be seen with a chalk loom 
weight in situ before the pit was emptied. 

Plate VII. 
2. — Photographic view of the excavated face of the ditch south of the 
entrance (section D) showing the fine muddy nature of the filling, almost 
to the bottom of the ditch, 

Plate VIII. 
3. — Photographic view of the flint curbing at the entrance (with fork 
resting against it) and roughly " paved " roadway. 

Plate IX. 
Section of bank as excavated at A on plan, showing revetment post 
holes ; the old surface line can be seen in the bank. 

Plate X. 

1. — Socketed bone tool, with three iron rivets (one complete), perhaps an 
ox goad. 4^ft. deep, ditch section F. 

2. — Rib-knife, i.e., one end cut to form short blade. Bottom of Pit I., 
ditch section A. 

Similar bone tools were common at All Cannings Cross, the blades varying 
much in length. See All Cannings Cross, Pis. 7 and 12. 

3. — Tool made from shaft of a large limb bone, one end a " scoop " ; a 
piece of another worked bone was found fitting into the hollow of the bone 
as shown. 5ft. deep, ditch section C. 

3a. — Piece of a worked bone found inserted in the cavity of Fig. 3. 



d 



By Mrs. M. E. Gunnington, Hon. F.S.A,, Scot. 211 

4—5. — Bone needles. 5ft. deep, ditch section F. 

These are very similar to needles from All Cannings Cross, Fl. 6. 

Plate XL 

I. — Piece of chalk, squared and smoothed, a groove running round the 
edge (see section), and another on one face roughly parallel with the edge. 
A toy ? b^it. deep., ditch section E. 

2. — Spindle whorl of chalk. 2ft. deep, ditch section Q. 

3.— Piece of chalk worked into the shape of a tiny cup. A toy? 7ift. 
deep, ditch section E. 

A similar cup ? was found at All Cannings, PI. 23, fig. 4. 

4.— Spindle whorl of Kimmeridge shale. 2ft. deep, ditch section B. 

5. — Piece of chalk squared with countersunk hole. A spindle whorl? 
2ft. deep, ditch section B. 

6. — Sling bullet of chalk, sides flattened. 

7 — 8. — Sling bullets of baked clay, ditch section B. 

Platb XII. 

1, 2, 3. — Roughly shaped pieces of chalk, perforated. 1 and 3, 7^ft. deep, 
ditch section F ; 2, 3ft. ditch section D. 

4, 5. — Pieces of chalk shaped, countersunk on both faces as if for holes, 
but not bored through. 3|ft., ditch section E., and 6ft., section D. 

5.— Worked disc of chalk. 3ft. deep, ditch section E. 

Similar disc-shaped and partially perforated objects were found at All 
Cannings Cross ; it has been suggested that they were drill steadiers for 
use with bow-drills. See All Cantiings Cross, page 28, and PI. 24, figs. 3, 4. 

Plate XIII. 
1, 2, 3. — Iron hobnails and cleat found at the feet of Skeleton No. 3 in 
grave on edge of causeway. 

4.— Bone tool with scoop-like end. Ijft. deep, ditch section B. 
5. — Similar bone tool with rivet hole. Bottom of ditch, section F. 

Plate XIV.— Pottery of the pre-bead rim period, except figs. 8—9. 

1.— Bowl of fine grey ware, hand-made, coated with red haematite inside 
and out ; ornamented as shown with lines incised after baking. Rim diam. 
about 5|in. Found Ojft. deep in ditch section F. Only fragments were 
found and the drawing is a re-construction on analogy with a similar vessel 
from All Cannings Cross, PI. 28, figs 3, 4. 

2. — Bowl of the same type as fig. 1, above. Rim diam about 5in. Frag- 
ments found 92ft. deep in ditch section B. Drawing a reconstruction as in 
fig. 1 above. 

3.— Bowl of fine grey ware, hand-made, coated with red haematite inside 
and out. Rim diam. about 6in. Fragments found 6ft. deep in ditch 
section D. This vessel is of similar form to one from All Cannings Cross» 
PI. 28, fig. 7. 

4.— Bowl of the same type as figs. 5, 6, below, soft sandy paste 
with finer clay coating, brownish, polished, hand-made. Rim diam. about 
6^in. Fragments found 4— 5ft. deep in ditch section F. 
YOL. XLVI. — NO. CLVIII. P 



212 Excavations in Yarnhury Castle Gamp, 1932. 

3. — Straight- sided bowl of soft, sandy, brown ware, over the sandy core 
is a coating of fine clay with highly polished surface, hand-made. Orna- 
mented as shown with lightly impressed lines. Him diam. about 6in. 
Fragments found 7 — 8ft. deep in ditch section K. 

6. — Bowl of the same type as fig. 4 and 5, above, ornamented as shown 
with very lightly impressed lines, paste rather coarse and gritty ; polished. 
Rim diam. about 6in. Fragments found scattered 5ft— 6ft. deep in ditch 
section F. 

This type (figs. 4—6) is sometimes described as " saucepan-shaped," and 
seems to be characteristic of middle La Tene times. 

The form may be compared with a Glastonbury type, PI. 76, type 15, PI. 
80, p. 200. Three plain pots of this form were found by flint diggers just 
inside the ramparts of Oldbury Camp (Cherhill) and are now in the 
Museum at Devizes, Cat. ii., p. 85, No. 838, figs, ; ( W.A.M., vol. xxvii., 291, 
figs.). A bowl of the form was found at Fifield Bavant ( W.A.M., vol. xlii., 
p. 474, PI. iv., fig. 5). The form also occurred at the Trundle {Sussex Arch. 
Coll., vol. Ixx., p. 57, PI. xiii., p. 1.), Park Brow (Archseologia, vol. Ixxvi., 
1927, figs. 14 — 15), Hascombe Camp, Godalming {Surrey Arch. Colt., vol. 
xl., p. 95, fig. 7). 

7. — Nearly straight-sided cup or bowl, hand-made, of blackish ware mixed 
with white grit ; ornamented as shown with two double rows of circular 
punch marks. Rim diam. about six inches. 

8. — Small bead-rim bowl of black ware with rounded base. Rim diam. 
about three inches. Found 3 — 4ft. deep in ditch section C. 

An almost identical bowl was found in the rubbish heap at Oare, to- 
gether with a great quantity of wheel-turned bead-rim bowls associated 
with sherds of Arretine, Belgic, and Mont Beuvray wares. 

9. — Solid pedestal base of grey ware. 3^ft. deep, ditch section E, 

Plate XV. Figs. 1 — 3 are of the bead-rira period, 4 — 6 are pre-bead rim. 

!.■ — Fragments of a wheel-turned vessel with girth grooves, of hard baked 
ware, grey on exterior, core reddish ; paste and form resemble a vessel 
associated with bead-rim pottery from Oare, Devizes Museum Cat., ii., PI. 
49, E. Found Z^it. deep, ditch section F. 

2. — Vessel of black to grey ware, polished, wheel-turned, flint particles 
in grey paste. Rim diam. about six inches. Found Ijft. deep in ditch 
section F. Apparently a contemporary of bead-rim bowls. 

3. — Vessel, wheel-turned, grey ware with reddish core, ornamented as 
shown with girth grooves and impressed lines. Rim diam. 5fin. Found 
in scattered fragments, 2ft. — 3ft. deep in ditch section A, associated with 
bead-rim bowls. 

There are repair rivet holes in one of which are the remains of an iron rivet. 

4. — Nearly straight-sided hand-made " cooking-pot," black to grey out- 
side, reddish inside ; paste freely mixed with small round oolitic grains. 
Rim diam. about 6in. Fragments found in Pit 1, 4ft. — 5ft. deep. 

Pitt- Rivers noticed oolitic grains in pottery that he found in Winkelbury 
Camp, he states that he there came upon it for the first time, and adds that 
it *' is so remarkable as to afford evidence of identity of age in the various 



By Mrs. M. E. Cunning ton, Hon. F.S.A., Scot, 213 

places in which it is found." This, however, can no longer be accepted, for 
pottery mixed with oolitic grains has been found on several Iron Age sites 
of different dates, such as All Cannings Cross, Chisenbury Trendle, Yarn- 
bury, and elsewhere. Moreover, Mr. Keiller has found pottery with these 
grains in it at Windmill Hill, near Avebury, a site certainly very much 
earlier. 

5, — Hand-made " cooking pot " of grey to black ware, sandy ; coated with 
a finer clay that is inclined to flake off ; now covered with soot. Rim diam. 
about 5in., base 3|in. Found in fragments 5ft. — 6ft. deep in ditch section A. 

6. — Hand-made " cooking pot " of soft sandy ware without flint particles, 
with a coating of finer clay that is apt to flake off, form unsymmetrical. 
Found in fragments in the funnel-shaped pit 2. Height llfin. 

Plate XVI. — Figs. 1 — 2 are pre-bead rim period. 

1. — "Lyre-shaped" vessel of fine black paste, surface polished black to 
brown in colour. Ornamented as shown with impressed lines. Rim diam. 
about 6pn. Found in scattered fragments 7 — 8ft. deep in ditch section F. 

2.— Upper part of large vessel, of attractive dark brown ware, surface 
highly polished, ornamented as shown with impressed lines. Kim diam. 
about Tin. Fragments found 8— 9ft. deep in ditch section F. 

The curvilinear lines and festoon ornament of figs. 1 and 2 recall the 
Glastonbury pottery ; similar ornamentation occurred at Fifield Bavant 
{ W.A.M. vol. xlii., PI. iv., fig. 5) and at the Fisherton Pits, now in the 
Museum at Salisbury ; and among other sites outside the county at Kingston 
Buci {Sussex Arch. Coll. vol Ixxii., 201 — 2, figs. 31—34). The Caburn {Ibid. 
vol. Ixviii., p. 34, PI. xi.), Park Brow {Archxologia, vol. Ixxvi., figs. 14—15). 

3 — Wheel-turned bead rim bowl of grey rather sandy ware ; surface 
black and very smooth, ornamented as shown with girth grooves and im- 
pressed lines. Rim diam. about 5^in. Fragments found 2ft. deep in ditch 
section F. Pieces were also found of a similar bowl of grey ware ornamented 
in an identical way. 

Plate XVII. All pre-bead rim period. 

1 — 2.— Fragments of a large vessel of very soft sandy ware, overlaid with 
a coating of finer clay that is apt to flake off, surface highly polished. 
Ornamented as shown, but fragments too small for a re-construction of 
form. Found 5ft. —6ft. deep in ditch section F. 

3. — One of several pieces of a large vessel of black ware coated with 
haematite, burnt brown to black, surface polished. Several pieces show 
dimples but none are large enough to detect form of vessel or ornamentation. 
Found 5ft.— 6ft. deep, ditch section F. 

4. — Fragment of sandy brown ware with coating of finer clay, highly 
polished. Ornamented as shown with dimples, punched dots and lines. 
Found \^[t. deep, ditch section B. 

5. — Rim fragment apparently of a shallow bowl or basin ; ware soft and 
sandy with coating of finer clay that flakes off. Ornamented as shown on 
top of rim with impressed dots and lines. Found under early silting on 
inner edge of ditch, section A, 4ft. deep. A " grain " dish ? 

P 2 



214 



EEPOET ON THEEE SKELETONS FEOM YAENBUKY 

CAMP. 

By M. L. TiLDESLEY, 

Human Osteological Curator, Roy. Coll. Surgeons Mus. 

In the light of the archaeological evidence, assembled by Mrs- 
Cunnington's careful technique and intimate knowledge of her subject, 
Yarnbury Camp seems to have been inhabited from Early La Tene times 
well into and perhaps all through, the period of the Roman occupation. 
The probable date of the skeletons is, however, brought within narrower 
limits by the wheel-turned pottery found with Nos. 1 and 3 and unknown 
until La Tene III., and by the hob-nailed sandals of No. 1, of a kind 
familiar in Romano-British times but not yet found, I think, in graves 
assignable to any earlier period. The date being thus indicated, our chief 
task will be to see whether the physical evidence confirms the archaeological. 
But it may be said at the outset that no physical criteria have been 
established that will enable us to discriminate between the two periods in- 
dicated, before and after the Roman invasion. Too little human material 
of the later La Tene periods is as yet available to give adequate evidence 
of the type and variability of the population of this time. But the native 
population was certainly not wiped out by the Roman conquerors ; and 
Dr. G. M. Morant's studies of the crania of the Romano- British period in 
England and the " Iron Age " in the Scottish Lowlands (which covers both 
the pre-Roman and Roman periods) show that they formed as homogeneous 
a group as those skull series which represent the Neolithic period, the 
Anglo-Saxon, etc. The foreigners who came in during the Roman occupa- 
tion no doubt contributed new racial types to the graveyard population, 
but, presumably, not enough to change its general character. Our task will 
be to see how likely it is that the three skeletons from Yarnbury belonged 
to this British population which became subject to Roman rule, and how 
likely that they were alien. 

Skeleton No. 1 (from grave at edge of Causeway, page 206), buried with 
studded sandals, is that of a man, about twenty-five to thirty years of age. 
His right femur being 4365 mm,, and his right humerus 318 mm. in 
maximum length, his most probable height would be about 1,629 mm. or 
5ft. Sin. His teeth are all present and all perfectly healthy ; his biting teeth 
are relatively more worn than his chewing teeth, including the first molars 
which have been in use quite as long. His thigh bones and also shin bones 
exhibit a flattening of the upper part of the shaft which has often been 
noticed and measured on individual bones, and would seem to be more 
frequent in some of the earlier races than in the more modern inhabitants 
of this island. As, however, adequate data as to the mean value and varia- 
bility of the indices which express these forms of flattening are not available 
for the period in which we are interested (nor in fact for many other periods !) 
we can draw no definite conclusions as to race from measurements of 
flattening in the case before us. 



Report on Three Skeletons from Yarnhury Camp. 215 

A considerable number of measurements were taken on bis skull and 
compared witb Morant's data for the La Tene and Romano- British male 
series.' Two of the direct measurements were observed to be so large as to 
make it extremely unlikely that this man was a native Briton : namely, the 
length of the skull base from nasion to basion (LB) and the height of the 
skull from basion to bregma (H'). The mean value of LB in 67 male skulls 
of the population in question was 101 "6 mm.; and in about two thirds of the 
population LB would vary no more than about 409 mm. from the mean 
value. Our skull No. 1 has a base-length of 114 mm., 12'4 mm. above the 
mean, and if the mean and standard deviation of the whole population be 
exactly the same as for its 67 representatives, so long a skull-base would 
only be found in one out of every 818 people. This feature being so rare 
in the British it seems more probable that the owner of our skull was a 
foreigner. His head was also unusually high, 146'5 (?) mm. (the query 
representing a possible error of about a millimetre). This is 13"6 mm. more 
than the British mean, and the standard deviation of the latter being 
5*55 + '30, we expect only about one in every 140 to have as high a head. 
This height combined with a cranial width which is rather below the British 
average, gives 92'8 (?) for proportion of width to height as against a mean 
British value of 106-3, i.e., it is 135 (?) less than the mean value. The 
standard of deviation of (B/H') is not known for the British population but 
in seven other racial series it varies from 4'30 to 5*27, and in even the most 
variable of these seven series as large a deviation in excess of the mean 
would only be expected in one man in about 191, while in the least variable 
of them its chance of occuring would be merely one in about 1,183 times. 
Even with the lesser odds against getting this value of B/H' in the British 
population, one would be inclined to favour alien intrusion as the more 
probable explanation of this unusual height compared with cranial width. 

Skeleton No. 2 (found in Pit 4, page 202), is that of a woman ; her pro- 
bable height, 4ft. 1 l^in. Judging by her cranial sutures, none of which is 
closed, her most probable age would be under thirty ; but there is con- 
siderable variability in the closure period, and the condition of her teeth 
suggests that she must be at least middle-aged. In the lower jaw all the 
back teeth are gone but for one badly worn second molar with a carious 
hole on its cheek side big enough to hold half a pea, and a socket so eaten 
away by disease as to hold but the slightest grip on this rotten tooth, 
shortly about to go the way of its fellows if the woman had not anticipated 
it by dying first. Of the lower front teeth the left central incisor had come 
out long ago, and that on the right had either lately come out or was 
thinking of doing so. Lateral incisors, canines and first premolars are all 
greatly worn, and the one poor second premolar with a large carious hole 
in it is still more worn. In the upper jaw the front teeth, which bit against 
the remaining lower teeth, were some of them worn to stumps, some lost, 



^ Given in Biometrika, XVIII. (1926), 82. The measurements taken on 
this and the other two skeletons are put on record in the table on p. 217, 
the Biometrika notation being used. 



216 Report on Three Skeletons from Yarnhury Cam'p. 

and mostly diseased. Two healthy second molars and two first molars with 
large holes in the crown and large abscess cavities at the root complete the 
tale. If one wants a focal centre of poisoning to explain the very arth- 
ritic condition of this woman's hip-joints and left knee joint, and her less 
affected shoulder and elbow joints, one need look no further than her horrid 
mouth. Her skull was measured and in no characters was it found to 
depart from quite normal female British proportions for that period. 

Skeleton No. 3 (found in Fit 3, page 202), is again that of a short woman, 
probably about 4ft. 1 lin. in height. She resembles No. 2 in her unobliterated 
sutures, her bad teeth and her arthritic joints, but that her teeth are not so 
bad, nor her joints either perhaps. Her hip-joints are not quite so arth- 
ritic though that uniting her sacrum to the rest of the spine is more so ; this 
time the right knee is worse than the left ; and again the shoulder must 
have been painful. Also, again, measurement of her skull showed nothing 
that was not ordinary Romano- British, as far as the available criteria could 
serve. 

The answer given by the bones to the racial question is this : that the 
women were native British, middle-aged, and very rheumaticky ; that the 
man was young, healthy as far as his bones show, and probably foreign. 
And on general grounds, one would be inclined to interpret his presence in 
Yarnbury Camp as favouring a Roman rather than a La Tene date for his 
interment. 



By M. Z. Tildesley. 



217 



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218 



A MIDDLE BKONZE AGE URNFIELD ON EASTON 

DOWN, WINTERSLOW. 

By J. F. )S. Stone, D.Phil. 

The rare and interesting discovery of a small Middle Bronze Age ceme- 
tery, possessing aflSnities with the later urnfield complex, was made recently 
by the writer whilst studying more closely the Early Bronze Age dwelling 
pits which surround the cluster of mine shafts in Area B on Easton Down 
( W.A.M., xlv., 350). This was in large measure due to the absence of rab- 
bit scrapes and mole hills over an elongated patch of ground, an absence 
very noticeable indeed upon this scarred bat never cultivated area. 

The patch lies 65 yards north of Floor B4 and 32 yards south of a cart 
track and measures 60ft. in length by, in places, 20ft. in width. It is 
slightly crescentic in plan and is orientated roughly east-west (Plate I.). 
When viewed from ground level a long but very low mound is just visible. 
The height is on an average only 3in. above the surrounding ground, the 
west end rising to 6in. and the east toiabout 12in. That these higher por- 
tions are not the result of denudation and coalescence of two tiny round 
barrows is proved by excavation which showed that the interments to be 
described were merely inserted into small holes dug through the original 
turf and then covered by a thinly strewn layer of flint nodules. This flint 
layer is of even thickness throughout and the apparent mound-like nature 
of the patch is due to unevenness in the surface of the underlying chalk rock 
which was found to be undisturbed and correctly bedded. 

The delimitation of the area for excavation was an easy matter depending 
in part upon a distinct colouration of the turf in immediate contact with 
the flint nodules, which latter had confounded attempts at burrowing by 
rabbits. Practically the whole area was removed down to undisturbed 
chalk, the writer again having the much valued assistance of his wife, of 
Cmdr. H. G. Higgins, D.S.O., K.N., and of Capt. E. V. Hallinan, M.Q, R.A. 

A thin layer of flint nodules, 6in. thick, occurred over the whole area just 
below the turf which was from 2in. to 3in. in thickness. These flint nodules 
had been collected from the debris of the mined area nearby and were both 
of mined flint and of surface flint. Amongst them were four half-made 
celts or roughouts averaging 6in. in length, two side scrapers made from 
flakes, one small pointed tool steeply chipped into a form similar to Fig. 
29 of the Flint Mine Report {loc. cit.), and one sharply-waisted steep-sided 
massive scraper or plane, the cutting edge being deeply engrailed, measur- 
ing 4|in. by 4in. and being l|in. thick. A few flint flakes also were re- 
covered from this layer. About 2in. of mould separated this layer from 
the decomposed surface of the undisturbed chalk rock, the chalk bemg 
about loin, below the present surface. Numbers of snail shells, similar to 
those found in the mine shafts and dwelling pits, were observed in this thin 
layer of mould. 

There were no surface indications of a surrounding ditch. This was con- 
firmed by excavation. 



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Plate II, —Urn 1 {^) and Contents (J- 






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A Middle Bronze Age Urn-field on Easton Down, Winter slow. 219 

Small cists had been cut or scooped out, apparently through the original 
turf, down into the chalk and these were arranged in more or less of a 
straight line from one end of the area to the other. 

Cists and Uontents. 

No. 1. Cist, 20in. in diameter with fiat base, chalk-cut to a depth of 
1ft, 6in. A large urn of degenerate overhanging-rim type lay in about 90 frag- 
ments on its side with mouth to the east. It had been crushed by the 
superimposed flints. After reconstruction ( Plate I [., Urn 1 ) this urn measures 
12fin. in height, in diameter at the mouth 9|in., at the shoulder I l|in. and 
at the base 5^in. The depth of the cjiiar is :3|in. It is made of thick reddish 
badly fired paste with little grit. The ornamentation on the collar consists 
of alternate panels of cord impressed lines arranged horizontally and 
vertically. A single line of small horseshoe-shaped cord markings encircles 
the urn just above the shoulder. The top of the rim is bevelled slightly 
inwards and is also ornamented with cord markings. 

The urn had been packed round with ashes in the cist and contained the 
cremated bones, unmixed with much charcoal, of a child about 8 years of 
age and, from the associated objects, probably a girl. These objects con- 
sisted of four jet beads, three amber beads and one blue segmented bead of 
faience (Plate II.). They have been submitted to Mr. H. C Beck"; F.S.A., 
whose report, appended below, is gratefully acknowledged. A small bone 
pin or awl, 44mm. long, also accompanied the cremation (Plate ID- 

No. 2. Cist, 13ft. from No. 1. Diameter I2in. and chalk-cut to a depth of 
12in. It contained a cremation only, the cist being filled with charcoal, 
the very well burnt banes of a child about ."^ years of age, and five pieces of 
burnt flint. 

No. 3. Urn, 7ft. from No. 2. This lay crushed in 74 fragments below the 
flint layer but in immediate contact with it. No cist had been cut for its 
reception. It is possible, therefore, that it had been dropped here prior to 
interment since no ashes or cremated bones were found with it. The urn 
is made of badly fired thick reddish-brown paste with a little flint grit and 
after reconstruction (Plate III., Urn 3) measures Sin. in height, in diameter 
at rim 3|in , at bottom of collar 4^in. and at the base 2^in. I'he depth of 
the collar is I fin. The ornamentation on the collar consists of chevrons 
between parallel lines of cord impressions The steeply bevelled rim also 
bears cord markings and a row of small horseshoe-shaped cord impressions 
encircles the shoulder as on Urn 1. 

No. 4. Cist, 3ft. from Urn 3. Diameter 9in. and chalk-cut to a depth of 
6in. It contained three small pieces of burnt bone and a handful or so of 
charcoal but no urn. Twenty pieces of burnt flint, of " pot-boiler " size, 
accompanied the deposit. 

No. 5. Cist, 12ft. from No. 4. This was more in the nature of a scooped- 
out hole than a cist, being I2in. in diameter but only 6in. deep in the chalk. 
On the bottom lay the crushed fragments of a small collared urn ( Plate III., 
Urn 5). From the position of the 50 odd fragments, with the base in the 
centre and upside down, it is probable that the urn was originally inverted. 
Two pieces of charcoal only accompanied the urn. Made of brownish badly 



220 A Middle Bronze Age Ui^n field on Easton Down, Winterslow. 

fired clay with a small admixture of flint grit the urn measures after recon- 
struction 5jin. in height, in diameter at the mouth 5in., at the bottom of 
the collar 6in. and at the base Sin. The collar is l|in. deep. The orna- 
mentation on the collar consists of very irregular pendant triangles executed 
in the cord technique and these are hatched with short parallel lines of 
similar markings. The rim is bevelled steeply inwards ; this also is orna- 
mented. 

No. 6. Cist, 5ft. 6in. from No. 5. This also was a mere scooped-out hole 
6in. in diameter and Sin. deep in the chalk. Lying crushed by the super- 
imposed flints were the 55 fragments of a very small collared urn of 
Abercromby's " small cinerary or pigmy cup " type and very probably an 
accessory food vessel. There were no ashes, but two small fragments of 
burnt bone were associated. The urn is made of a well fired hard greyish 
paste with practically no grit (Plate III., Urn 6). It measures 4^in. in height, 
diameter at the mouth S^in., at the bottom of the collar 4in., and at the 
base 2^in. The depth of the collar is l|in. The ornament on the collar 
consists of small round punch marks made with a blunted tool and arranged 
irregularly. A row of minute horseshoe-shaped cord markings encircles 
the shoulder as with Urns I and 3 and a vertical row of twin finger nail 
impressions occurs on the shoulder at one place only. 

No. 7. Cist, 5ft. 6in. from No. 6. This was a round hole 12in. in 
diameter, cut to a depth of 4in. in the chalk. It contained nothing, how- 
ever, but mould and flints. 



The Date of the Interments. 

Whereas barrow interment was the normal method of burial during the 
Middle Bronze period of the overhanging rim type of urn, burials in flat 
cemeteries first appeared in the succeeding Late Bronze period and coin- 
cided with the appearance of new pottery forms in England of the Rimbury- 
Deverel type. This change may be said to have commenced about 1000 
B.C. though it is now recognised that the barrel-bucket urn complex really 
marks the final phase of the Late Bronze Age in England (K. C. C. Clay, 
Antiquaries J., vii., 483, and T\ D. Kendrick and C. F. C. Hawkes, 
Archasology in England and Wales, 1914 — 31, 1932, p. 145). 

The series of cremations under discussion presents, therefore, points of 
exceptional interest. It would appear that we have here on Easton Down 
evidence of cultural contact, during this period of transition : of a change 
in the methods of interment but as yet no assimilation of the newer 
pottery forms. Certainly there is little evidence of barrow interment. It 
is true that the series might be considered to be a line of tiny cairns of 
flint which had subsequently coalesced, but since there was no evidence of 
later disturbance or of ploughing, and since the thin layer of flints was 
found to be of approximately equal thickness over the whole area, it is 
more probable that these flints had been strewed in a general manner over 
each interment as it occurred, thus perpetuating native tradition but in a 
modified form. Again, the general alignment of the series suggests approxi- 
mate contemporaneity. There is for instance no evidence of secondary 



By J. F. S. Stone, D.Phil. 221 

burial in the strict sense of the term though it is possible that Urn 1 was 
the first of the series from its comparatively rich grave goods. 

The only instance of a similar urnfield known to the writer is that on 
Lancaster Moor (J. ^rt^. ^rcA. Assoc^ 1865, xxi., 159) which parallels in 
several important characters the urnfield under discussion. The flat 
cemetery on Lancaster Moor contained a large number of collared urns, all 
of very degenerate type and similar in shape to these from Easton Down. 
The urns are stated to have been placed in pairs at intervals of a yard in a 
long line extending east and west. One was buried in a small cist of flag- 
stones and was surrounded by ashes ; the remainder were deposited directly 
in the soil. These urns — the total number is not stated — varied in height 
from 9iin. to 11 ^in. 

The Easton Down urnfield is not therefore an isolated occurrence and it 
is hardly surprising that more cases are not known. kSuch urnfields are 
almost invisible on the surface and are below plough level. Unfortunately 
also they have no encircling ditch to aid identification on aerial photographs. 
Their discovery, therefore, must of necessity be fortuitous. 

As has already been noted all the urns are of degenerate type according 
to accepted typological classification and approximate to Abercromby's 
Type 1, phase iii. Now this type has occasionally been found in direct 
association with urns of the Kimbury-Deverel class as, for instance, in the 
Deverel barrow itself ( Abercromby, B.A.P., ii., fig. 389, 389a), at Pokesdown 
{Antiquaries J , vii., 478), and at Brown Candover {Proc. Hants. Field Club, 
X., iii (1931), 249). buch urns were therefore in use during the period of 
transition. 

It may be objected that Urns 3, 5, and 6, or at any rate 6, might from 
their size be classed as accessory food vessels. Certainly none of them 
contained sufficient deposit to rank as cremated interments in the ordinary 
sense : yet neither did the urnless cremation No. 4. This then must remain 
a moot point at present, but it is diflacult to see to which primary burials 
they are to be ascribed from their isolated and yet determinate positions. 
It should not be forgotten, however, that the burial of a mere handful of 
ashes from the pyre was all that was considered necessary in later urns of 
the Rimbury-Deverel class. 

Again, the ornamentation is not without significance. It is a surprising 
fact that the motif on the collar of Urn 1, though uncommon in the south 
of England, is found both at Pokesdown and on the fragmentary collar 
from the Deverel barrow. Even more remarkable are the punch markings 
on Urn 6, a type of ornamentation apparently very uncommon in southern 
England. Such markings occur, however, on the collar of the one complete 
urn from the Deverel barrow and also upon several from the Lancaster urn- 
field {loc. cit., PI. 7, figs. 3, 4, 5). It occurs yet again on a small cinerary 
urn from a " saucer " barrow on Ibsley Common {Proc. Bournemouth iSat. 
Science Soc, xiv. (1921), 69). 

The small horseshoe-shaped cord impressions certainly imply a con- 
temporary date for three of the urns. This unusual form of decoration is 
by no means common on Pronze Age pottery. It has therefore been thought 
worth while to include as an appendix a list of all urns known to the writer 



222 A Middle Bronze Age Urnfleld on Easton Down, Winterslow. 

upon which it occurs. On analysis it is evident that the motif is wide- 
spread both chronologically and geographically. It appears on both food 
vessels and collared urns and is distributed from Cornwall to Ayrshire. 
The possibility that all such urns bearing this design are contemporary is 
therefore remote, though one must not lose sight of the fact that food 
vessels are almost completely absent in the south of England. Since this 
form of ornament is so rare and yet so widespread one must infer either 
spontaneous emergence in different regions at different times, or slow 
diffusion of what was either an unpopular motif or one reserved for special 
occasions. Now crescentic ''maggots;" or cord-bows are included as a 
variety of decoration on Neolithic pottery of the Peterborough class and as 
fadrn-hoyen and schnur-hogen have been traced from the Ukraine via East 
Prussia and South Sweden to Denmark and thence to the British Isles by 
G. Rosenberg [Eulturstromungen in Europa zur Stemzeit, 1931). Since it 
is now widely held that food vessels as a class are derivatives of such 
Peterborough ware, and cinerary urns of the overhanging-rim type from 
these again, it is very probable that this special type of decoration survived 
despite the change in ceramics. Such rare survival of other forms of curved 
patterns has recently been noted by Mr. Stuart Piggott (Arch. J., Ixxxviii., 

1931, 118). 

If anything else is needed to suggest a late date for this urnfield, it is the 
presence in the series of the two urnless cremations in cists. Cremations 
of this character occur plentifully in English urnfields such as at Hadden's 
Hill (Antiquaries J., viii., 87), and at Pokesdown. Mr. C. F. C. Hawkes 
has pointed out, however, that such urnless cremations in cists in Wessex 
probably partly preceded Rimbury-Deverel urn burials in date but must 
definitely be dissociated from late interments in the native Middle Bronze 
Age tradition where there is no cist, and where the deposit is placed on the 
ground surface beneath the barrow (Archaeology m Ei^gland and Wales^ 

1932, 141) 

We are therefore justified in assigning this small urnfield tentatively to 
the late Middle Bronze and to a date not much earlier than 1000 B.C. 
Bearing in mind the recognised divisibility of the Late Bronze Age into an 
earlier and a later phase and the fact that the Rimbury-Deverel complex 
falls into the latter, there would appear to be grounds for shifting the date 
up to 800 B.C. It is fully recognised, however, that this provisional dating 
of the urnfield takes no account of the beads associated with Urn 1. As 
Mr. Beck remarks in his appended report these are usually assigned to a 
somewhat earlier period. It is evident therefore that either the urnfield 
belongs to a slightly earlier date than that here deduced or that the manu- 
facture of such beads extended over a longer period than is usually con- 
sidered to be the case. 

Report on Eight Beads excavated at Easton Down. 
By H. G. Beck, F.S.A. 

The beads submitted by Dr. Stone are of considerable interest. They all 
belong to types which are frequently assigned to a date considerably earlier 
than 1000 B.C., the date that Dr. Stone ascribes to these. 



By J. F, S. Stone, D.PUl 223 

The most distinctive is the segmented bead of blue faience. Such beads 
are found from time to time in Wiltshire, and have caused considerable in- 
terest on account of their resemblance in shape and material to beads found 
at various dates in Egypt and other countries round the Mediterranean. 
They have been dated to various periods between 2000 and 1200 B.C. The 
latter date was given by Sir William Flinders Petrie on account of their 
close resemblance to some Egyptian beads of that date. This seems a very 
probable date and agrees with several other specimens of Egyptian beads. 
At the same time there is no reason to suppose that they were only made 
for a short period ; the manufacture probably continued for several 
centuries. 

One fact that has caused a good deal of surprise with reference to these 
beads is that they have not been found in Brittany where a culture, in 
many ways similar to the Wiltshire one, seems to have existed. The only 
specimen of a faience segmented bead at present reported from Brittany is 
one found at Carnac in 1927. The explanation may be that the Wiltshire 
beads are much later than those from the Brittany dolmen. 

The segmented bead from Easton Down has six segments. It is 'SSin. 
long and ■20in. diameter. The weight is approximately '225 grammes and 
the specific gravity approximately 2*23. The bead is a good blue colour. 
It is very thin and translucent in the notches. The appearance at the ends 
rather suggests that originally it may have had more segments. Micro- 
scopic examination shows that the faience consists of a number of finely 
powdered grains of quartz cemented together. Lime has probably been 
used as a cement, but this cannot be definitely stated without a chemical 
analysis or a spectroscopic test, either of which would destroy most of the 
specimen. All pieces of faience that have been tested up to the present 
have had lime used to cement it. The colouring matter in very similar 
beads from Egypt is copper, so probably the colour of this specimen is due 
to the same material. 

The jet beads' are also very characteristic of Early Bronze Age burials. 
Numerous specimens have been found in Yorkshire, and a considerable 
number in Wiltshire. Recently a very fine string of beads was found near 
Ely and these are now in the Cambridge Ethnological Museum. 

The two large bicones are well made : they are respectively 'bbm. and 
•54in. long and *39in. and •43in. in diameter. The smaller jet beads are 
not so well made. One is a rough bicone and is •33in. long and the same 
in diameter ; the other, a rough barrel, is •27in. long and •27in. in diameter. 

Amber beads are also well known amongst Wiltshire Bronze Age burials. 
The larger bead is called an elliptical barrel as it is a barrel bead with an 
elliptical cross section ; this bead is 'GSin. long and has a diameter varying 
from ^Sin. to •29in. This shape, although rather uncommon in amber, is 
frequently found in jet beads of the period. The smaller amber beads are 

1 These are probably not true jet like the Yorkshire ones. They are more 
probably made of lignite as other Wiltshire examples have proved to be. — 
(J. F. S. S.). 



224 A Middle Bronze Age Urnfleld on Easton Down, Winter slow. 

about 'SSin. in diameter and 'IGin. long. One of them is slightly wedge 
shaped. All the amber specimens have weathered very badly, and in the 
smaller specimens the corrosion has gone almost to the centre. 

List of Urns upon which Hokseshoe-oord Ornament occurs. 
Food Vessels. 

Yorkshire. Towthorpe (VTortimer, Barrow 73, fig. 37). Garrowby Wold 
{ihid., Barrow 63, fig. 377 ; Barrow 42, fig. 384). Sherburn (Greenwell, 
Barrow U, p. 149; Abercromby, J5.i4.P., I., fig. 213). Weaverthorpe (Green- 
well, Barrow 43, fig. 74). Enthorpe, Market Weighton (Drawing in album 
in the Lukis collection, Guernsey). Folkton^(Greenwell, Barrow 70, fig. 84). 

Derbyshire. Elk Low (Jowitt. Gravemounds, 103, fig. 1 10). Monsal 
Dale, (^■6^o?., 100, fig. 105). 

Cinerary Urns with Overhanging Rims. 

Ayrshire. Muirkirk {The Scotsman, Feb. 25th, 1925 : Edinburgh Museum 
E.Q. 359). 

Yorkshire. Blanch (Mortimer, Barrow 089, fig. 960). Goodmanham , 
(Greenwell, Barrow 86, p. 291, fig. t80). Thornton Dale, Monksland (York 
Museum), 

Derbyshire. Castleton (Manchester Museum,??. 3276). 

Carmarthenshire. Cross Hands, Llanboidy {Arch. Camb., 1925, 230). 
Cardiff Museum. 

Sussex. Alfriston {Suss. Arch. Coll., IL, 270 ; Abercromby, II , fig. 8 ; 
B.M. case 95). Ovingdean (photograph in Brighton Museum). 

Isle of Wight. Rancombe {Hants. Field Club Trans., IX., 2). 

Wiltshire. Woodford Down (Salisbury Museum). Easton Down 
(present paper). 

Dorset. Scrubbity Coppice, Rushmore (Pitt- Rivers, Excavations, II., 
42, PI. 88, 1.). Sturminster Marshall (Warne, Celtic Tumuli, PI. 6, 1 ; 
Abercromby, II., fig. 20). Bincombe Huish (Warne, ibid., Barrow 42, p. 52 ; 
Abercromby, II , fig. 5d). Woodyates {Devizes Mus. Cat., I., 253 ; Ancient 
TFt7«s, Barrow 17, p. 241). Woodyates? {Devizes Mus. Cat., I., 272, 273; 
Abercromby, II., figs. 45, 46. An identical pair). 

Cornwall. Borlase collection (B.M. case, 12). 



Acknowledgments are due to the Commandant, Colonel R. F. Lock, for 
permission to dig on War Office lands ; to Miss M. L. Tildesley for ex- 
amining the human remains, and to Mr. O, G. S. Crawford, F.S.A., for a 
number of references for inclusion in the above list of urns bearing horse- 
shoe ornament. 



225 



EXCAVATIONS AT EASTON DOWN, WINTERSLOW, 

1931—1932. 

By J. F. S. Stone, BA., D.Phil. 

Continued excavations upon Easton Down at intermittent intervals 
during the past two years have added appreciably to our knowledge of the 
importance of the site. While these have been directed mainly towards the 
elucidation of the date of the mining operations, the results as yet cannot 
be described as entirely conclusive. SuflBcient material has been gathered, 
however, to place beyond doubt the fact that the site has been inhabited 
and used by people of both the Windmill Hill and Peterborough cultures, 
and reached its zenith in the hands of the Beaker folk. The confluence of 
these three cultures in Wiltshire is now fairly well established but no un- 
equivocal stratification of habitation layers, as at Windmill Hill, has yet 
been observed on Easton Down with the possible exception of a sequence 
in hut building which is described below. The upper limit of occupation of 
this site is likewise not yet established, but it is of significance to note the 
presence of the Late Middle Bronze Age urnfield which is recorded in the 
present number of the Magazine (p. 218). The greater portion of a large 
finger-tipped urn of Late Bronze Age fabric (PI. VI., 1), found in circum- 
stances unconnected with a burial also lends support to the supposition that 
the area was occupied for some considerable time. A remarkable instance 
of Gephalotaphy or solitary head burial of Beaker date has also been dis- 
covered on the settlement. This will shortly be described in Man (1933). 

Pit Shafts. 
Four more pit shafts have been opened ; unfortunately, none of these 
yielded any dateable object. They were chosen, from different parts of 
Area B (see map, W.AM., xlv., 350), firstly to distinguish if possible a 
sequence in the mining operations ; secondly, to discover whether mining 
was pursued by the gallery method as observed in other mining centres ; 
and thirdly, to observe the tilt, if any, of the workable seam of flint. Since 
three of these shafts proved to have been abandoned unfinished— the flint 
seam never having been reached by the miners — the answer to the first 
question was not obtained. The large shaft. No. B 49, had been ex- 
tensively worked and in an interesting manner but not by the gallery 
method. Further, the flint seam has been found to run horizontally across 
the valley and is apparently not tilted as was thought when investigating 
Pit B \. Since these shafts and their contents resemble Pit B 1 very 
closely there is little reason for detailed description. All were covered 
by the same thick layer of undisturbed mould and were sealed in below 
this layer by the usual thick band of shell-filled earthy chalk rainwash. 
In the three unfinished shafts, Nos. B 19, 45, and 67, the bottoms were 
reached at 6, 5 and 9 ft, respectively, and their diameters approximated 
to 6, 13 and 4 ft. They contained the usual assortment of flint flakes, 



226 Excavations at Easton Down, Winter slow, 1931 — 1932. 

half-worked and broken implements, and broken antler picks. No. 
67 contained in the chalk filling the skull, minus the lower jaw, of an ox 
(see appended report on animal remains by Dr. J. W. Jackson). Near the 
base of the same shaft was a parallel-sided celt (L. 7^in., B. 2|in., T. Ijin.). 
This celt (PL VII., 1) is of interest as it adds yet another type to the long 
list of those already recovered. Well chipped over both faces it possesses 
a somewhat squared cutting edge. The butt end also is square and was 
presumably broken during manufacture. In section the axe is a very 
pointed oval. 

Pit Shaft B J^9 {?\2itQ& I. and 11). Double flint seam working at two 
levels has been recorded in Sussex at Harrow Hill and Cissbury. The 
sinking of a second shaft throughfthe floor of Pit B 49 at Easton Down, 
though in this instance unproductive of flint, definitely connects the mining 
knowledge of the two districts. 

Situated in the centre of the mined area and being one of the largest de- 
pressions on the surface (diameter 26ft. from bank to bank), this pit could 
have been expected to possess a gallery system if such exists on the site. 
Apparently the flint is here at too shallow a level to permit of this method 
of mining. The natural surface of the ground at this pit-head is about 3ft. 
lower than the surface at Fit B 1. Since the workable seam of flint in the 
latter pit occurs at 1 ift , and in Pit B 49 at about 8ft., it is evident that the 
flint band is bedded more or less horizontally and does not follow the con- 
tour of the small valley at the head of which the pits are sunk. 

The shaft measures 16ft. in diameter at the surface and the walls remain 
perpendicular down to the flint seam at 8ft. to 8ft. 6in. where deep under- 
cutting is commenced. The floor at this level is even, the greatest diameter 
being 19ft. 6in. The undercuttings, of which there are four, extend to as 
much as 4ft. behind the walls of the shaft, and pillars of uncut chalk 
separate them. The weathering of the^walls down to this level is very bad, 
indicating that the pit had remained open for some little time. This is 
confirmed by the presence of the earthy layer No. 4 which had obviously 
accumulated in the half-filled pit. 

A second shaft had been sunk through this flint seam, presumably to find 
another. This, however, did not meet with success, a thin band of tabular 
flint only having been pierced at lift. 6in. The diameter of this second 
shaft at the top is 10ft. and narrows by a step at 9ft. to 6ft. The total 
depth from the present surface to the bottom of the second shaft is 16ft. 

The filling of the whole shaft consisted of five layers ; but it was im- 
possible to determine from which direction the infilling had been accom- 
plished. The top layer of mould (2ft. thick) contained a number of flint 
nodules and five Romano-British sherds. This was succeeded by the usual 
layer of shell-laden rainwash (1ft. thick) containing six sherds of a very 
coarse flat-based vessel with much large flint grit. Five celts in various 
stages of manufacture were also found in this layer together with the beam 
of an antler. One of these implements is illustrated (PI. VII., 3). This is 
a hump-backed tool with well-flaked flat underside (L. 4|in., B. 2in. 
T. I gin.). It resembles in a remarkable manner certain tools from the flint 
mine at St. Gertrude, Holland {P.P.S.E.A., v. 35). Layer 3 was composed 



i 



By J. F, S. Stone, B,A., IJ.Phil. 227 

of chalk rubble only. Layer 4 was represented by a thin band (2in. to 3in. 
thick) of earthy-chalk dust. This accumulation was without doubt the re- 
sult of weathering of the walls of the partially open shaft. In it were five 
scapulae of oxen and three broken antlers. A few small pieces of charcoal 
were scattered throughout and towards one side was a small pocket of 
flakes — obviously the refuse of a knapper. The remainder of the filling to 
the bottom of the second shaft consisted of large chalk blocks, many of 
which retained the clear cut and unweathered marks of antler picks. One 
more scapula and another antler occurred in this layer. 

The scapulae recovered (total six) are of interest as three of them appear 
to belong to the Wild Ox {B. primigenius). These three are large, the 
largest being 18^in. long with a blade 11 in. wide (see p. 235). The spines 
in all cases but one have been trimmed away. 

Besides the objects already noted, mention must be made of three almost 
perfect antler picks found in actual contact with the flint seam in the 
undercuttings. The tips of the tines of these antlers had been broken off 
and were found embedded in the chalk face. Two of these antlers have 
been somewhat charred in a fire, evidence of which, in the shape of a small 
heap of charcoal, was observed on the S.E. edge of the shelf. Pieces of 
charcoal were also found in a thin line running down the edge of the second 
shaft, possibly having fallen in during the infilling. Samples of this char- 
coal were submitted to Mr. J. C. Maby, B.Sc, A.R.O.S., who has kindly 
identified the following species of wood : — 

'* Alnus or Corylus spp. (Alder or hazel) — eight fragments of rather 
poorly grown (narrow-ringed) wood, almost certainly hazel, but not quite 
typical of normal stem wood. Very probably all from one original piece. 

Fraxivius sp. (Ash) — six fragments, three very narrow-ringed, possibly 
from a branch, and probably all from one original stick." 

Of the nine antler picks recovered, three certainly have been made from 
shed antlers and two from those of slaughtered animals. 

[Note. — In the report on the animal bones from Pits 1 and 1(a) Dr. W. 
Jackson suggested that a tine from an antler submitted to him might have 
served as a handle or cheek-piece of a bridle ( W.AM,, xlv., 362). Both Drs. 
E. and E. 0. Curwen have since examined the specimen and they are 
definitely of the opinion that such is not the case. In fact they are of the 
opinion that it is probably not an artefact at all.] 

Workshop Floors (Plate III.). 
Two more workshop floors have been studied. B 6, mentioned in the 
former report, yielded little of interest. On the other hand B 7, though so 
far only partially explored, has already afforded evidence towards a partial 
dating of the mining industry. The floor overlies Pit Shaft B 47, one of a 
pair forming on the surface a large oval depression. The importance of 
this floor lies in the fact that its formation is subsequent to the deposition 
of the shell-filled rainwash layer of the shaft, and thus proves that the 
climatic or other conditions conducive to the life and growth of these 
myriads of snails had ceased. This, therefore, confirms the conclusion 
drawn from the relationship between Floor B 2 and the underlying Shaft 
VOL. XLVI. — NO. CLVIII. Q 



^28 Excavations at Easton Down, Winterslow, 1931 — 1932. 

B 1(a), that the mining of flint on this site is not entirely of one period and 
that it overlapped this " moliuscan age." Since it will be shown later in 
this report that this " muUuscan age " ceased at some date between the 
Early and Middle Bronze Ages, it is evident that the date of this floor 
must lie somewhere between them. A full and detailed report on these 
shells and other samples from Easton Down, very kindly supplied by Mr. 
A. S. Kennard, A. L.S., is appended. 

Plate III. illustrates the cutting through this floor and shaft. A thick 
layer of undisturbed mould overlies the shaft but thins out over the bank. 
Large numbers of gunflints and prepared cores occur just below the turf 
over the shaft and four Romano- British sherds (marked R on Plate) have 
been found below these. This is succeeded by Floor 7 which consists 
of literally cartloads of deeply patinated flint flakes and broken implements. 
The floor lies mainly over the shaft but extends very thinly up and over 
the bank of chalk rubble from the pit, thickening again on the far side. 
As the matrix of this floor consists of mould and not chalk dust it is clear 
that the silting of the shaft, by the weathering down of the bank, was com- 
plete prior to the surface being used as a chipping floor. 

Possibly collected for some game and found lying within a space of one 
square foot, at the bottom of the floor over the shaft, were 45 small round 
Eocene pebbles ; 5 grey, 4 red and 35 yellow. Since these do not occur 
naturally on this part of the down nor have any others been found in the 
cutting, it must be concluded that they had been brought here intentionally. 

The floor is productive of the usual variety of celts in various stages of 
manufacture, one of which is illustrated (PL VIL, 4). This is a good 
example of the Cissbury-type celt and possesses a very pointed oval section 
(L. 5iin., B. 2iin., T. ijin.). 

The thick band of shell-filled rain wash (15in. deep) lies below this floor. 
Eight inches deep in it were three sherds of coarse ware containing much 
flint grit (marked W" on Plate). As these are identical in colour and texture 
with those associated with the stake-holed furrow between Huts 7 and 8 
(see below) which are of Windmill Hill fabric, there would appear to 
be little doubt that these are also of the same date. Unfortunately, they 
lack ornamentation and do not include a rim or shoulder. 

Pit Dwellings (Plate IX.). 
It is a surprising fact that in other flint mining districts attention has 
been directed almost exclusively to the pit shafts themselves. The 
occurrence of contemporary sherds in these shafts, while afl'ording the 
necessary dateable material, appears, however, to be the exception rather 
than the rule. This is only natural in a manufacturing centre where 
specialization is prominent. The suggestion that possibly too much work 
has been expended on the mine shafts, without due regard being paid to 
their surroundings, has been productive of some interesting results on 
Easton Down. Apparently it is not stretching the point too far to suggest 
that the excavation of a modern coal mine would not be complete without 
a study of the dwellings of the miners themselves which naturally and 
normally surround the mined area. Neither coal nor flint mines are dug 



By J. F. S. Stone, B.A., D.Fhil. 229 

in a day and workmen must have shelter during the night, especially on 
bleak downland. 

Three pit dwellings of Beaker date have already been recorded on Easton 
Down (W.A.M,, xlv., 366). In that paper the settlement was tentatively 
pronounced to be of Beaker date, not only from the excavated sherds but 
also from those scattered over an area of about 60 acres. Closer atten- 
tion to the positions of these sherds coupled with a number of trial trenches 
has revealed the interesting and important fact that the mined area, in the 
unploughed Area B, is completely surrounded by pit dwellings. Further, 
not a single sherd (other than a few of llomano- British date) or pit dwelling 
has been found on the mined area itself. This applies also to the small 
domestic implements — thumb scrapers and knives. The answer to this re- 
markable distribution would appear to lie in the fact that the shafts were 
open or being opened, and that the miners retired from their labours to 
rest and eat in their shelters outside. The mined area cannot have been 
pleasant either to walk or sit down upon with its masses of extremely sharp 
Hint flakes and debris scattered thickly over it. 

Since our meagre knowledge of house planning and construction in 
Neolithic and Early Bronze Age times is derived almost entirely from 
single chance finds and from a study of the occupied trenches of causewayed 
camps, it appeared desirable to investigate an area completely, especially 
since at Easton Down the occupied area was seemingly of the open settle- 
ment variety. By this means it was hoped to gain an insight not only into 
the closeness of packing of the dwellings but also into their mode of con- 
struction. 

An area 50ft. square having been pegged out, the surface soil was 
skimmed off ; at first by means of trenches close together and subsequently 
by removing the entire surface down to undisturbed chalk at those places 
where evidence of disturbance was apparent. Ihe area chosen is situated 
some 200 yards west of Pit 82 (see Fig. 1 of the original Flint Mine Report). 
A total of about ten dwellings was thus unearthed (PI. IX.). It will be 
seen that these dwellings are of no very definite plan ; they are sometimes 
circular and sometimes elongated. They are not large, being if circular 
about 5ft in diameter, and if elongated up to 10ft. long and from 5ft. to 
6ft. wide. Their depth, in the chalk rock, varies between 6in. and 18in. 
It must be owned at once that they remind one more of temporary shelters 
than of permanent houses. This is confirmed by the lack of stratified 
habitation layers and by the comparative paucity of normal refuse. A 
typical section through any one of these huts shows, firstly, undisturbed 
mould 7in. thick ; secondly, the habitation layer varying in depth from 
6in, to 9in. This consists of earthy-chalk dust plentifully strewn with the 
shells of land mollusca(see appended report by Mr. Kennard), fragments of 
pottery, pot-boilers, fiint implements and flakes, and bones of domestic 
animals. The last include ox, pig, and sheep. Below this band there al- 
ways occurs a sterile layer of earthy-chalk dust with small pieces of angular 
flint scattered throughout, a peculiarity already noted {W.A.M. , xlv., 367). 
It is possible that this is due to its having been dug over for drainage pur- 
poses ; but it may also be due to decomposition of the chalk surface brought 

Q 2 



230 Excavations at Easton Down, Winterslow, 1931 — 1932. 

about by the unclean habits of the inhabitants. It should be added that 
only five sherds and one thumb-scraper have been found outside the dwell- 
ings on this excavated area, whereas about 210 sherds of varying size have 
been recovered from the dwellings themselves. 

All the pits are surrounded by stake holes ; pointed depressions about 
6in. deep and on an average 4in. to 6in. wide at the top. These are all 
perpendicular and are not set in at an angle, which points to the use of 
wooden uprights, with possibly thatched roofs. 

The excavated area is really not large enough from which to draw many 
conclusions with regard to the disposition of the dwellings. There is, how- 
ever, an apparent grouping which may indicate contiguous shelters but 
hardly the separate rooms of a single house. In two cases (Nos. 2 and 3) 
slightly deeper depressions of unknown significance are found running 
transversely across the pits. 

The Ash Pit. Though pot-boilers occur occasionally in the huts no true 
hearth has been discovered. The presence of a circular pit filled with ashes 
in the floor of Hut 1 is not easy to interpret. This is 2^ft. in diameter and 
measures the same in depth. It is accurately and symmetrically cut in the 
chalk and its base is flat and even. The top layer in this pit, which wa& 
1ft. 3in. thick, consisted of similar material to the habitation layer above 
and contained 10 slightly patinated flakes and one sherd of plain well-fired 
thin red pottery. Below this occurred a uniform band of brownish-black 
very well comminuted ash 9in. thick. So completely pulverized was it 
that it could he cut like butter. Further, it did not contain a single particle 
of charcoal visible to the eye alone. In it were 44 flint flakes and 4 thumb 
scrapers ; 25 small pieces of animal bone — mostly pig and ox ; 13 pot-boilers 
and 5 fragments of well-fired thin reddish pottery, one of which was orna- 
mented in the Beaker manner. A sterile layer of earthy-chalk dust, 6in. 
thick, lay below this layer. 

Not without reason this pit was at first thought to be a cooking hole, 
but the presence in it of the other objects, all of which with the exception 
of the pot-boilers are unburnt, is not in favour of its having been used as 
such. It should be added that no scorching of the walls or pieces of char- 
coal sticking to them was observed. Further, it is diflacult to appreciate 
a fire which can burn satisfactorily at the bottom of so small a pit and at 
such a depth. The problem has not been solved by further analysis. Dr. 
Gerhard Bersu, the Director of the Romisch-Germanischen Kommission, 
who fortunately visited the site with other members of the International 
Prehistoric Congress in August, 1932, likens it to similar ash-filled pits 
found by him in the Neolithic village on the Goldberg, near Nordlingen, 
Germany. There also unburnt bones and flints occur in the ashes. Dr. 
Bersu is of the opinion that these ashes were stored in these specially dug 
pits for some unknown technical purpose possibly connected with their 
known dessicating properties. Through his kind oflnces a sample of the 
Easton Down ashes has been examined microscopically and botanically by 
Frl. Dr. E. Hofmann, of Vienna. The results show that the material con- 
sists largely of chalk in a very fine state of subdivision. In it are dispersed 
Tery sparingly minute fragments of both coniferous and angiospermous 



By J. F. S. Stone, B.A., D.Fhil. 231 

wood, the latter preponderating in quantity. From the structure of the 
remainder it is concluded that the ashes also contain pulverized bone-ash. 

Two interesting points emerge from this examination. Firstly, that the 
ashes contain the remains of coniferous wood, and secondly, that they con- 
sist partially of bone-ash. The presence of conifer charcoal appears to be 
•almost unique in deposits of similar age in the south of England. It is not 
recorded from any of the Sussex flint mines nor from the causewayed camps 
•of the Trundle or Whitehawk. It appears to be absent also from the Neolithic 
levels at Hembury Fort, Devon. It hap, however, been identified at Wood- 
henge. For this reason confirmation of its presence was sought from Mr. 
J. C. Maby, Though unable to determine the species from the nature of 
the material, he was able to identify both angiospermous (" hardwood ") 
and coniferous (" softwood ") remains. He adds : " But, as the latter had 
to be judged from the appearance of the pits on the walls of the tracheids 
— which, in minute charcoal fragments and by surface illumination only, 
are very hard to make out — I do not feel so certain of them as of the hard- 
wood remains, which were determined by the presence of relatively con- 
spicuous, pitted conducting vessels." Since Dr. Hofmann was able to 
identify several of these characteristic tracheids it is probable that the 
sample examined by her was slightly richer in this material. 

In order to verify the presence of bone-ash the writer has analysed a 
sample chemically. The results prove the presence of calcium carbonate 
55*0 /o , calcium phosphate 9'3/o , organic matter 4*0% , sand 14*9/o , and iron 
a trace. The relatively high percentage of calcium phosphate proves that 
powdered bone-ash enters very largely into the composition of this peculiar 
deposit. When it is remembered that cremated bones do not fall to powder 
but retain their form, the fine state of sub-division of the deposit can only 
argue intentional pulverization. The presence of the sand is also of interest 
as, so far as is known, it does not occur locally. The particles again are of 
microscopic dimensions (30 — 50 microns) and their edges are rounded. 
Plane polarised light shows that they consist of quartz and not pounded 
flint. The sand may, therefore, be a wind borne deposit or the result of 
grinding the ashes with a fine-grained sandstone rubber. One or two small 
pieces of sandstone have been found in the habitation layers and a small 
fine grained whetstone of sandstone (83mm. by 29mm. by 25mm.) has been 
found lying on the surface (I'l. VI., 2). Unfortunately, extraction of the 
surface of this whetstone has not disclosed the presence of either tin or 
copper which might have been forced into the interstices. The all-pervading 
trace of iron only was observed, showing that it probably consists of ferru- 
ginous sandstone. 

Thus it would appear advisable on the available evidence to regard this 
pit as a storage pit rather than as a cooking hole. Mr. Kennard has sug- 
gested that the ground bone and wood ashes may have been stored for use 
as a lye for washing or cleansing purposes. This is certainly an attractive 
hypothesis but it must be owned that as yet we know little of the habits of 
the Beaker folk. It is very probable that this people cooked in the open at 
large communal cooking places instead of in their huts. Several large 
patches of burnt flints and earth, some 18in. in thickness, lie in well defined 



232 Excavations at Easton Doivn, Winter slow, 1931 — 1932. 

areas on the down near the pit dwellings. A section through one such heap- 
has yielded some Beaker sherds mixed up with the burnt material. Such 
communal cooking places, similarly composed of heaps of burnt flints, have 
been excavated and described by Miss Layard at Buckenham Tofts, Norfolk 
{P.PS.E.A, III , 483). 

The Stake-holed Furrow between Huts 7 and 8. One other feature meritS; 
special note. This is the peculiar trench-like excavation or furrow lying 
between Huts 7 and 8. But for the fact that it is quite straight and 1 7ft. 
long, it might well be ascribed to the work of some burrowing animal. It 
is more or less V-shaped in section and measures between 4in. and 6in. 
deep. It is not continuous, however, since it has a gap in it of about ift. 
At intervals along its base, and also just offset from it on either side, are 
V-shaped stake holes which cannot possibly have been made by animals. 
Here again we have to thank Dr. Bersu for enlightenment upon its possible 
purpose. Dr. Bersu's excavations on the Goldberg have shown conclusively 
that Neolithic man (of Rossen culture) built rectangular houses {Deutschtum 
und Ausland, Heft. 23/24, 134 ; Bericht uher die Jahrhunderifeier des 
Archdologischen Instituts, 315). These were gabled structures divided into 
separate rooms or compartments by wooden screens.' The walls were built 
of wattle, the lower courses of which had been sunk in grooves or furrows 
in the earth obviously for better protection against the weather. 'I'he holes 
of the stakes which had supported the wattle were found aligned along the 
grooves and were sometimes slightly offset from them. A number of 
photographs and plans of these structures have been generously sent to the 
writer by Dr. Bersu and through his kindness it is possible to reproduce 
here two of these plans, hitherto unpublished, for comparison (PI. IV.). 
The resemblance of these plans to the stake-holed furrow on Easton Down 
is very striking; so much so that one is forced to enquire whether the 
latter represents a screen between Huts 7 and 8 and contemporary with 
them, or whether it is the sole remaining evidence of some earlier structure, 
disturbed and defaced by the later Beaker dwelling pits. That the technique 
is foreign to the Beaker culture is evident from a study of the Beaker pits 
themselves which in no other case yet discovered possess this feature. 
That it represents the remains of a former dwelling is, however, rendered 
very probable by the occurrence on it and in the material of the contiguous 
Huts 6, 7, and 8, of sherds of undoubted Windmill Hill fabric (see below 
under Pottery). Sherds of this type have not been found in any other pit 
dwelling on this site, nor in fact upon the surface. The occurrence of 
similar sherds below Floor 7 in Pit-shaft B 47 has, however, already been 
noted. 

It is of course not intended to imply here that this structure also 
belongs to the Rossen culture of the Continent ; its resemblance only to the 
Goldberg houses is stressed for the purpose of elucidating its nature. 
Unfortunately, it has not yet been possible to pursue this interesting 
feature by further excavation. 

^ Reversion to single-roomed houses are a feature of the later and sub- 
sequent Michelsberg and Altheim cultures on the same site. 



Ji.. 



% J. F, S, Stone, B.A., D.Phii. 2:^^ 

Pottery (Plate V.). 

The sherds recovered from the ten pit dwellings are practically entirely- 
of the Beaker type ornamented in the usual manner. Unornamented, well- 
fired sherds without flint grit and of a similar texture are associated. 
A reconstructed drawing of one of the beakers is figured (PI. V., 3). It will 
be seen that it approximates to the A— C variety and is ornamented with 
short stab markings. It measures approximately 6|in. in height, 5in. in 
diameter at the rim, and Sin. at the base. The base possesses a decided 
foot-ring, a feature noted on a beaker from Woodhenge {Woodhenge^ 1929, 
PI. 41,3). 

A number of sherds of totally diflferent fabric were associated with the 
furrow between Huts 7 and 8 and were also mixed up in an indiscriminate 
manner with the beaker sherds in these two dwellings. These are of thick 
brown to reddish hard well-fired paste, some pieces of which have a smooth 
finish. They contain much small flint grit. PI. V., 1, illustrates a con- 
jectural drawing of a vessel from some of these sherds, a reconstruction 
which has been kindly confirmed by Mr. 8tuart Piggott. It would thus 
belong apparently to Mr. Piggott's Windmill Hill Class G or GH ware 
{Arch. J., Ixxxviii., 75). The ornamentation, below the shoulder, consists 
of thumb-nail impressions and similar finger-nail markings are scattered 
thinly over the surface of the remainder. This reconstruction necessitates 
a rim diameter of about 11 in. and an approximate height of 7in. As already 
noted three sherds of similar ware were found in the shelly layer of Pit 
B47. 

About 50ft. due east of Hut 8 another pit dwelling has been opened. 
'J'his is similar in shape to the elongated Beaker pits already described. The 
sherds recovered, though accompanied by one small piece of a beaker, are 
from their ornamentation of the Peterborough type. A conjectural draw- 
ing, representing the probable reconstructed pot, is figured (PI. V., 2) from 
which it will be seen that the ornamentation, consisting entirely of 
" maggots," covers the exterior and partially the interior of the vessel. The 
square inturned rim bears the same ornament, each "maggot" being set 
closely by the side of the next. The diameter at the rim is approximately 
6in. and the height approximately Sin. Mr. Piggott has already noted 
{Arch. J., Ixxxviii,, 154) that this pot is unique in having slight lugs, the 
observation being recorded prior to this attempted reconstruction. It will 
now be seen that it is of importance in another way. Though ornamented 
in the Peterborough style, the vessel possesses the form of true Windmill 
Hill ware, with the possible exception of the rim, and approximates to Mr. 
Piggott's Windmill Hill Class A ware. The presence of unperforated lugs 
of type a2 (the exact number is not known, two only having been recovered) 
is apparently normal to this type and class of pottery. We are thus forced 
to the conclusion that cultural borrowing has taken place, presumably from 
the Windmill Hill to the Peterborough. Since these early forms of pottery 
cannot have remained intact for long, it follows that these two cultures 
either existed contemporaneously in the vicinity or were not separated by 
any great length of time. The special characters possessed by this pot con- 
firm, therefore, the other indications of approximate contemporaneity of 



234 Excavations at Easton Down, Winter slow ^ 1931 — 1932. 

these cultures already noted— the lack of stratified layers on the habitation 
sites and the unabraded Windmill Hill sherds associated, though possibly 
here slightly earlier in date, with the beaker fragments in Huts 7 and 8. 

One other vessel remains to be described (PI. VI., 1). This apparently 
Late Bronze Age urn of bucket shape was found lying in fragments just 
below the turf some 50 yards east of the mined area, and unconnected with 
a burial. It is made of badly fired paste containing much flint grit and is 
fin. thick. Ornamentation is confined to the rim which has been moulded 
between the thumb and forefinger, the thumb marks being on the inside. 
Though the greater portion of this large vessel was recovered the base was 
missing. It measures 12jin. in diameter at the rim and must have been 
about 15in. high. Trenching did not disclose the reason for its presence; 
probably it had merely been dropped and broken. 

Flint Implements (Plates VII. and VIIL). 

The flint industry associated with the mine shafts has already been dis- 
cussed {W.A.M t xlv., 350). Here it is only necessary to add a few notes 
on some interesting implements recovered during the course of the present 
excavations. Of the five implements chosen for illustration Nos. 1, 3, and 
4, of Plate VII., have been described above, when and where they were 
found. No. 2, also of this Plate, a sharply-waisted, steep-sided massive 
scraper or plane was found amongst the flints collected from the mined 
area and scattered over the Middle Bronze Age urnfield which is described 
in this number of the Magazine (p. 218). Though its dimensions are there 
given, an illustration of it was unfortunately omitted. It should be added 
that its undersurface is flat and unflaked, exhibiting a cloven rather than a 
conchoidal fracture and formed from a round nodule of flint. 

Implements of archaic type are by no means uncommon in the flint 
mining industries. Whilst exploring Floor 7 in company with the writer, 
Mr. J. G. D. Clark extracted a typical rostro-carinate hand-axe (Plate VIII.). 
This he submitted to Mr. J. Reid Moir who kindly supplied the following 
observations : — " I am very interested in this Easton Down implement. It 
is unquestionably a rostroid hand-axe, in which the ventral plane (or part 
of it) is preserved, while it has a heavy posterior region, right and left 
lateral surfaces and, I presume, a keel. Also, at the anterior region, it is 
flaked into a blade-like form, thus in all these features combining the 
attributes of a rostro-carinate and of an early hand-axe. But, there is one 
peculiarity about the specimen which I do not remember having seen before. 
It is that the right lateral surface seems to have been used as a new ventral 
plane or striking platform, in forming the pointed end of the implement. If 
the flint is held with the left lateral surface uppermost, it appears to be the 
upper surface of the pointed end, and flakes have clearly been struck off by 
blows delivered on the right lateral surface in producing the point. The 
specimen is thus of much interest not only from its late age but because it 
is a rostroid hand-axe made in a quite peculiar manner. If such a thing 
was found in an ancient deposit, it would fit in with its environment, but, 
the implement is a striking example of the survival of an archaic type into 
Neolithic or even later times. Of course, wherever hand-axes were being 






■■\ '^l 



;; kw 





Plate II.— Three views of Pit Shaft B 49. Easton Down, Winterslow. 




b- 



r" 





i ^^= 






O °„ 






1 ^ 






S ° ^' 






.::-i 






■:;: L °_. 






EXCAVATIO^ 




■••::.l "o," 


lTmits 




^ 




A '^O HEARTH 






i ^ ^ .o 






1 \, ^ 






1 ^ * 






1 ASHfJ O 

L._z': .j^_, 






GROUND PLANS OF NEOLITHIC 

HOUSES REDRAWN FROM 
SKETCHES BY DR.G. BERSU 
• SCALE 1/200 



Plate IV — Plans of Neolithic Houses on the Goldberg, Nordlingen, 
Germany, after Dr. G. Bersu. For comparison with Plate IX. 



-r'tiy 





1 
1 
I 
I 
I 
I 
I 
I 
"I 




Plate V. — Pottery from Dwelling Pits. Easton Down, Winterslow. i, 




w 




\ \ 




\ \ 




\ \ 




\ \ 




\ \ 






1 


\ _ _ 


1 







Plate VI —Late Bronze Age Urn \ and Whetstone \. Easton Down, 

Winterslow. 




Plate VII.-Flint Implements. Easton Down, Winterslow. J. 




PLA.TE VIII.— Kostro-carinate Hand Axe. From Floor 7, Easton Down, 

Winterslow. f. 



I I I I I 

so 5 

SCALE OF FEET 



45 



15 



zo 



45 



50 



40 



35 



30 



Z5 



20 



15 



-10 



UNEXPLORED 



E ASTON DOWN 
DWELLING PITS 




<j o 



N<^ 






5 POTSHERD 

B POTSHERD (beaker) 



o « *» *=• 

,. _.-r.>i-.V*i.A^-''.~.... 



fi 



2 /l^ 




^. 6 f ;■ '1 .". -.C o 



fe 



i 4 1.P, ^1 ij d^ !_c 



, ASH P IT 



Plate IX —Plan of some Pit Dwellings on Easton Down, Winterslow. 



By J. F. S. Stone, B,A,, D.Phil 235 

made I would expect to find such transitional forms because there is no 
doubt that most of the former were fashioned on the rostro-carinate plan. 
This specimen is not the only instance of such survival. I have in the Ipswich 
Museum a splendid rostro-carinate from Grimes Graves ; and there are 
other cases of the appearance of this, and other early forms, at the end of 
the Stone Age." 

Report on the Animal Remains. 
By J. Wilfrid Jackson, D.Sc, F.G.S. 

The remains submitted by Dr. J. F. S. Stone consist of the greater part 
of the skull of an ox (not quite mature) and minus the lower jaw. This 
was found in a flint shaft. It is rather badly smashed up. The third molars 
on each side are not erupted, and the last milk-molars on each side are still 
in place, but beginning to be displaced by the fourth premolars. The badly 
broken horncore is of medium size and seems to suggest the " Woodhenge " 
type of ox, rather than the Celtic Shorthorn {Bos longi/rons—brachyceros). 
It is unfortunate that the material is so scanty and so badly preserved. 

From the filling of mine shafts and contemporary with them are some 
scapulae of oxen. One of three very large examples found appears to 
belong to the urus (Bos primigenius). The least diameter of the neck is 
82mm., and the greatest diameter of the glenoid cavity is 73.5mm. One of 
three smaller examples agrees with the largest from " Woodhenge." It is 
too large for the Celtic Shorthorn. The least diameter of the neck is 
66mm., and the greatest diameter of the glenoid cavity is 6 1. 5mm. 

In a previous sending by Dr. Stone were some fragmentary remains of 
ox. These were also from the Easton Down flint mines and from the 
" Beaker " dwelling-pits which surround the mined area. They have 
already been reported upon (W.A.M., xlv., 363, 368). Their slenderness 
suggested the small Celtic Shorthorn from the Early Iron Age stations. 

It is interesting to note that two small carpal-bones of ox found by Mrs. 
Cunnington at the " Sanctuary," Overton Hill (of the Beaker period), also 
suggested the small Celtic Ox ; but no very definite conclusions can be 
based on such bones. The remainder of the ox bones from the " Sanctuary " 
agreed with the remains of the larger ox from " Woodhenge." Unfortunately 
there were no horncores. 

Report on the Non- Marine Mollusca. 
By A. S. Kennard, A.L.S., F.G.S. 
Material from five distinct loci of the excavations were sent by Dr. Stone, 
viz : — 

1. Layer 2 of ditch of Round Barrow. 

2. Layer 2 of Pit-shaft B 49. 

3. Shelly layer from Pit-shaft B 47 below Workshop Floor 7. 

4. Pit dwelling 7 — a series of large shells picked up at random. The 
smaller forms were obtained by washing the earth contained in the 
larger shells. 

5. Pit dwelling 6. 



236 Excavations at Easton Down, Winterslow, 1931 — 1932. 

Humus was present in all the samples clearly showing that they were 
true soils and not " tip." Far more material was examined of No. 3, for 
this was clearly contemporary with the working of the flint mines. This 
extra material is reflected in the results for species which would be common 
in a small amount of material but would be abundant in a much larger 
quantity. Similarly the figures for No. 4 are afiFected by the much smaller 
quantity of material examined. The most noteworthy feature was the 
abundance of molluscan remains : shells perfect, imperfect or in fragments 
occurring in profusion. It is difficult to account for the presence of so many 
shell fragments and I can only tentatively suggest that it is due to hedgehogs 
which are known to feed on the mollusca. None of the examples showed 
the characteristic gnawing— the work of voles. Some of the smaller shells 
had been broken back from the mouth obviously to obtain the animal. 
This is probably the work of predatory beetles but I have been unable to 
obtain any information as to the species responsible. Similarly many of 
the examples of Pomatias elegans (Miill.) have their opercula bitten through 
in the centre but no species of beetle is known to do this ; we have still 
much to learn as to the enemies of the mollusca. 

The identifications are given in the following table, the column numbers 
being those already given to the samples. It should be noted that the 
identification of the slugs Avion and Limax is extremely difficult for their 
vestigial shells approach so closely, and it is quite possible that more species 
are present than I have indicated, but this would not aff'ect any conclusions. 



TABLE I. 





1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


Pomatias elegans (Miill.) 


c 


a 


a 


a 


c 


Carychium rnmimum iVliill. 


r 


c 


c 


r 


r 


Pupilla muscorum (Linn) 


c 


c 


a 


c 


c 


Vertigo pygmsea (Drap.) 


r 


r 


c 






Acanthinvla aculeata (Miill.) 






c 






Vallonia pulckella (Miill.) 


r 


c 


a 


r 


r 


Vallonia excentrica Sterki 


c 


c 


a 


c 


c 


y allow a costata (Miill.) 


r 


c 


a 


r 


r 


Cochlicopa luhrica ( Miill ) 


c 


c 


c 


r 


r 


Ena montana (Urap.) 






r 






Ena obscura{M ixW.) 






r 




r 


Punctum pygmseum (Drap.) 


r 


r 


c 




r 


Goniodiscus rotundatus (Miill.) 


r 


c 


a 


r 




Avion hortensis (Fer.) 






r 






Avion sp. 


a 


a 


a 


c 


a 


Helicella cellaria {y\u\l) 






c 


r 


r 


Helicella nitidvla (Drap.) 




r 


c 






Helicella puva (Aid.) 






c 


r 




Helicella vadiatula (Aid.) 


r 


r 


c 






Vitvea cvystallina (Miill.) 




r 


c 


r 




Limax maximus (Linn.) 






r 







By J. F. S, Stone, B.A., D.Phil. 



2:3T 



Limax sp. 

Limax arborum (Bouch. Chant.) 
Xerophila itala (Linn.) 
TrochuluB hispidus (Linn.) 
IWochulus striolatus ( Pf r.) 
Helicodonta ohvoluta (Miill.) 
Ckilotrema lapicido, (Linn.) 
Arianta arbustorum (Linn.) 
Cepxa nemoralis (Linn.) 
Cepxa hortensis (Miill.) 
Clausilia rugosa Drap. 
Clausilia rolphii Gray 
Marpessa laminata (Mont.) 
Gecilioides acicula (Mlill.) 



a=abundant. 



Totals 



: common. 



24 34 



18 



r=rare. 



Notes on some of the Species. 

Fomatias elegans (Miill.). This was the most abundant species. Many 
of the examples were large. 

Fupilia muscorum (Linn.). This species varied greatly in size, the range 
being from 3mm. to 5.4mm. This last was an exceptional example for the 
mouth had not the normal completion of a rib. It is now known that these 
features accompany atrophy of or injury to the genitalia. 

Acanthinula aculeata (Miill.). This damp-loving species only occurred 
in pit-shaft 47 where, however, it was common and the examples were large. 

CochlicOpa lubrica (Miill.). This species varied from 5mm. to 7mm. in 
height. The recent examples were all 5mm. 

Fna montana (Miill.). A beech woodland species and the first record for 
the flolocene of Wiltshire. 

Limax sp. It is probable that these shells represent Limax cinereo- 
niger (Wolf.), an old woodland form. 

Xerophila itala (Linn.). Certainly smaller than the usual downland 
form of the present day. 

L'rochulus hispidus (Linn.). The mature examples are 6.5mm. in diameter 
and larger than the small downland form — Var. nana (.Jeff.). 

Helicodonta obvoluta (Miill,). Perhaps the most interesting species. It 
is quite unknown in a recent state in Wiltshire, the nearest locality being 
Crab Wood, Winchester. Its present range is from Winchester to one mile 
east of the Arun. It occurred as a fossil in the flint mines of Cissbury and 
Blackpatch so it is clear that its area of distribution has diminished. It is 
a beech woodland species. 



238 Excavations at Easton Down, Winterslow, 1931 — 1932. 

Chilotrema lapicida (Linn.). The examples of this species were all high 
spired : height 10mm., diameter 21.5mm. 

Arianta arbustorum (Linn.). This species was represented by a giant 
race ranging from 24.5mm. to 27mm. in diameter, the average being 25mm. 
A similar race occurred at Windmill Hill and Blackpatch. I have seen no 
recent English examples so large as these. 

Cepsea nemoralis ( Linn,). Varied greatly in size, the extremes in diameter 
being 21mm. to 26mm. The curve is not regular and it is probable that 
besides the normal form there is also a larger race present. The band 
formulse are :— 

12345 5 examples 
(12345) 73 
00000 93 „ 
00300 2 

These figures are remarkable for this species usually exhibits far more 
variety. 

Cepd&i hortensis (Miill.). Ranges from I8.5mni. to 2 1. 5mm. in diameter 
with a regular curve. The band formulae are : — 



12345 21 


examples 


(12345) 26 


M 


123(45) 2 


« 


(12)345 2 


» 


(123)(45) 1 


»l 


10345 1 


>( 



The unhanded form is quite absent as it was in the tufa at Blashenwell, 
Dorset. 

Clausilia rolphii Gray. An interesting addition to the Holocene of 
Wiltshire. It is decidedly a rare species in a recent state in Wiltshire. 

It is noteworthy that all the shells are well developed and as already 
noted a number are exceptionally large whilst there is almost a total absence 
of malformed specimens. 

The Existing Molluscan Fauna. 
In order to ascertain what species of mollusca still live on the site Dr. 
Stone forwarded three samples of topsoil : — 

1. From the open down above pit-shaft 47t 

2. From a dense Hawthorn thicket.^ 

3. From a thick Juniper scrub. ^ 

The identifications are given in the following table : — 



^ From the Copse in Areas A and D (J.F.S.S.). 
2 From the Juniper scrub to the north of Area B (J.F S.S.) 



By J, F. S. Stone, B.A,, 


D.Phil 




TABLE II. 








1 


2 3 


Pomatias elegans (Mull.) 


f 


f 


Pupilla muscorum ( Linn.) 


c 


c 


Vertigo pygmsea, (Drap.) 


r 


r 


Vallonia pulchella(MiX\l) 




r 


Vallonia excentrica Sterki 


c 


r c 


Vallonia costata (Miill.) 


r 


r 


Cochlicopa luhrica (Miill.) 


c 


c 


Functum pygmseum (Drap ) 




c 


Avion sp. 


c 


c c 


Helicella nitidula (Drap ) 




r 


Vitrea crystallina (Miill.) 




r 


Vitrina pellucida (Miill.) 




r 


Limax arhorum (Bouch, Chant.) 




r 


^erophila itala (Linn.) 


c 


c 


Candidula caperata (Mont.) 




r 


Cecilioides acicula (Miill.) 


r 


r 



239 



Totals 9 4 14 

f=fragments. r— rare. c=common. 

The fragments of Pomatias elegans are obviously of great age and are 
probably relics of the " beaker " period. There are two species which were 
not represented in the older deposits, Vitrina pellucida and Candidula 
caperata. The absence of the former is probably accidental for it was 
certainly an inhabitant of England at that time whilst the latter species is 
certainly a modern immigrant into Wiltshire. The paucity of the present 
molluscan fauna is clearly shown by the table and it must be noted that 
the examples as a rule are not so well developed as those from the excavations. 

Conclusions. 
The faunule from the excavations is a remarkable one and it is doubt- 
ful if a similar one occurs anywhere in England at the present time. 
From the material sent in 1930, twenty-three species were determined and 
from these " scrub growth and damper conditions " were postulated ( W.A.M.^ 
xlv., 363 — 4). These figures have now been increased to thirty-five species 
and the additional forms are of great importance. As already noted the 
shells are well developed and abundant so it is clear that the environment 
was extremely favourable to their well-being and very diflferent from that 
of today as a comparison of the two tables shows clearly. The principal 
requirements of practically all the forms found in the excavations are food, 
moisture, and shelter, and there must have been abundance of all three 
when the mollusca swarmed in their millions on Easton Down. Provided, 
however, that these three requisites are present, mollusca are fairly adapt- 
able. Thus Helicodonta ohvoluta and Fna montana, though attaining 
their maximum in an ancient beech wood, will still survive in a scrub with 
small trees. Clausilia rolphii, though essentially a woodland form, has 



240 Excavations at Easton Down, Winterslow, 1931 — 1932. 

been found in a nettle bed in a chalk pit whilst Helicella nitidula, though 
it prefers a damp situation, may be found dwarfed on chalk hills under 
stones. It is obvious, however, that this is not an open down faunule, and 
the remaining alternatives are woodland or scrub. 

I think the true conditions can be deduced from a study of the other 
evidence. Flint mining was in progress and if a beech wood existed here 
when this commenced the Beaker Folk may have cut down the trees to 
facilitate their mining activities. Alternatively it may have been an open 
wood with open spaces and scrub between the scattered trees, but the for- 
mer is the mere probable.^ The debris from the flint workings would pro- 
vide abundant shelter and the woodland species such as Ena montana, 
Helicodonta obvoluta, Ghilotrema lapicida, and the Clausilias could main- 
tain themselves as a " relict " fauna for a little while, whilst the remainder 
would flourish provided that there was sufficient moisture. 

I have previously suggested that during the *• Beaker " period the rain- 
fall was much greater than to-day {W.A.M., xlv., 332-334, and 363—364). 
It has, however, been stated " that the presence of the damp-loving mollusca 
may not necessarily denote a greater rainfall but may be due to different 
conditions in prehistoric times," and that where the downs are not grazed 
" thorn and other bushes spring up and keep the surface cool and moist so 
that species of snails that like shade and moisture might be found in areas 
where the present-day turfy conditions are uncongenial to them " {loc. cit,, 
p. 335). Table II. is an answer to this. The series of shells from the scrub 
growth of Juniper and the Hawthorn thicket are very different from the 
Beaker series. 

The problem is not confined to the Wiltshire downs but occurs in Sussex 
and Kent and probably elsewhere. In the Early Bronze Age mollusca of a 
damp-loving type swarmed on the chalk hills where they no longer exist. 
H. S. Toms in his pamphlet "The Flint Mines Problem " (Beprint from 
Sussex County Herald, August Uth, 18th, 25th, and September 1st, 1928) 
has discussed the subject at considerable length and concludes *' that the 
contemporary mollusca may be taken as indicative of a wetter climate at 
the time of the flint mining and also that several species of snails then 
fairly common are now rare on the South Downs where their present 
restricted habitats seem due to the dryer conditions of modern times " {loc. 
cit., p. 9). These conclusions also apply to the chalk hills in Kent where 
an early settlement (probably Beaker) now covered by old woodland yields 
a much damper series of mollusca than that now living there as was also 
the case at the flint mines at Grimes Graves, Norfolk. 



* Several " dud " holes in the chalk have been encountered on Easton 
Down. These are usually very irregular in shape and are filled with soft 
earthy chalk dust and angular flints. Sherds, artefacts, and pieces of bone, 
have so far proved absent in them. In all probability they represent the 
results of root action of former trees or scrub, a conclusion already noted 
by Mrs. Cunnington from similar disturbed patches in the chalk at Wood- 
fa en ge (If oorfAgngrg, 1929, 45, note).— (J. F. S. S.). 



By J. F, S, Stone, B.A., D.Pliil. 241 

From the molluscan evidence I would conclude : — 

1. That the rainfall was much heavier than to-day and that the water 
table in the chalk was much higher. 

2. That there was a fair amount of sun, 

3. That the winters were similar to those of to-day. 

It would be extremely interesting to ascertain when this period of 
excessive rainfall passed away. Judging from the evidence furnished by 
Woodhenge and Stonehenge it was gradual. Certain it is that in La Tene 
I. and Roman times the conditions were not very different from those of 
to-day. With regard to the view that the Wiltshire downs have always 
been open downland we have now strong evidence in favour of the former 
existence of a beech wood on what is now open down, whilst the constant 
occurrence of fragments of Pomatias elega7is in so many widely separated 
localities indicates at least a much greater extension of a scrub type of 
woodland. 



In the concluding remarks of his exceedingly interesting report Mr. 
Kennard raises the important question of the period of passing of the 
excessive rainfall deduced from the great numbers and species of moUusca. 
By a happy chance we are now in a position, on Easton Down at any rate, 
to fix this period within more definite limits than has hitherto been possible. 

These shell-laden layers, in which each shell practically touches the next, 
are a feature of both the flint mine shafts and the Beaker dwelling pits. 
We have seen that in two instances (Workshop Floors 2 and 7) flint mining 
and knapping was still being pursued after the cessation of this "molluscan 
age." Now identical species and as abundant occur as a thick band above 
the primary silting, but below a thicker sterile layer of mould, in the ditch 
of the small round barrow on Area A, which contained the decapitated 
bead of a brachy cephalic Beaker man {Man, 1933). The passing of this 
" molluscan age " must therefore be subsequent to the Beaker period. That 
it had passed and that completely by the late Middle Bronze Age is proved 
conclusively by the urnfield described in the present number of the Magazine 
(p. 218). Whilst shells were absent from the mould above the flint layer 
and from amongst the flints themselves, they were abundant in the original 
turf level below. It was through this shell-laden soil that the urns of 
overhanging-rim type had been inserted and it was on top of this soil that 
the flint nodules had been strewn. At the period therefore of the insertion 
of these urns the conditions for active shell life on the down had ceased, 
never to return. 

The extensive diggings which have been carried out would have been 
impossible but for the ungrudging assistance of a number of gentlemen 
pressed into service. The writer's thanks are specially due to Dr. K. 0. C. 
Clay, F.S.A, ; Capt. E. V Hallinan, M.C., R.A. ; Commander M. G. 
Higgins, D.S.O., R.N. ; and Major E. C. Linton, R.A.M.C. Acknowledg- 
ments are also due to Dr. J. Wilfrid Jackson for his Report on the Animal 



242 Excavations at Fasten Down, Winterslow, 1931 — 1932. 

Remains ; to Mr. A. S. Kennard for his Report on the Mollusca ; and to 
the Commandant, Colonel R. F. Lock, for continued permission to dig on 
War Office lands, and for granting permission for members of the Inter- 
national Congress of Prehistoric and Protohistoric Sciences to visit the ex- 
cavations during their tour of Wiltshire in August, 1932. 

All the objects described in this and former reports have been deposited 
in the South Wilts and Blackmore Museum, Salisbury. 



243 



EEPORT ON THE BIRDS OF WILTSHIRE FOR 1932. 
Edited by the Rev. M. W. Willson, 69, Vicarage Street, Warminster, 



Contributor, 




District. 


Mrs. Alcock 


(E.A.A.) 


W. Wellow, Hants 


C. Badcock 


(C.B.) 


Malmesbury 


C. W. Benson 


(C.W.B.) 


Bulford 


Viscount Bolingbroke and St, John 


(B.) 


Lydiard Tregoze 


J. C. E. Boys 


(J.B.) 


Salisbury 


W. A. Chaplin 


(W.A.C.) 


Salisbury 


J. H. Clark 


(J.H.C.) 


Poulshot 


Dr. R. C. Clay 


(R.C.C.) 


Fovant 


G. W. Collett 


(G.W.C.) 


Chippenham 


Rev. G. Engleheart 


(G.K) 


Dinton 


H. C. R. Gillman 


(H.G.) 


Larkhill 


Rev. Canon E. H. Goddard 


(E.H.G.) 


Clyffe Pypard 


H. St. B. Goldsmith 


(H. St. B.G.) 


Stourton 


Miss G. M. Grover 


(G.M.G.) 


Calne 


Major R. G. Gwatkin 


(R.G.G.) 


Potterne 


Rev. D. P. Harrison 


(D.RH.) 


Lydiard Millicent 


V. G. Hawtin 


(V.G.H.) 


Longford 


R. T. H. James 


(R.T.J.) 


Chute 


R. H. Milner 


(R.H.M.) 


Whaddon 


G. W. H. Moule 


(G.M.) 


Downton 


Col. W. A. Payn 


(W.A.P) 


Andover, Hants 


C. M. R. Pitman 


(C.M.P) 


Salisbury 


L. G. Peirson, M.C.N.H.S. 


(L.G.P) 


10 miles radius round 
Marlborough 


C. Rice 


(C.R.) 


Chippenham 


Miss Shaw Stewart 


(M.S.S.) 


Fonthill 


Major J. St. Maur Shell 


(J.S.) 


Britford 


S. J. Strange 


(S.J.S.) 


Swindon 


T. H. Thornely 


(T.H.T.) 


Devizes 


Capt. C. B. Wainwright 


(C.B.W.) 


Figheldean 


Rev. A. J. Watson 


(A.J.W.) 


Pewsey 


Miss D. White 


(D.W.) 


Zeals 


Rev, M. W. Willson 


(M.W.W.) 


Warminster 


Capt. N. K. Worthington 


(N.K.W.) 


Highworth 



The number of contributors to the Report was slightly smaller than in 
1931, but both the volume and interest of the notes received showed a 
marked improvement, and it is most encouraging to find, when the scheme 
has been running for four years, interest and keenness not merely sustained, 
but enhanced. 
VOL. XLVI. — NO. CLVIII. R 



244 Heport on the Birds of Wiltshire for 1932. 

The volume of immigration of summer residents was apparently some- 
what below the average, and the breeding season not, on the whole, a very 
successful one, but in both these respects the year was a better one than 1931. 

Two statements in the 1931 Report have been called in question, viz : — 
that the Common Curlew bred near Andover, and that the Kittiwake is 
frequently seen near Malmesbury. Until and unless these statements can 
be verified, I regret that it is necessary to withdraw them. 

The absence of records of the Crossbill and Marsh Warbler may only 
mean that they were overlooked, though a careful watch was kept for the 
former in the south-eastern corner of the county. 

Among notable visitors to the county during the year may be mentioned 
the Hooded Crow, Blue-headed Wagtail, Willow Tit, Great Grey Shrike, 
Black Redstart, Hoopoe, Kite, Sheld Duck (the first record since 1897), 
Arctic Tern, and Black Tern. 

The breeding of the Shoveler is the first recorded instance for the county, 
while the breeding of the Dartford Warbler within three miles of Salisbury 
is the first Wiltshire record for some years. It is interesting to observe 
that the Great Crested Grebe continues to extend its range in the direction, 
though not to the localities forecast in last year's report. 

Two species, by no means common in the county, the Hawfinch and Grass- 
hopper Warbler, seem to have been present in greater numbers than of late 
years, 30 birds of the former and 1 1 of the latter species being recorded. 

In editing the Report I was struck by the apparent contradictions between 
the notes of L.G.P. and D.P.H., notably with regard to the Starling, Corn 
Bunting, and Tree Pipit. The reason for this may be sought in the fact 
that L.G.P. is speaking on behalf of the Marlborough College Natural 
History Society, which surveys an area of 10 miles radius round Marlborough, 
while D.P.H. speaks of his own experiences in a much smaller area, not far 
distant, but in country of distinctly different type. 

It is unlikely that I shall be able to undertake the editing of another 
Report. Mr, C. M. R. Pitman, of 39, Rampart Road, Salisbury, has kindly 
offered to do so next year, and I hope he will find it possible in subsequent 
years. It remains for me to express my very real gratitude to those who 
have helped me by sending contributions, advice, and criticisms, and to hope 
that my successor will receive a like support and encouragement from all 
who have been interested during the past four years. 



Arrival and Departure of Migrants in Wiltshire, 1932. 

Departure records marked (d). Records of large movements marked (1). 

Yellow Wa^ail. Tree Pipit. 

April 23, Lydiard Tregoze (B.) April 23, Marlborough (L.G.P.) 

April 24, Axford (L.G.P.) April 30, Alderbury (R.H.M.) 

April 30, Chippenham (O.R.) May 1, Chippenham (C.R.) 

May 1, Britford (J.S.) 



Bij the Rev. M, W. Willson. 



245 



Spotted Flycatcher. 

April 29, Marlborough (L.G.P.) 
May 1, Lydiard Tregoze (B.) 
May 11, Fovant (R.C.C.) 
May 15, Potterne (R.G.G.) 

Common Whit ethr oat. 

March 28, Dinton (ll.C.C.) 
April 26, Lydiard Millicent 

(D.P.H.) 
April 27, Marlborough (L.G.P.) 
April 30, Chippenham (O.K.) 

Iiesser Whitethroat. 

May 15, Poulton (L.G.P.) 

{d)September 7, Chippenham (C.R.) 

Oarden Warbler. 

April 18, TeflFont (R.C.C.) 
May 1, Chippenham (C.R.) 
May 2, Marlborough (L.G.P.) 

Blackcap. 

April 23, Chippenham (C.R.) 
April 24, Lydiard Millicent 

(D.P.H.) 
April 26, Marlborough (L.G.P.) 
May 4, Malmesbury (C.B.) 

(d) September 14, Salisbury (J.B,) 

Grasshopper Warbler. 

April 28th, Axford (L.G.P.) 

Heed Warbler. 

April 30, Mildenhall (L.G.P.) 

Sedge Warbler. 

April 26, Marlborough (L.G.P.) 
April 27, Lydiard Tregoze (B.) 
April 30, Alderbury (R.M.M.) 

Willow Warbler. 

March 25, Marlborough (L.G.P.) 
April 5, Malmesbury (C.B.) 
April 8, Chippenham (C.R.) 
April 15, W. Wellow (E.A.A.) 
April 20, Lydiard Tregoze (B.) 
Poulshot (J.H.C.) 
Devizes (T.H.T.) 
April 22, Figheldean (C.B.W.) 
Highworth (N.K.W.) 
Wood Warbler. 

May 8, Marlborough (L.G.P.) 



ChilFchaif. 

March 19, Poulshot, (J.H.C.) 
March 23, Salisbury (J.B.) 
March 24, Marlborough (L.G.P.) 
March 26, Lechlade (B.) 
March 29, W. Wellow (E.A.A.) 
Chippenham (C.R.) 

(d) October 10, Poulshot (J.H.C.) 

Redstart. 

April 22, Chippenham (C.R.) 
April 30, Marlborough (L.G. P.) 

Nighting-ale. 

April 18, Swallowcliffe (R.C.C.) 
April 24, Chute (R.T.J.) 
April 25, Alderbury (R.H.M.) 
April 26, W. Wellow (E.A.A.) 

Whinchat. 

May 4, Axford (L.G.P.) 

Wheatear. 

March 19, Larkhill (H.G.) 
March 20, Stonehenge (VV.A.C.) 
March 25, Marlborough (L.G.P.) 

Swallow. 

March 24, Britford (J.S.) 
March 31, Barford St. Martin 

(R.C.C.) 
April 5, Coate (S.J.S.) 
April 6, Potterne (R.G.G.) 
April 9, Poulshot (J.H.C.) 
Larger movements noted, April 
12, April 15, April 20. 

(d) Oct. 12, Coate (S.J.S.) 

Oct. 16, Alderbury (R.H.M.) 
Chippenham (C.R.) 
Nov. 10, Lydiard Millicent 

(D.P.H.) 

House Martin. 

April 5, Coate (S.J.S.) 
April 14, Devizes (T.H.T.) 
April 15, Chippenham (( /.R,) 
April 22, Marlborough (L.G.P.) 
April 24, Amesbury (H.G.) 
(d) Oct. 12—16, Swindon (S.J.S.) 
Devizes (T.H.T.) 
Chippenham (C.R.) 
Alderbury (R.H.M.) 
Nov. 10, Marlborough (L.G.P.) 
R 2 



246 



Beport on the Birds of Wiltshire for 1932. 



Sand Martin. 

April 5, Alderbury (R.H.M.) 
April ll.Downton (W.A.C.) 
April 16, Marlborough (L.G. P.) 

(d) Sept. 8, Salisbury (J.B.) 

Cuckoo. 

April 15, Britford(J.S.) 
April 17, Potterne (R.G.G.) 
April 18, Chute (R.T.J.) 
April 19, Salisbury (W.A.C. 

and R.H.M.) 
April 20, Dinton(R.C.C.) 

Chippenham (C.R.) 
Lydiard Tregoze (B.) 
(d) August 9, Alderbury (R.H.M.) 

Swift. 

April 21, Salisbury (W.A.C.) 
April 22, Figheldean(C.B.W.) 
April 23, Chilmark (R.C.C.) 
April 24, Marlborough (L.G.P.) 
(1) May 6—8, Devizes (R.G.G. 

and T.H.T.) 

N.W. corner of the county (B., 

D.P.H., and N.K.W.) 

Nightjar. 

May 14, Alderbury (R.H.M.) 

Stone Curlew. 

March 18, Marlborough (L.G.P.) 
March 28, Warminster 

(M.W.W.) 

Land Rail. 

May 4, Avebury (L.G.P.) 
May 9, Highworth (N.K.W.) 



Turtle Dove. 

April U, Lydiard Millicent 

(D.P.H.> 
April 25, Devizes (T.H.T.) 
May 3, Marlborough (L.G.P.) 
May 6, Larkhill(H.a) 

Br ambling*. 

(d) March 22, Salisbury (J.B.) 
November 5, Shrewton(W.A. P.) 
Figheldean 

(C.B.W.) 

Redwing". 

(d) April 2nd, Chippenham (C.R.) 
Early September, Lydiard 

Millicent (D.P.H.) 

Fieldfare. 

(d) April 10, Larkhill (H.G.) 
April 1, Devizes (T.H.T.) 
Early September, Lydiard 

Millicent (D.P.H.) 
(1) October25— 28,Devizes(T.H.T.) 
Chippenham 

(G.W.C.) 
Marlborough 

(L.G.P.y 
Figheldean 

(C.B.W.) 

Teal. 

(d) March 24, Coate (L.G.P.) 

Grolden Plover. 

(d) March 20, Larkhill (H.G.) 
Early September, Homington 
(V.G.H.) 



Carrion Crow. Corvus corone corona. 

D.P.H. and W.A.P. comment on the rapid increase of this bird. Go 
the Plain C.B.W. has carrried on an intensive campaign against it 
for two years. Where this was successful, an improvement in the 
numbers of Lapwings hatched out was clearly noticeable. 

C.R. notes a slight increase near Chippenham. 



By the Rev. M. W. Willson. 247 

Hooded Crow. Corvua comix comix. 

C.B.W. saw one near Amesbury on November 27th, and CM. P. saw 
one between Salisbury and Alderbury on the same date. 

Jlcok. Corvus f. frugilegus. 

In the view of D.P.H. this species had a disastrous breeding season, 

large numbers dying as young, and hatching being very irregular. 

He attributes this to the very cold weather in April and early May. 
H.G. comments on the enormous number of rooks on the Plain in 

spring. 
An old nest of this species was found by the same observer in a box 

bush only eight feet from the ground. He ringed 121 birds, 106 as 

nestlings. 
C.R. notes a very large rookery at Highway Common, near Calne. 

IMCagpie. Pica pica pica. 

O.B, sends the following note : — " Magpies and jays are very plentiful ; 
the havoc they do in nesting time is simply incredible ; of at least 
.30 blackbirds' and thrushes' nests known to me in early spring, only 
one blackbird succeeded in rearing three young to leave the nest." 

CM. P. finds this species not so common as formerly in the Salisbury 
district. 
Starling". Sturnus v. vulgaris. 

D.P.H. records a notable decrease in numbers near Swindon, but 
L.G.P. finds the species even more plentiful around Marlborough. 

J.B. records a specimen with a white rump. 
House Sparrow, Passer d. domesticus. 

W.A.C noted a pure white specimen with yellow legs at Harnham, 
J.B. a similar bird at W. Grimstead ; CM. P. notes that there was a 
number of extremely light-coloured birds in Salisbury. 
HawfLncli. Coccothraustes coccothraustes coccothraustes. 

A good number of records have come to hand. 

C.B. saw three in December, 1931, for four or five days. 

E.H.G. reports a pair seen on February 8th at Seend, eating berries of 
cotoneaster frigida, an unusual diet. 

V.G.H. saw a colony of over 20 birds on several occasions early in the 
year in Longford Park. 

R.G.G. saw one at Potterne on March 3rd. 

One was reported to M.W.W. from Horningsham. 

D.P.H. saw a hen for ten days during May. 

L.G.P. has records for May 1st and May 12th, in Savernake Forest. 

A dead hen was brought to CM. P. from Charlton, near Downton. 

J.S. saw one, July 10th, at Britford. 

Ctoldfinch. C carduelis britannica. 

D.P.H. comments on the continued increase of this species ; J.B, found 

it very common near Salisbury, and saw a flock of 50 birds near 

Whiteparish on January 26th. 
W.A.P. is accustomed to see large flocks, ranging from 20 to 60, on 

Sheepless Hill. 



248 Report on the Birds of Wiltshire for 1932. 

Siskin. Spinus spinus. 

J.B. has records for the Salisbury district, for February 1 1th and 18th> 

March 16th and 24th. 
M.W.W. saw a party on March 11th at Shearwater. 
This species does not seem to appear in Wiltshire before the middle of 

December. Exceptions to this are a record from Great Bedwyn, 

November 2nd, 1920, and an early autumn record in 1928, when the 

bird appeared in unusual numbers. A small flock was seen by 

D.F.H. in May, 1918. 
Tree Sparrow. Passer m. montanus. 

W.A.O, records the breeding of this species near Wilton. 
L.G.P. Seen near Manton House, Marlborough, March 25th. 
J.S. saw a group of six during the year. 
Brambling-. Fringilla montifringilla. 

Seen in large numbers during the winter 1931 — 2, and again from the 

middle of November onwards. The majority of the records come 

from the southern half of the county. 
Lesser Redpoll. Acanthis linaria cabaret. 

J.B. has records for the Salisbury district for February 8th, March 3rd^ 

10th, 16th, and 24th. 
L.G.P. from the Marlborough district, February 12th, March 22nd. 
M.W.W. saw birds at Shearwater January 20th, February 13th, March 

nth. 

Sullfincli. P. pyrrhula nesa. 

K.T.J, notes an increase ; D.P.H. that it holds its own, two pairs under 

his observation reared broods. 
R.H.M. records that a flock of 14 birds haunted his ground all the 

winter of 1931—2 and had not broken up by March 14th ; a small 

flock was there on November 18th. 
Corn-Biinting'. Emberiza c. calandra. 

CM. P. regards this species as a summer resident in S. Wilts. He 

reports a colony of eight— nine nesting pairs at Old Sarum. 
H.G. notes its arrival near Shrewton on March 20th. 
Round Marlborough, however, the bird is plentiful all the year round 

(L.G.P.) 
D.P.H. comments on its complete absence from his district for 25 years» 

and attributes this to the cessation of corn-growing. 

Cirl Eunting'. Emberiza cirlus. 

C.W.B. noted six pairs in a narrow strip of land a mile long at Bulford. 
He noted two distinct types of song, the most usual a rapid trill like 
a loud grasshopper warbler, while in the other type the song is 
"slowed up " so that the syllables are much more distinct. 

CM. P. found it very common near Grimstead in January. 

J.B. has records for the Salisbury district for February 2nd, 18th, 21st^ 
March 4th, August 17th. 

CB.W. saw one at Durrington, April 6th. 

L.G.P, has a record from Manningford Bruce, July 9th. 



By the Rev. M, W. Willson, 249 

Yellow Bunting'. Emberiza c. citrinella. 

D.P.H. notes a yearly diminution of this species. 
Wood-Lark. Lullula a. arborea. 

CM. P. states that it breeds regularly on the Plain. 
G.M. that it breeds near Downton on the Wilts-Dorset border. 
Grey Wag-tail. Motacilla c. cinerea. 

L.G.P. records that on June 12th a recently vacated nest was found 
by a waterfall. On July 2nd a similar nest, 6 inches below, con- 
tained 3 eggs. This nest was only 3 inches from the waterfall. 

Blue-Headed Wagtail. Motacilla f. flava. 

V.G.H. obtained a good view of one in Longford Park on August 6th, 
Tree Pipit. Anthus t. trivialis. 

D.P.H, comments on the complete absence of this bird from his 

district since 1912, where they used to appear regularly. 
L.G.P. thinks it was much less common than usual. 
G.E. notes its absence, for the past four or five years. Formerly he had 
three or four pairs in his orchards, 

Goldcrest. R. regulus anglorum. 

D.P.H. considers that it has completely recovered from the depreda- 
tions of 1928—9, and is now comparatively numerous. 
L.G.P. finds it " distinctly uncommon." 

Marsh Titmouse. Parus palustris dresseri. 

D.P.H. and L.G.P. both found it more than usually plentiful this year. 
This seems to have been the case with all the common species of tits. 

Willow Titmouse. Parus atricapillus kleinschmidti. 

W.A.P. saw two on Sheepless Hill, November 14th. He has not seen 
this species there in the summer. 

Iiong-Tailed Titmouse. Aegithalos caudatus roseus, 

R.H.M. found a nest in the fork of an oak, 24 feet from the ground. 

Great Grey Shrike. Lanius e. excubitor. 

J.B. saw a cock at Grimstead on January 20th and 21st. 

CM. P. also saw one at Grimstead and one at Ford, near Salisbury, 
during January. 

R.T.J.'s record for 1931 should have read, " on xMay 9th near Chute." 
He also saw one on September 29th, 1929. 

CM. P. writes: "It is more than probable that a bird I saw on 
Pepperbox Down during June was a bird of this species. ... I 
have seen the great grey shrike on several occasions in January or 
February; this bird was rather shy and elusive and unusual in time of 
appearance, but the flight was that of a great grey shrike, and the 
plumage that of the hen of that species." 

J.B. records seeing a cock of this species in the same place as CM. P. 
on June 21st. The^appearance of the great grey shrike in June is very 
unusual, but it seems unlikely that these two observers who had both 
seen the bird in January, independently of each other, could have been 
mistaken. 



250 Beport on the Birds of Wiltshire /or 1932. 

Red-Backed Shrike. Lanius c. collurio. 

The slight increase of this species during the last year or two has not 

been maintained (L.G.P.). 

D.P.H. saw none. 

G.E. notes that it has disappeared from his neighbourhood in the last 
few years. 

L.G.P. has a record from Manton, May 22nd. 

J.H.O. saw a cock at Poulshot, July 25th. 

G.B.W. saw young near Figheldean, August 16th. 

C.R. has two breeding records. 

J.B. notes a pair near Salisbury, June 15th, and a cock near White- 
parish, August 19th. 

M.W.W. saw a cock near Barford St. Martin, July 15th. 

Spotted Flycatcher . Muscicapa s. striata. 

D.P.H., L.G.P., and T.H.T. note it as less common than usual. 

Pied Flycatcher. Ficedula h. hypoleuca. 

K.T.J, saw a pair on May 17th and a cock on May 20th but has no 

evidence of breeding. 
CM. P. saw a cock at Alderbury on April 25th and for three days 

afterwards, 
L.G.P. has a record for April 29th. 
B. saw a cock which disappeared N.W. on April 27th. 

Whitethroat. Sylvia c. communis. 

CM. P. One of our summer residents, probably this species was seen 
between Salisbury and Alderbury on October 17th. 

Xiesser Whitethroat, Sylvia c. curruca. 
CW.B. noted two nests^near Bulford. 
CR. saw a pair with four young on June]10th and a solitary bird on 

September 7th, which stayed about for a day or two. 
L.G.P. has a record from Poulton, May 15th. 

C^arden Warbler. Sylvia borin. 

T.H.T. and E.A.A. found it not so common as usual, L.G.P. fairly 

common, while CR. found it in several places where it had not been 

seen before. 
Seen near Devizes, Marlborough, Teffont, Bulford and Chippenham. 

Blackcap. Sylvia a. atricapilla. 

L.G.P. 's statement that this species is more common than sylvia borin 

is borne out by the greater number of records, which come from near 

Marlborough, Lydiard Millicent, Malmesbury, Salisbury, Calne, 

Bulford and Chippenham. 
C.R. knew of at least nine pairs near Chippenham. On May 26th he 

saw a cock in combat with a garden warbler. 

Bartford Warbler. Sylvia undata dartfordiensis. 

M.W.W. and W.A.C saw birds in the same locality on the borders of 
Hants, six on April 9th, a pair feeding young on June 12th. 



By the Rev, M. W. Willson. 251 

. C.M.P. inspected ten nests in this locality, all but one of which con- 
tained either four eggs or young. He also found two pairs nesting 
in a different locality, close to Salisbury. It is now possible to claim 
this definitely as a Wiltshire breeding species. 
Grasshopper Warbler. Locustella n. nsevia. 
A good number of records have come to hand. 
G.E. notes that two pairs nested at Hurdcott House, near Barford St. 

Martin. 
C.M.P. found a pair nesting at Alderbury, W.A.P. one pair near 

Durrington. 
L.G.P. has records from Axford, April 28th, and Marlborough, May 

19th. 
W.A.G. heard one at Britford in June ; C.W.B. saw and heard one at 
Bulford, July 5th ; he considers it a bird which sings very little. 
Song- Thrush. Turdus philomelos clarkei. ^ 

K.T.J, reports a curious trumpet-shaped nest built in the angle of a 
wall. It was only Sin. broad at the base which rested on a small ivy 
branch. Above this the nest, which was 23in. from base to rim, lay 
against the bare wall. 
J.B. and O.M.P. noted a bird with white on, the back. 
Redwingf, Turdus musicus. 

D.P.H. considered it to be present in greater numbers in October and 

November than for many years. 
Observed also near Marlborough (in the early months of the year), 
Poulshot, Chippenham and Salisbury. 
Pieldfare, Turdus pilaris. 

Unusually large numbers were noticed.in November by D.P.H., L.G.P., 

and J.B. 
Seen also near Devizes, Chippenham, Figheldean, Calne, Larkhill, 

Imber, Wootton Bassett and Maiden Bradley. 
H.G. saw large flocks near Larkhill between March 29th and April 10th. 
Jting' Ouzel. Turdus torquatus torquatus. 

C.M.P. saw one on the Downs near Wallop in April. 
M.W.W. saw one near Sutton Veny on April 13th, one just outside 
Warminster on April 18th. 
Blackbird. Turdus m. merula. 

Pied specimens were seen by J.B. and C.M.P.; the latter saw six 

varieties. j 

Redstart. Phoenicurus ph. phoeaicurus. -^ 

L.G.P. records the breeding of a pair near Marlborough, where it is 

confined to certain places in Savernake Forest. 
J.H.C. found a pair nesting at Poulshot. 
A cock was seen by C.R. on April 22nd. 
J.B. saw a pair near Salisbury on August 17th. 
Black Redstart. Phoenicurus ochrurus gibraltariensis. 
J.B. saw a hen near W. Grimstead, November I6th. 
O.M.P. saw a cock at Ford, near Salisbury, where, he states, it ha3 
been seen for the last two years. 



25.2 Ee^ort on the Birds of Wiltshire for 1932. 

Redbreast: Erithacus rubecula melophilua. 

CM. P. records a pure white specimen'from Wilton. 

Wightingfale, Luscinia m. megarhynca. 

D.P.H. notes that this species has practically disappeared in the last 

six years from the plateau between the downs and the lowlands of 

Purton, but is holding its own in Braydon Wood. 
There was only one reported from the Marlborough district (L-G.P.). 
E.A.A. found it scarce this year. 

R.T.J., however, reports that it is still increasing near Chute. 
C.R. found many pairs between Weavern and Ford, near Chippenham. 
R.H.M. found three nests near Alderbury. It reappeared near 

Warminster after being absent for some years. (M.W.W.). 
Other records come from Urchfont, Swallowcliflfe and Lydiard Tregoze. 

Whinchat. Saxicola r. rubetra. 

L.G.P. notes it at Axford on May 4th, and about five pairs seen at 

Mildenhall. He found this species local and uncommon this year. 
J.H.C. saw a flock of 20 containing both adult and young birds at 

Poulshot on July 12th. 
J.B. saw several near Whiteparish on August 19th. 

Wheatear. O^nanthe ce. oenanthe. 

CM. P. observed a pair which reared three broods. 
J.S. comments on the unusually large numbers seen. 

Dipper. Cinclus c. gularis. 

CM. P. notes that it is still on the increase near Salisbury. W.A.C 

and V.G.H. confirm this. 
D.W. records its breeding at Mere and Zeals, and M.S.S. saw it at 

Fonthill in January. 
G.W.C saw three at Ford, near Chippenham, on October 27th, 

Swallow. Hirundo r. rustica. 

D.P.H. notes that the resident summer population was greater than it 
has been for some years, and that it was a successful breeding season. 
He noted the young gathered for flight during the first week in 
August and the third week in September. The last old birds, except 
for a straggler on November 10th, had gone by October 16th. 

House Martin. Delichon u. urbica. 

R.G.G. had three nesting for the first time for many years. 
D.P.H. found it more numerous than for some years. 
V.G.H. reports a bird pure white except for a slight tinge of brown on 
the underside of the wing. 

Great Spotted Woodpecker. D. major anglicus. 

C.B.W. considers it slightly on the increase near Figheldean. 

Records from Sutton Mandeville, April 9th (R.CC) ; Chippenham,: 
March 14th (C.R.); Whiteparish, March 10th (J.B.) ; Longbridge 
Deverill, March 28th and April 14th(M.W.W.) ; Alderbury (C.M.P.). 
C.M.P. found a nest with young in Grovely Woods, June 14th. 



By the Rev. M. W, Willson. 25^ 

lesser Spotted Woodpecker. Dryobates minor coraminutus. 

L.G.P. has records from six or seven different localities and thinks it 

is on the increase. 
CM, P. found it nesting near Wilton. 

W.A.C. saw one at Harnham daily for a fortnight in March. 
K.C.C. saw one at Chilmark, April 12th. 

J.B. saw it between Salisbury and Alderbury on February 8th and 
March 3rd. 
Cuckoo. Cuculus canorus canorus, 

T.H.T., D.P.H., J.H.C., and G.M.G., concur in thinking it much below 
its usual numbers. 
Nigfhtjar. Caprimulgus e. europaeus. 

Nesting records from Lydiard Millicent (D.P.H.), Clarendon and 

Alderbury (J.B.), Alderbury (R.H.M.). 
One of J.B. 's nests had two eggs on August 3rd. J.B. put up three 

birds near Pitton on August 24th. 
There were no records from the Marlborough area. 
Hoopoe. Upupa e. epops. 

M.S.S. reports one seen in Tisbury during the last week in August and 
near Fonthill on September 3rd and 4th. 
Kingfisher. Alcedo atthis ispida. 

There seems some evidence of its increase. CM. P. thinks there were 
more than usual near Salisbury and records that one pair nested and 
reared its brood on Laverstock Down— quite half a mile from the 
nearest water. 
T.H.T. saw one by his stream for the first time for 22 years. 
J.B. has 11 records for the Salisbury district. 
L.G.P. reports it breeding near Marlborough. 
Barn Owl. Tyto a. alba. 

D.P.H. reports the complete disappearance of this species from his 
district during the last two years. He attributes this to the wide- 
spread poisoning of rats, which it will pick up dead. The little owl 
has occupied old nesting haunts, and simultaneously with the dis- 
appearance of the barn owl, there has been a notable increase in the 
numbers of tawny owls seen. 
CB. also notes its disappearance from his district, and J.H.C and 

G.M.G. consider it to be decreasing. 
L.G.P. is inclined to think that it is on the increase near Marlborough^ 
and A.J.W. knew of several pairs nesting in farm buildings. 
Iiong'-eared Owl. Asio o. otus. 

Breeding records from Alderbury (R.H.M.). 
Figheldean (CB.W), Pitton (CM. P.) and Larkhill (E.G.). 
Short-eared Owl. Asio f. flammeus. 

CB. W. saw single birds on the Plain in January, October and November. 
Tawny Owl. Strix aluco sylvatica. 

CB.W. found a nest in the debris of an old rook's nest underneath 
occupied rook's nest. 



254 Report on the Birds of Wiltshire for 1932. 

H.G. found it breeding in a dead beech stump in company with three 

pairs of rooks and a jackdaw. 
R.H.M. notes that a pair nested for the sixth successive year in one 

tree, and that, as in 1931, three infertile eggs were brooded from 

March 20th to May 8th. 
Little Owl. Carine noctua mira. 

Still increasing (L.G.P. and C.M.P.). 
Hen Harrier. Circus cyaneus cyaneus. 

H.G. saw a cock near Larkhill, February 27th, and a cock and hen 

separately within a short distance on March 16th. 
V.G.H. saw a hen near Odstock on September 3rd. 
Birds were seen twice near Downton during the autumn (per M. W.W.). 
Montagus Harrier. Circus pygargus. 

M.W.W. and C.W.B. saw a cock harrier probably of this species, on 

April 9th, not far from the locality where CM. P. found a pair 

breeding, just outside the county boundary. 

Buzzard. Buteo b. buteo. 

C.M.P. records that a pair hatched off a brood on the Wilts— Hants 

border. 
A pair attempted to breed in the county. M.W.W. saw a pair on 
March 28th and found the nest lined with fresh green ivy leaves on 
April 13th, but the birds were disturbed and had vanished by 
April 27th 
D.P.H. saw a bird on October 10th. 
Kite. Milvus milvus milvus. 

C.M.P. saw one between Salisbury and Amesbury during April. The 
bird was clearly seen and readily identified. 

Peregrine Palcon, Falco p. peregrinus. 

A pair nested on Salisbury Cathedral and reared two young, which were 
seen with their parents during late summer and autumn and up to 
the end of the year. 

Other records from Granham Hill, near Marlborough, February 17th 
(L.G.P.) ; Thornham Down, March 20th, April 5th (a pair) (H.G.); 
Durrington, September (C.B.W.) ; Bratton, October (per E.H.G.) > 
Ford, near Salisbury, November 2 1st (J.B.) ; Wick Down, near 
Downton (per M.W.W.). A cock was trapped near Warminster in 
August, and one was seen about later in the autumn (M.W.W.). 
A.J.W. reports that it is frequently heard of on the Plain. 

Hobby. Falco s. subbuteo. 

J.H.C. saw a cock at Bowood on April 16th. 

C.M.P. reports that it appeared in good numbers. He saw three in the 
air together on May 19th, and found one nest in Wiltshire, three just 
outside the county. 
Reported breeding successfully near Warminster (per M.W.W.). 

Merlin. Falco columbarius sesalon. 

C.B.W. reports that it is fairly often seen on the Plain in winter. 



By the Rev, M, W. Willson, 255 

Cormorant. Phalacrocorax c. carbo. 

One lived on the West front of Salisbury Cathedral for four or five days 

during September. 
S.J.S. notes one at Coate Eeservoir, August 10th. 

A farmer at Ashton Keynes was attacked by one on September 22nd 
( Wiltshire Gazette). 

Wild Geese. 

Several passed over Britford on January 1st (J.S.) ; seven flew over 
Warminster on April .18th (per M.W.W.) ; two were seen at 
Clarendon Lake on March 3rd, and on a later occasion. 

Sheld-Buck. Tadorna tadorna. 

M.W.W. saw a party of five on Shearwater, Longleat, which stayed for 
a few hours on February 7th. 

Teal. Querquedula c. crecca. 

Seen in the Og Valley on January 28th, and about 15 on Coate Reservoir, 

March 24th (L.Q.P.). 
M.W.W. saw 12 on Shearwater, February 10th, and again on March 

11th. 
Seen at Coate by W.A.P., October 27th. 

Wigeon, Mareca penelope. 

Shearwater, February 13th, four ; and March 11th (M.W.W.). 
Coate, May 14th (L.G.F.). 

Shoveler. Spatula clypeata. 

Seen at Fonthill in January (M.S.S.). 

J.S. records the breeding of a pair at Britford. The nest was not 
located but a pair was seen regularly during the breeding season, and 
nine young birds later on, at different periods of their growth. 

Pochard. Nyroca f. ferina. 

A flock of 12 was seen by W.A.P. at Coate on October 27th. He 

noticed that they kept quite apart from the mallard and teal. 
Seen at Ramsbury, February 6th. L.G.P. thinks it more frequent in 

appearance. 
Seen by J.B. at Clarendon, February 11th and March 3rd. 

Tufted Duck. Nyroca fuligula. 
Bred at Wilton Water (L.G.P.). 
J.S. saw birds at Britford on January 27th, and several were shot there 

during the year. 
J.B. saw them at Clarendon on February llth and March 3rd. 
M.W.W. saw a pair at Shearwater on February 10th. 
S.J.S. saw them at Coate until the end of March. 
W.A.C. notes a flight of seven seen near Downton, November 20th. 



256 Report on the Birds of Wiltshire for 1932. 

Heron. Ardea c. cinerea. 

S.J.S. saw seven young at Ooate during late summer. The heronry 

near Marlborough had nine nests (L.G.P.). Eight or nine birds were 

seen at the nests at Clarendon on March 18th. 
G.W.C. saw none at Bowood when there in April. 
W.A.C. saw two near Downton, on November 20th. 

Btone Curlew. Q]]dicnemus ce. oedicnemus. 

Nesting near Marlborough, Clarendon, and Winterbourne near 
Salisbury, Alderbury, Figheldean and Longbridge Deverill. 

Woodcock. Scolopax r. rusticola. 

Two pairs seen by E.A.A. during the spring. 

Seen by D.P.H. from October 16th onwards, and by C.B.W. on 
November 6th. 

Jack Snipe. Lymnocryptes minimus. 

Records from E. Grimstead, March 3rd, and Alderbury, November 7th, 
(J.B.) ; Axford, February 27th (L.G.P.) ; Salisbury, December 26th 
(C.M.P.). 

Redshank, Tringa totanus totanus. 

Common and increasing in the Salisbury district (J.B., W.A.C. and 
CM. P.). 

Still on the increase near Marlborough (L.G.P.). 

R.H.M. did not see birds on the breeding grounds at Alderbury after 
July loth. 

N.K.W. found four pairs breeding at Coleshili (Berks), near High- 
worth. 

Common Sandpiper. Tringa hypoleucos. 

Seen near Marlborough on April 22nd (L.G.P.), near Highworth, 
May 3rd (N.K.W.), and on the Avon, near Chippenham, July 30th 
(G.W.C). 

Green Sandpiper. Tringa ochropus. 

C.M.P. saw a cock and a hen together, courting, on April 19th, and for 

some weeks in the spring, on the Avon near Alderbury. 
V.G.H. saw a family of seven on the Avon at Longford, on August 1st. 
Seen by J.B. near Salisbury, on February 11th, March 3rd, and 

March 21st. 
L.G.P. reports one from Mildenhall, April 15th. 

Curlew. Numenius a. arquata. 

Five pairs bred just outside the county near Redlynch (C.M.P.). 

The report of the breeding of 10-12 pairs at Chute in 1931 has not 

been confirmed by the appearance of the birds this year, and must 

be considered doubtful. 

d-olden Plover. Pluvialis a, apricarius. 

R.C.C. saw a flock of about 300 at Chilmark, on December 24th, 1931. 
J.B. has records for the Salisbury district, for January 18th, 19th, 25th; 
February 2nd, November 21st. 



By the Eev, M. W. Willson. 257 

H.G. saw a small flock going E. near Larkhill, on March 20th. 

M.W.W. saw a large flock near Maiden Bradley, February 13th. 

A flock of several hundreds was seen by V.G.H. on Homington Down, 

early in September. 

D.W. saw flocks many times near Zeals. 

Xapwing. Vanellus vanellus. 

Further evidence of its increase comes from L.G.P. and J.H.C. 
C.B.W. notes that it hatched well owing to the destruction of carrion 
crows in one locality. 

Common Gull. Larus c. canus. 

J.B. saw one between Salisbury and Alderbury on March 5th. 

Herring- Grull. Larua a. argentatus. 

Flocks seen at Lydiard Millicent in August and October (D.P.H.), 

Near Salisbury, March 2nd (J.B.). 

39 were seen by H.G, on April 10th, 20 on April 27th, 

C.R. saw 200 at Leigh Delamere, March 31st. 

Great Black-Backed Gull. Larus marinus. 

C.B. reports seeing two parties of seven adult birds. 

Xesser Black-Backed Gull. Larus fuscus affinis. 

L.G.P. reports a party of six at Marlborough Common on 
September 13th. 

Black-Headed Gull. Larus r. ridibundus. 

J.B. noted one in breeding plumage on January 30th, and again on 

February 11th, and March 2nd. 
C.Pt. saw a small flight going N. April 12th. 
G.W.C saw two near Chippenham, October 31st. 

Common Tern. Sterna h. hirundo. 
Seen by J.S. At Britford, May 16th. 

Arctic Tern. Sterna macrura. 

Captain W. Wilson saw a party of six near Berwick Bassett, at the 
end of September (per E.H.G.). 

Black Tern. Chlidonias n. niger. 
Seen by J S. at Britford in May. 

Great Crested Grebe. Podiceps c. cristatus. 

Neither of the two " suitable waters " in the S. of the county mentioned 
in the 1931 Report has been occupied, although a bird has been seen 
at Wardour Two new waters, however, have been occupied. G.E. 
reports the appearance of two pairs on a large pond at Hurdcott 
House, Barford S. Martin. One pair reared young. One pair was 
seen on the water at Compton Chamberlayne in June. 
At Coate Reservoir a number of pairs was observed throughout the 
year by S.J.S., L.G.P., and W.A.P. S.J.S. noted 27 immature birds 
in late autumn, but all but three of these suddenly disappeared at 
the end of the year. 



258 Be'port on the Birds of Wiltshire for 1932. 

At Shearwater two pairs nested (M.W.W.). 

At Stourton two pairs nested, one pair rearing three families (D.W.). 

H.St.B.G. saw two young at Stourton at the end of October. 

Water-Rail. Eallus a. aquaticus. 

L.G.P. has the impression that this very shy bird is increasing. 

One of a small flock which appeared to be migrating on April 5th 

struck a telegraph wire and was picked up dead (C.R.). 
Records from Figheldean (C.B.W.), and near Salisbury (J.B., C.M.P., 

and J.S.). 

Corn-Crake. Crex crex. 

E.H.G. reports that it has been seen or heard more frequently this year 

in Wiltshire. 
This is supported strongly by G.W.C. and C.R. from near Chippenham, 

who report six breeding localities. 
D.P.H. heard them in three different places. 
L.G.P. has records from Axford and Avebury. 
Birds were last seen by D.P.H. and L.G.P. on September 29th. 
R.T.J, had two pairs breeding near Chute. 
R.H.M. heard one at Alderbury, July 8th ; J.S. at Britford in May; 

N.K.W. near Highworth, May 9th. 
Y.G.H. considers the increase of 1931 was not maintained. 
A.J.W. reports them absent from Upavon, after being heard frequently 

in 1931. 
C.B.W. saw only two near Figheldean, one on October 10th. 

Wood-Pigeon. Columba p. palumbus. 

D.P.H. found it comparatively scarce as a breeding species and noted 

that many were suflfering from a form of diphtheria. 
C.B.W. noticed great numbers of foreign birds arriving on November 
10th, most of which had left a week later. 
Turtle Dove. Streptopelia t. turtur. 

L.G.P. and J.H.C. considered them in smaller numbers than usual. 

Quail. Coturnix c. coturnix. 

Eight or nine young were seen with an old bird near Marlborough on 
June 2Vth. 



259 

OLD SAKUM POTTERY. 
By F. Stevens, O.B.E., F.S.A.» 

The excavations at Old Sarum, conducted by Colonel Mawley, in con- 
junction with the late Sir W. St John Hope, and recorded in the Proceedings 
of the Society of Antiquaries (19i0 — 1916) have furnished a very clear 
account of the buildings which formerly graced the site. During these 
excavations many and varied objects were found scattered over a wide area, 
and separated in origin by considerable periods. These finds, though noted 
in Col. Hawley's reports, are suflBciently interesting to warrant a few words 
of description. 

One very important group comprises the pottery, which has had a some- 
what chequered career, for after it had been laboriously restored by Col. 
Hawley and placed in a shed on the site, an aeroplane crashed upon it 
during the War and smashed not only the shed but also the pottery. For 
better custody it was at once removed to the Salisbury and South Wilts 
Museum, where it has remained, by permission of the Dean and 
Chapter. Since then, other specimens of pottery have been found in the 
construction of the new road on the east of Old Sarum and added to the 
collection. The whole has been catalogued, and the important pieces 
exhibited in the Museum. 

This pottery belongs to a period of considerable uncertainty as to date. 
No piece was found, for example, in direct association with coins which 
might have afforded a rough indication of its period. Even general 
documentary evidence of date is apt to be misleading, for in illuminated 
MSS. there always exists a quite reasonable doubt as to the material of 
which the vessel illustrated was made. Wood and metal were in use in 
Norman times, just as plentifully as pottery. Written records, too, leave 
the matter rather dubious, since references to cups, jugs or basins do not 
always specify the material of which they were composed. 

The pottery yielded by Old Sarum is essentially of the useful order, 
cooking pots predominating, together with pitchers, and flasks of a very 
primitive character. There is little really highly finished ware, and the 
impression conveyed by the whole is that of a peasant industry, with 
certain exceptions of possibly foreign origin. It seems probable that local 
clays may have been used. The forms are simple, and a glaze has been 
added, sometimes thick and glossy, and at other times thin and patchy. 
The prevailing glaze is translucent and generally coloured by a metallic 
oxide of copper, thus producing varying shades of green. Iron and 
manganese were similarly employed to give a brown or purple tone, but 
these are not so common at Old Sarum. 

It seems very doubtful if it is possible definitely to assign any piece to 
the Norman period. This does not mean that no pottery existed at that 

» The Society is indebted to Mr. F. Stevens for the cost of the blocks 
illustrating this paper. 

VOL. XLVI, — NO. CLVIII. S 



260 Old Sarum Pottery. 

time. Plenty of Norman pots probably exist in the museums of this and 
of other countries, but as yet there is no great chance of identifying them 
with precision. Generally speaking, it would be hazardous to venture an 
earlier date for the Old Sarum pottery than the Xllth century. Of the 
Xlllth and XlVth centuries, there are quite definite examples, after 
which, pottery other than that of modern times does not occur. This 
coincides with the known facts relating to the history of the desertion of 
Old Sarum, which, when it was granted to Sir John Stourton in 1446-7, 
was described as " now fallen into decay so that no yearly rent thereof 
is answered for to the King," ^ Further evidence is afforded by the coins 
found during the excavations, which cover a period from 1054 to 1361 A.D., 
which includes the date of the demolition of the Cathedral of Old Sarum 
in the Bishopric of Bishop Wyville (1328—1376). 

The first reference to Pottery in the Reports of the Excavations occurs 
in Proc. Soc. Antiq. Vol. XXIII. (1910) : "So far, the excavations through 
being confined to superficial deposits have yielded but few objects of 
interest, beside architectural fragments. Quantities of broken pottery 
almost all of mediaeval date occur, together with various iron objects ; keys, 
spurs, etc,, and a few of bronze and latten." This reference would 
probably relate to the quantities of fragments of broken cooking pots 
which formerly comprised the dump at Old Sarum. In the further Report 
for 1910,' Colonel Hawley adds considerably to the first brief note on the 
pottery. Dealing with the pits in the Inner Bailey, he describes the 
original contents of them as a " conglomeration of general domestic 
rubbish — potsherds were a dominating factor of it. Most of them were of 
very rough unglazed ware. The better jugs were of glazed or partly 
glazed ware. There are several hundredweights of these vessels, and a 
large stable basket over 3ft. high was not large enough to contain those 
of one pit alone." The next Report' records the finding and reconstruction 
of two mediaeval jugs and the finding of a few fragments of Roman pottery 
on the old ground level. Further pottery was found in " garde-robe '* 
No. 10, which consisted of cooking pots, and glazed pottery. 

The Report for 1912^ describes the finding in the Bishop's Palace of a 
bottle-shaped green glazed jug, and various rough and glazed sherds, found 
in the garde-robes, round the Cathedral. From these fragments two jugs 
were reconstructed " similar to those found in the castle." The next Report* 
deals exclusively with the Cathedral and burials and therefore contains no 
outstanding reference to pottery other than tiles. In the following Report 
of the excavations^ pottery is mentioned from the pits near the Kitchen of 
the Bishop's Palace, associated with bones of animals and domestic rubbish. 



' Patent Roll 25 Henry VI., part 1. 

2 Proc. Soc, Antiq., Vol. XXIII., 501. 

» Proc. Soc. Antiq., Vol. XXIV., 52. 

"^Proc. Soc. Antiq., Vol. XXV., 101. 
'^Proc, Soc, Antiq., Vol. XXVI., 100, 1913—1914. 
^Proc. Soc. Antiq., Vol. XXVIl., 235, 1914—1915. 



By F. Stevens, O.B.E., F.S.A. 261 

Again the next year, when the kitchen was opened up ^ the floor was found 
to be covered with black matter of a fire, together with pottery, bones and 
other domestic rubbish. 

The foregoing references show very'plainly that a considerable aggregate 
of pottery was in use at Old Sarum in Late Norman and Angevin times. 
The fact also emerges that with few exceptions the pottery was fragmentary, 
though it was possible to restore a certain number of jugs to their original 
form. Recent road-making operations on the east of Old Sarum have 
brought to light other fragments of similar pottery, but so far it has only 
been possible to restore one jug. For the sake of completeness this has 
been included in the list of the Old Sarum Pottery under review ; though 
the site where it was found lay some 50yds. or more from the Barbican, 
which protected the East Gate. Thirty vessels in all are sufficiently com- 
plete for description, ranging from the Xllth to the XlVth century. 

Cooking pots seem to have predominated, and to have been found in all 
the inhabited areas ^. None of the pots are large, the maximum diameter 
being 5^in., or rather less, and the height 4^in. to 5in., which seerasto suggest 
almost individual use ; certainly not cooking on a large scale ; or they may 
have served as receptacles for each man's ration. The majority are of very 
rough unglazed ware, so rough indeed as to have been mistaken at one time 
for Homan ware. The pots are roughly globular, ^ narrowing into a neck with 
a turn-over rim, which differs widely from the neatly finished rims of the 
Romano- British pottery. Moreover, the composition of the "body" has 
been found to be quite different. 

There are four complete cooking pots in the collection, which enable a 
brief comparison to be made. Two of these (i. B.l and i. B.3 in the 
Salisbury Museum Catalogue) are very roughly potted and the rims are 
evidently turned over by hand, and not on the wheel; they have a dis- 
tinctly waved edge in consequence, and show traces of "wreathing." 
The bottom of i. B.l is perforated by a single hole in the centre, and may 
have been used for a special purpose. The other two cooking pots (i. B 2. 
and i. B.4) display greater care in the making and would almost seem to be 
of a later date. The first of these (i. B.2) (see Plate I., Fig. 2) has a red 
unglazed "body," containing an appreciable amount of sand. It has a 
distinctly turned rim, which is sharply defined, and is blackened under- 
neath* by fire. The second (i. B.4) is of a much superior buff "body*' with 
remains of green glaze, and a lip. It has an outward splayed or everted 
rim and like the others, bears traces of fire. These pots may, of course, be 
contemporary ; if so they show widely differing technique. On the other 
hand the superiority of i. B.4 both in body, potting, glaze and lip seems to 
justify the possibility of its being a later product. These cooking pots with 



^Proc. Soc. Antiq., Vol. XXVIIL, 177, 1915—1916. 
^Cf. Antiq. Journ^ vol. XL, 255, " Lydney Castle." "The cooking pots 
constituted perhaps 95 per cent, of the pottery found." 

^ The cooking pots at Lydney Castle {Antiq. Journ., XL, 225) differ in 
shape, having a sagging base, with convex sides. 

S 2 



262 Old Sarum Pottery. 

everted rims are a generally recognised early mediaeval type. They have- 
been found on unquestioned Norman sites. Only one, however, has been 
definitely dated, and that was found at Leicester with coins of the late 
Xllth century.* 

Another series comprises low flask-like bottles of a sandy red body con- 
siderably wreathed, with traces of green glaze, and heavy splayed bases 
(see Plate I., No. 4). Unluckily there are now only four broken examples 
from Old Sarum, but a perfect example was found in Fisherton Street, 
Salisbury (i. B.32). The Salisbury example is 6fin. high and the diameter 
of the base Sjin. The capacity of these flasks is about five fluid ozs. ; so 
small as to suggest use in a dispensary for drugs or medicines. An alter- 
native use might be for "strong waters." The largest fragment (i. B.5), of 
which only the mouth is missing, is ti^in. high, with a base diameter of Sin. 
A second (i. B.5a) shows the complete upper portion ; another (i. B.6) has 
horizontal lines round the middle, and the last (i. B.7) is rather better 
potted, of a finer body than the other three examples ; the base is not so 
heavily splayed and the body is more globose in form. The general 
inference would be that these pots are early in date and that they might 
well be assigned to the Xllth century. 

Another distinct class consists of the unglazed " bag jugs," with sagging 
bottoms, of a coarse sandy body. Two specimens (i.B 8 and 9) give a very 
fair idea of this class. The first (i.R 8, see Plate I., No 1) stands 8Hnches 
in height with a mouth diameter of 4^ inches. It has a "strap" handle 
and a rounded bottom, which bears traces of fire. The body is of a sandy 
red clay, It has a well defined pinched lip. The second (i.B. 9, see Plate 
II., No. 1), is an oviform jug with flat base, and slightly spreading neck, 
which unluckily is broken, so that it is impossible to say that it had a lip. 
The handle is of the " strap " form and the body coarse and sandy. It is 
10^ inches high, with a mouth diameter of 4^ inches The neck and belly 
bear rough horizontal bands of incised chevrons, evidently put on by an 
unskilled hand. In spite of its roughness it is well potted. The general 
conclusion from the " body " and potting is that these specimens are early. 
They probably belong to the late Xllth or early Xlllth century. 

A specially interesting series is that of the flasks for suspension. One 
perfect example (i B.I 3) and some fragments were found at Old Sarum (see 
Plate I., No. 5, and Plate III., Fig. 1.), and another perfect example (also in 
the Salisbury Museum) was found at Mere near the site of the Castle 
(i. B.58) These flasks are cylindrical in shape, with flattened ends and a 
neck with orifice in the middle of the body, on either side of which are 
two flanges with perforations for suspension. They suggest somewhat the 
leather harvest bottles, and the still later " harvest-barrels " used by 
labourers in the fields The length of the perfect specimen (i. B.13) is 
6 inches, and its diameter 2| inches ; the neck rises | inch from the centre. 
In this case the flanges were not perforated before firing, and consequently 
the flask was useless for practical purposes. Other fragments, however, 
and the complete specimen from Mere, show existence of such holes. The 

^Antiq. Journ.y Vol. VIL, 322. 



By F. Stevens, O.B.E., F.S,A. 263 

"* body " is of well-ground, red clay, inclining to buflf, with a green glaze 
which as is usual in the earlier wares has perished in places. An interesting 
sidelight as to the date of these flasks is to be found in a Xllth century 
manuscript at Trinity College, Cambridge (0.I.20) which shows a 
Xllth century Dispensary (see Plate III., Fig. 2.). Here suspended 
from a shelf at the back will be seen two such flasks, evidently used as 
receptacles for medical tinctures. It is therefore fairly safe to date the 
Old Sarum flasks as belonging to the Xllth century. 

An outstanding piece, found amongst the chalk on the Great Tower 
level Ms a " cauldron-shaped " vessel (i. B.l 2), 11 J inches high, with a mouth 
diameter of 12 inches (see Plate 11., No. 2). It has a fine red body and is 
well potted. The inside is covered thinly with green glaze and the everted 
rim is decorated with a thumbed pattern. The general shape is globular 
with a sagging base. It is possible that this was a cooking pot, correspond- 
ing very closely to those found at Lydney^ though rather larger. This pot 
may well be assigned to the earlier part of the Xlllth century. 

The largest group of vessels, however, is that of the glazed pitchers, of 
various shapes. One unusual form (i. B.14) is a tall straight-sided jug with 
lip, and loop handle l-2§ inches high, with a mouth diameter of 3| inches 
(see Plate II., No, 3). It is of coarse red sandy ware, wreathed in the 
potting and showing finger marks here and there ; the base has been pressed 
down by the fingers, the prints of which are well marked. Only slight 
traces of a yellowish green glaze remain. It has been ornamented with a 
pattern of dots incised by a four-pronged instrument, applied in vertical 
bands from mouth to base, and on the handle which is crudely circular in 
section. This form is not at all general, and does not appear in the 
Catalogue of the Pottery at the British Museum (19U3) ; neither is mention 
of any similar jug made either in Hackham and Read's English Pottery or 
in R. L. Hobson's paper on Mediaeval Pottery found in England.^ As 
already mentioned, the dating of early pottery in the absence of coins or 
other recognisable objects is extremely difficult. Rackham and Read^ are 
of opinion that "the only way to group the early mediaeval pottery of 
England is by the degree of accomplishment in the technique." The 
technique in this example is distinctly primitive ; the general roughness, 
the wreathing, the poor glaze, irregular decoration and very casual thumb- 
ing down of the base, suggest either an early date or, alternatively, an 
unskilled potter. A tentative dating of this piece would be the early 
Xlllth century. 

Next in order of technique come the " spindle-shaped " jugs of which there 
are three restored specimens from Old Sarum (i. B.18, 19, and 27). There 
appears to have been a very large number of these jugs, mostly found in 
fragments. In the garde-robe pits they occurred frequently.^ Colonel 

» Proc. Soc. Antiq., Vol. XXIII., 190. 

2 Antiq Journ., Vol. XI., p. 255, Fig. 7, No. 18. 

^ Archoeological Journal, LIX., page I. 

* English Pottery, page 1 3. 

''Proc. Soc. Antiq., XXIII., 501. 



264 Old Sarurn Pottery, 

Hawley describes them as " of glazed or partly glazed ware varying i» 
colour through reds and greys to brown ; all have handles and lips but vary 
in shape from the short squat jug to a long attenuated jug." He adds " tha 
clay has been well ground and varies in colour ; the glaze ranges from a 
golden yellow to dark green." Speaking of these jugs, Kackham and Head 
say, " We are fairly safe in assuming that the tall spindle-shaped pitchers, 
roughly potted and undecorated, but of usual grace of form belong to a 
period not later than the Xlllth century."^ This is fully borne out by 
the two jugs from the Hoach Smith Collection which were found in Friday 
Street, l^ondon, with silver pennies of Henry III. and Edward I.^ A very 
similar case is the discovery of four pots, two of which were spindle-shaped^ 
near the extreme boundary of Trinity College, Oxford, adjoining the 
premises of Halliol College, and enclosed for the use of students about the 
year 1290. ^ The first of the three jugs from Old Sarum (i. B.18) is 13in. 
high, with a mouth diameter of 4in. (Plate IV., Fig. I., No. 1.) It has a fine 
yellow body, pale green glaze, due probably to the colour of the body, and 
a slender roughly thumbed base. It has a lip and loop handle of circular 
section. The base of the jug is heavy, which gives a steadiness to it. 
There are faint traces of horizontal lines round the neck. The next (i. H 19) 
(see Plate IV., Fig. 1, No. 3), though maintaining the same shape is rather 
more sturdy, being 12|in. high, with a mouth diameter of 4^in. It has 
four bands of horizontal lines applied with a four.pointed instrument. It 
has a lip and a handle, which has been applied after decoration. The 
green glaze is slightly richer than in the previous example and the base has 
been "thumbed down" four times by three fingers. 'J'he last (i. B.27) is 
more slender, being 14in. high with a mouth diameter of 3fin (see Plate IV., 
Fig. 1, No. 2). It has neither lip nor thumbed base and the glaze is again 
pale yellowish green. 

Akin to these in technique, but not in shape is the squat jug (i. B.17) 
(see Plate VI., Fig. 1, No. 3) of the type referred to by Colonel Hawley. 
This is only 9in. high with a mouth diameter of 4 inches. It appears to be 
slightly later, but its relationship to the " Spindle Jugs " seems beyond 
question. It differs from them in having a collar of two raised bands and 
a bead rim on the neck, which includes horizontal bands of incised lines. 
There is a lip and loop handle, and the body inclines to be globular. The 
base has been thumbed down. The technique would justify an attribution 
to the early XlVth century. 

Another squat jug, of distinctly globular form (i. B.25) (Plate I., No. 3, 
and Plate VI., Fig. 1, No. 1) and of the same date, has a fine red body, and 
green glaze, somewhat perished. The neck is slightly turned over, almost 
forming a collar, as in the previous specimen, and the base has been 
" thumbed down " five times with four distinct finger impressions. It ha* 



^English Pottery ^ p. 13. 

' R. L. Hobson, Arch, Journ,, LIX., 7. 

^ R. L. Hobson, Arch Journ.^ LIX., 8. 

^Proc. Soc, Antiq., XXIII., 190. 



By F. Stevens, 0,B,E., F.S.A. 265 

a rough handle of circular section and a slight pinched spout. It is very 
thinly potted. 

A striking example (i. B.15) (Plate IV., Fig. 2, No. 1) is an oviform jug, 
with deeply grooved neck and loop handle of circular section, which has 
been decorated with square holes applied by a comb or similar instrument. 
The base is thumbed down with five distinct groups of finger prints. The 
" bridge " lip has been applied to the vessel after leaving the potter's wheel. 
The body is a fine red ware, glazed with green, and has bold vertical stripes 
of rich brown. It is 12| inches high and has a mouth diameter of 4 inches. 
Its shape and decoration at once place it in a superior category to the 
" Spindle-shaped " forms already described. It may perhaps be foreign 
to the neighbourhood. Its chief interest, apart from the excellent technique 
of its potting, lies in the vertical stripes of brown glaze which suggest the 
XlVth century "strip and pellet" decoration.^ Sometimes, instead of 
strips of applied clay, the vertical band was incised. ^ It is quite possible 
that the vertical bands of dark glaze on the Old Sarum specimen may be an 
early form of this style of decoration. The jugs in the British Museum 
which display this form of ornament are attributed to the early XlVth 
century and a similar, perhaps even earlier date could well be assigned to 
this Old Sarum example. 

Of somewhat the same period is the fragment of what must once have 
been a noble jug (i. B.28) (Plate V., Fig. 1) which in its broken state is 
12 inches high and must have been considerably taller. It is globular in 
form, with three panels of incised lines, each containing a bold spray also 
incised. These were applied by a three-pronged instrument. There is a 
distinct collar to the neck, with vertical bands of incised lines upon it. 
This shows a distinct aflanity to the squat jug (i. B.17) already described. 
The handle is a strap form, pinched into a wavy edge, with three bold m- 
cised lines. Here again the spout has been applied after " throwing." 

The most unusual and interesting piece in the collection is an oviform 
vase (i. B.20) (Plate V., Fig. 2, No, 1) with spreading neck, 1 1 inches high. 

This has a fine pinkish body and fairly uniform green glaze. It has six 
horizontal added bands or beads of clay. Between the second and third, 
third and fourth, and fourth and fifth bands, are horizontal incised undulating 
lines. On the shoulder is a raised band of rouletted ornament, above which 
a spiral incised line covers the neck. It has been suggested that this piece 
is of foreign origin, perhaps from llouen, which seems more than probable 
from its shape, which is very graceful and well balanced. It does not 
appear, however, to have any utilitarian character. The wide spreading 
mouth is unsuitable for pouring and it is without a handle. Somewhat 
similar vessels appear in the account of the excavations at Lydney Castle.s 
These all exhibit the rouletted pattern. It has been suggested that the 
Lydney examples may perhaps date from the Xllth century. The technique 



* British Museum Catalogue of Pottery (1903), page 60, B. 18, Fig. 42. 

'76. page 60, B. 19, Fig. 43. 

' Antiq. Journ., XL, page 260, Fig. 9, 20 to 22. 



266 Old Sarum Foitery. 

of the Old Sarum example suggests a later date than this, and it would 
probably be unwise to venture an earlier period than the close of the Xlllth 
century. 

Greater certainty exists as to two jugs of very similar workmanship 
(i. B. 16 and i. B 29). Both examples show a further development of the 
*' thumbed " base. In the " spindle " jugs the thumbing was purely 
utilitarian and applied casually to secure a firm stance for the vessel. In 
these jugs the thumbing has been adopted to form an ornamental feature 
at the base of the pot. Another characteristic is the collar round the neck 
of i. B.16, which closely follows that of the specimen found in Cannon 
Street, now in the British Museum ^ In the Louterell Psalter, of early 
XlVth century date, a pitcher of similar shape is depicted as being broken 
over the head of a rustic/'' The old Sarum example (i. B.16) (Plate VI., 
Fig. 1, No. 2), 13^ inches in height, has a body of yellow clay, with a rich 
green glaze of a superior quality to that used on the specimens already 
described. The collar is pinched into scallops and decorated with vertical 
incised lines in groups of six. The lip has been pinched in the wet clay. 
The body of the jug is decorated in similar manner with alternate vertical 
bands of straight and wavy lines in groups of six. 

The handle is of the strap type, thickened at the edges and with two deep 
incised lines ; it was applied after the comb decoration of lines had been 
finished. There is no doubt that this belongs to the XlVth century. 
Beside this specimen may be placed a somewhat smaller wide mouthed 
vessel which, though imperfect, has all the same characteristics (i. B.29) 
(Plate VI., Fig. 2, No. 4). The base has the same formal arrangement of 
thumbings and the jug still retains a portion of the collar, which is pinched 
into scallops and decorated with incised lines in groups of three. The body 
on the other hand, has three horizontal incised bands, with diagonal 
scratches of three lines between them. The strap handle has been thumbed 
at the edges, and the thumb prints are quite clear upon it. The glaze is a 
rich green. Its height is 9 inches, and the diameter of the bottom 4 inches. 
All the evidence points to the early part of the XlVth century as the date 
of its manufacture. 

Another fragment (i. B.23) (Plate V., Fig. 2, No. 2) illustrates a somewhat 
later form of XlVth century decoration. In this case only the upper por- 
tion of the jug, with its handle, has survived. The collar of the neck is 
slightly everted at the rim and scalloped at the base; it is marked with 
vertical bands of incised lines in groups of five. The body of the jug is 
decorated with vertical strips of applied clay enclosing impressed pellets 
with a brown glaze ; between these are single vertical bands of incised 
" invected " lines in groups of four. An interesting example of this " strip 
and pellet " work is the XlVth century jug found on the site of Christ's 
Hospital, London, now in the London Museum.^ In this case the strips 



British Museum Catalogue of Pottery (1903), p. 60, B.19, Fig. 43. 

' Vetusta Monumenta, Vol. VI., Plate XXIV., Fig. 17. 

' Rackham and Read, English Pottery ^ Plate II., Fig. 1. 




o 

S 

O 



^.^ 




Fig. I. 






f.._%^.,,. .. 




Fig. 2. 
Plate III, Old Sarum Pottery. 



ifffH 




Fig. 1. 




Fig. 2. 
Plate IV. Old.Sarum! Pottery. 




%^^ 



Fig. 1. 




1 Fig. 2. 2 

Pirate V» Old Sarum Pottery, 



m- I 



^ 




2 
Fig. 1, 



.i^V^ 



^ _J 




1 2 3 

PI.ATE VI. Old Sarum Pottery. 



^J^ 



m0>^ 



=:|v'*s*' 



■4li-'4 




Plate VII. Old Sarum Pottery. 



By F. Stevens, O.B.E., F.S.A. 267 

«.nd pellets have been applied with greater artistic effect, but the method 
and intention remain the same. The " strip and pellet" decoration seems 
to have been quite general, commencing perhaps in]the late Xlllth century 
and continuing well into the XlVth, There is a spouted jug from York^ in 
the British Museum, which has very definite vertical bands and is assigned 
to the Xlllth or XlVth century. Of the same date is a conical lid for a 
iug (Plate VI., Fig. 2., No. 3), with a distinct flange to fit the vessel to 
which it belonged. This is scored with radiating lines on which are applied 
bold pellets of clay, the whole being covered with thick green glaze. 

It was also customary in the XlVth century to introduce rough hand- 
modelled, or even moulded, masks of human faces to serve as spouts to 
pitchers, just as later on the Toby Jug or the mask spout on Italian ware, 
or even on Worcester china, became a convention. A very good 
example of this is the jug found in Bishopgate Street, now in the Guildhall 
Museum.^ Similar masks on jugs are to be found in the British Museum 
from Lincoln and Cambridge.^ One of these hand-modelled masks was 
found at Old Sarum by Mr. Marsh, of Stratford-sub-Oastle, and presented 
to the Salisbury Museum (i. B24) (Plate VL, Fig. 2, No. 2).^ The features 
are roughly modelled with a pointed tool and a series of scratches indicate the 
beard, while a scroll extends from each corner of the mouth. The eyes are 
represented by two circular scratches, with a dot in the centre. The whole 
bears the familiar glaze of the period, and can safely be dated as of the 
XlVth century. 

A fragment of the base of a jug or pitcher (i. B.22) (Plate VI., Fig. 2, No. 
1) from Old Sarum certainly calls for some comment because of the good 
quality of its glaze and decoration. The body of the fragment is a well- 
potted red clay, with fine, even, thick green glaze and a horizontal band of 
rich brown. On it are impressed " dot and circle " ornaments also in 
horizontal bands. The interest of this fragment lies in the use of the " dot 
and circle " ornament at so late a date as the late Xlllth or early XlVth 
century.^ This does not appear to have been general at this date. It is 
also interesting to note that precisely the same form of decoration exists 
upon two pieces of bone, possibly belonging to the Roman period, also found 
at Old Sarum. 

A jug (i. B.31) (Plate IV., Fig. 2, No. 2), somewhat larger than those 
already described, 12j inches high, with a mouth diameter of 4 inches, has 
five bands of horizontal incisions in groups of four ; the base has been 
thumbed down to form a waved base, and the neck has a collar and pinched 
lip. The handle is of the strap type, with a groove on each edge, and 

^ British Museum Catalogue of Pottery, page 60, B.18, Fig. 42. 
^Catalogue of the Guildhall Museum (1908) , page 178, No. 24, Plate LXVL, 
No. 5. 

2 British Museum Catalogue of Pottery (1903), page 61, B.30 ; and page 
«5, B.64, and B.65. 

* Salisbury Museum Catalogue (1870), page 71, No. 27. 
^ A somewhat similar fragment was found in the garden of the South 
Wilts Secondary School, and about half a mile from Old Sarum. 



268 Old Sarum Pottery. 

between these, three diagonal scratches. The glaze is green, blotched with 
brown. Its date would be either the late Xlllth or early XlVth century. 
A similar jug, but of rather more elaborate type, has been found recently. 

Early in the year 1932 a new road was in course of construction, which 
passed between the " Old Castle Inn " and the East Gate of Old Sarura. 
During the excavation for the road and for a cattle track, a certain number 
of skeletons were discovered and among the bones a few sherds of Xlllth 
and XlVth century pottery.^ It was obviously a cemetery outside the 
walls of the city. In one place, slightly to the west of the skeletons, were 
found 47 pieces of one jug which have been carefully put together. The 
jug has certain peculiarities which make it desirable to include it among 
the other finds from Old Sarum (see Plate VII.). It is 13| inches high and 
the diameter of the mouth is 4j inches. It stands upon three squat legs> 
and in this respect differs from all the other pottery from Old Sarum. Jugs 
with legs of this description are not plentiful. A yellow-glazed jug with 
three feet in the Devizes Museum was found in 1903 when excavations took 
place for the Marlborough Water Works/^ It is, however, rather larger, 
and lacks the finish of that from Old Sarum, Another special feature of 
the jug under discussion is its jT/^owsse decoration in alternate vertical bands 
of lines and dots, pressed out from the inside of the jug while the clay was 
wet. The work is as bold and effective as it is uncommon. Mr. G. C 
Dunning, to whom the discovery was reported, writes as follows : — " The 
three small feet on pre-XIVth century jugs are not at all common. It is a 
West Country type, and I know of it at Bristol, Gloucester, and Cirencester. 
There is another at Devizes found with a socketed spearhead, apparently^ 
of the Xlllth— XI Vth century type. Otherwise the type can only be dated 
on general grounds. The type is rare in London ; there is one in the Guildhall, 
and another here ^London Museum). I think one can be confident it is based 
on a metal form with tripod feet. The technique of the decoration is new to 
me on a mediaeval pot, as far as I can remember. This pressing out of bosses^ 
etc , from the inside seems to be a Saxon technique.'' From the above letter it 
would appear that this particular pitcher is a find of some importance. It 
is roughly globular with a distinct collar, pinched lip, and five beaded lines 
round the neck. The handle is of strap form, thumbed at the edge, with 
three bold thumb dashes in the centre. Other slierds have been found over 
the site and though they do not admit of reconstruction, they appear to be 
of the Xlllth and XlVth centuries, as evidenced by handles and decorative 
motifs in applied clay. 

Reviewing the general evidence of the Old Sarum Pottery it would be 
quite safe to say that some of the cooking pots can certainly be assigned to 
the Xllth century, if not earlier ; others again belong to the two succeeding 
centuries. It is possible to trace the gradual improvement from the very 
rough coarse bodied pot, with its hand turned rim, through the compact 
red body with its wheel turned rim, to the final cream body with everted 
rim, lip and green glaze. 

1 ir.^.J/.. XLVI,98. 
^ Devizes Museum Catalogue, II , page 130, M. 97a, Plate XVIIL, 5. 



By F, Stevens, O.B,E., F.S.A. 



269 



The small upright flasks, with heavily splayed bases would appear to be 
not later than the Xllth century, and with them may be classed, though 
rather later, the rough unglazed jugs of very similar body and technique. 
The cylindrical flasks with lugs for suspension correspond to those in the 
Trinity College (Cambridge) illumination of the Xllth century. The 
"cauldron-shaped" pot, the largest piece in the series has a strong resem- 
blance to the L.ydney Castle examples and suggests at latest, the early years 
of the Xlllth century. The " spindle-jngs," a fairly plentiful type, are of 
the same date and continue to the XlVth century, when the collar appears 
upon the neck, together with applied lines, and usually a well formed" bridge" 
spout, which is absent in earlier examples. The bases of these early jugs 
are roughly thumbed down and this, as time goes on, becomes a definite 
ornamental feature. To the XlVth century also belong the jugs decorated 
with vertical lines, either in glaze, applied " strip and pellet " or repousse, 
or with line decoration in horizontal hoops, or sprays put on with a comb ; 
and moulded masks of human features. 

It is therefore safe to assume that the pottery from Old Sarum covers a 
period at least from the Xllth to the XlVth century. This contention is 
further strengthened by the coins, which, commencing with a German 
example dated 1054, terminate abruptly in the reign of Edward III. with a 
coin of 1361. It should, however, always be remembered that in the 
present state of our knowledge of early mediseval pottery, considerable 
uncertainty exists, owing to the lack of finds which can be definitely dated. 
Some of the pieces described may possibly be older than the Xllth century, 
but on the other hand, there would seem to be none which are later than 
the XlVth century. The presence of definite Saxon objects among the 
finds at Old Sarum, might even suggest a Saxon origin for some of the 
roughest of the pottery. 

At present it is possible only to suggest dates and sequences in the hope 
that some of the younger archaeologists may continue the study of this little 
explored region of the identification of the early mediseval wares of this 
country. 



270 



EOMAN EEMAINS FEOM EASTON GREY. 
By A. D. Passmore. 

At the end of 1931 a water-pipe line was laid down along the Fosse Way, 
east of Malmesbury, on behalf of the Bristol Corporation. Where the 
Fosse crosses the Avon at Easton Grey the O.M. Marks on the N. side of 
the river " Mutuantonis " a Roman Station or " White Walls." The first 
name is the result of a guess by Sir liichard (Jolt Hoare, who taking the 
name from the Ravennas fragment of a Roman road book attached it to the 
station here. Actually Mutuantonis is more likely to be in Kent than in 
Wiltshire. The second name, " White Walls," seems to be attached more 
particularly to a small camp 500 yards to the North. There is no apparent 
reason for its origin except that in some summers a white weed covers the 
old earthen walls. The camp is a small circle (300 feet diameter; with 
flattened sides and has been at some time under the plough, as the banks 
are widely spread and the ditch nearly filled up. Its age is uncertain. 

At a point on the Fosse Way half-way between the Malmesbury — Easton 
Grey Koad and the River Avon a good section of the Roman Road was ex- 
posed. This, roughly one foot below the present level, consisted of the old 
road surface of small slabs resting on one foot of rubble ; this again rested 
on nine inches of dark brown sand differing from the local sand in colour. 
This, however, may be due to a highly ferruginous sand being dug from a 
depth and exposed to the air by being deposited at a higher level. As the 
pipe line reached the river it was seen that the depth of the above surface 
rapidly increased to carry the road over the wet ground alongside the water, 
and also to carry it up to a wooden bridge which no doubt once spanned 
the river at this spot. Although searched for no traces of masonry were 
seen in the river bed by wading or observation from a height, although 
many unworked rough slabs were lying about as if collected at the spot. 

As the trench was carried across the site of the Roman Station a quantity 
of pottery fragments were found, with a few coins and various odds and 
ends incidental to the excavation of a Roman site. The pottery dates from 
the First Century to the Fourth and consists of hard imported wares of the 
First Century, Samian of the Second, including a piece of F. 37, with a 
Venus in the style of the potter Libertus who worked at Lezoux about 100 
— 130 A.D. and a small fragment of F. 37 laearing three double spirals in 
the style of Juvenis, a Rheinzabern potter of about 150 — 200 A.D. Coarse 
pottery of the Third and Fourth Centuries was plentiful and many large 
fragments of amphorae were found, unfortunately with the dateable features 
missing. They show that the inhabitants were rich enough to drink foreign 
wine. A mortar rim has the stamp of the potter DOINUS whose work- 
shop is at present undiscovered. Much of the pottery and a pretty little 
bronze nail cleaner are preserved by Col. Wilder. 




S3 

m 

. a 

o ^ 

o § 



a ID 



3 "S 
o o 






"■sr,/*" -^v ,\j S^ *, "^ 







Plate II. — Head of Roman figure with cross 
incised on edge of cap above the forehead. 
Found at Easton Grey. 



Roman Remains from Easton Grey, 271 

The following coins were found at this spot either during these diggings 
or previously. Down to and including Domitian all are of silver, thfr 
remainder frona Gallienus onwards are Third Brass. 

J. Csesar, before B.C. 45. Ar. 

O. Female head to R. 

R. Trophy of Arms, two captives below, CAESAR. 

Mark Antony after 36 B.C. Ar. 

O. Legionary standards, LEG VITI. 

R. ANT. AUG. III. VIR. R.P.C. a galley. 

Vespasian all Ar. 

O. IMP. CtES. VESP. AUG. CENS. Head to R. 

R. PONTIF (MAXIM) Emperor seated, struck at Rome A.D. 73. 

O. CiESAR VESPASIANUS. AUG. Head to R, 

R. Modius and corn ears, struck at Rome A.I). 77, 78. 

O. IMP. C^SAR. VESPASIANUS. AUG. Head to R. 

R. PON. MAX. TR. P. COS. VI. Pax seated Rome AD. 75. 

O. IMP. C^SAR. VESPASIANUS. AUG Head to R. 

R. JUD^A. Jewess seated under trophy A.D. 69—71. Rome. 

Domitianus. All Ar. 

O. IMP. C^S. DOMITIANUS. AUG. P.M. Head to R. 

R. TR P. COS. VIL DES VIIL P.P. Minerva, minted at Rome 
A.D. 81. 

O. IMP. C^S, DOMIT. AUG. GERM. P.M. TRP. Head to R. 

O. IMP. XXL COS. XVI. CENS. P.P.P. Minerva A.D. 92. Rome. 

O. Domitianus struck under TITUS A.D. 80. 

O. CJSSAR DIVI. F, DOMITIANUS. COS. VIL Head to R, 

R. PRINCEPS IVVENTUTIS garlanded altar, burning, Gallienus 
253—268. 

Gallienus 253—268. 

Licinius 307—323. 

R. GENIO. POP. ROM. 

Constantine I. 306—337. 

O. IMP. CONSTANTINUS. AUG. Head to R. Copper. 

R. VICTOIIIAE. LAETAE PRINC. PERP. VOT. PR. Struck at 
TRIER 302—324. 

Constantine I. 306—337. 

R. C^SARUM. NOSTRORUM. VOT. X. Copper. 

Another similar. 
In Ancient Wilts, Vol. IL, Sir Richard Hoare records the discovery of 
many coins and other relics from this spot, and writing about 1 800 he men- 
tions the finding of a curious carved stone shrine here illustrated, Plate I, 
The meaning of this curious sculpture is obscure. Apparently three male 
figures are advancing from the left towards a seated female figure with her 
hands on her knees. Her hair is curiously coiled, and brought up to a 
crest in the centre giving a modern appearance of waving It is worth 
noting that the female figure on the right exactly resembles the three 
figures of the Mother Goddesses on the altar in Lund Church, Lanes, 
illustrated in Antiq. Jourut Vol. XIIL, p. 30, January 1933. Above is the 



272 Roman Bemaius from Easton Grey. 

inscription CIVILIS FEGIT which looks very much like CIVILIS, LEG, 
II. but is not.* 

At the same place and time was discovered the curious detached head, 
six inches high and five broad, here illustrated in Plate II., which is also 
preserved at Easton Grey House. This head has a curious head-dress, but 
appears to be of Homan work. The authorities of the British Museum have 
been consulted and have expressed their opinion. On the edge of the cap above 
the centre of the forehead is a small Latin cross, obviously incised in ancient 
times. It is probable that this head was knocked off a group of three of the 
Deae Matrones and it is tempting to suggest that we have here an example of 
the Christianizing of a Pagan figure by the addition of the cross, when its 
owner was converted to Christianity. If this suggestion can be maintained, 
this head is certainly by far the most interesting evidence of Roman 
Christianity as yet discovered in Wiltshire. 

The interest of these finds at Easton Grey is that they reveal to us the 
existence of a small settlement formed in the early days of Homan Britain 
(probably about A.D. 46) on a river bank where a great road crossed, having 
a small resident population, including inn keepers and horse masters who 
lived on the road traffic between the great cities of Bath and Cirencester. 
Some were rich enough to import French pottery and to drink foreign wine. 
Thus from the First to the Fourth Centuries the town continued until the 
great barbaric inroads of the last few years of the latter, when it was 
probably looted and abandoned. 

Thanks are due to Colonel Wilder, of Easton Grey, for much kindness 
and freedom to explore the station and his adjoining lands. 

In the Malmesbury Museum is a small stone bearing a few letters of an 
inscription said to have come from this excavation. It is an obvious forgery, 
photographs were sent to Mr. Collingwood, both he and Miss Taylor 
immediately condemned it and in the Journal of Roman Studies^ Vol. 
XXIL, part 2, p. 229, say, " Mr. Passmore in sending us a photograph, 
rightly remarks that it is a transparent forgery." 



1 In Roman Britain in 1923, p. 279. By Miss M. V. Taylor and R. G. 
Collingwood. "Eph.!Epigr. VII., 813, (Plate XL). Rude Sculpture of a Shrine 
at Easton Grey, near Malmesbury. The correct reading was given by 
Haverfield in Eph. Epigr. IX., p. 520, as CIVILIS FEGIT. As no 
adequate illustration of this curious sculpture has been published we 
reproduce a photograph kindly supplied by Mr. A. D. Passmore. Haverfield 
explained the seated figure as a local goddess ; that the subject of the sculp- 
ture is religious can hardly be doubted." 



273 

WILTS OBITUARY. 

Vice- Admiral John IiUCe, C.B., died suddenly September 
22nd, J 932, aged 62. Buried at Malmesbury, Born 1870. S. of Col. 
Charles R. Luce, V.D., of Halcombe, Malmesbury. Educated at Clifton, 
entered Britannia as cadet January, 1883, and went to sea as Midshipman 
on H.M.S. Minotaur, 1885. Afterwards served on H.M.S. Audacious in 
China until 1888. Lieutenant 1892. Served on H.M.S. Cruiser 1892 — 

1894, and later on H.M.S. Inflexible. First Lieutenant on H.M.S Pelican 

1895. Commanded H.M.S. Dolphin, a sailing ship for training boys at 
Portland, 1900. Commander 1903. Later he commanded the Destroyer 
Erne and Light Cruiser Foresight, and was appointed to the Admiralty for 
duty in the Naval Intelligence Department. Captain 1909. He commanded 
H.xM.S. Hecla, was Flag Captain on H.M.S. Hibernia, and in 1912 took 
command of the Glasgow, a light cruiser which on the outbreak of war 
joined Sir Christopher Cradock's force on the S. American coast and took 
part in the battle of Coronel against the stronger German force under 
Admiral Von Spee on November 1st, 1914. The Glasgow fought in the 
line throughout the action but managed to escape when the other ships 
were sunk, and joined the force under Admiral Sturdee and fought the 
German ships again at the Falkland Islands when she sank her old 
antagonist, the Leipzig. After this he was engaged in the pursuit and 
ultimate sinking of the last of the German ships, the Dresden, on March 
14th, 1915. 

Admiral Luce returned home in 1916 and became Commodore of the 
R.N.A.S. at Cranwell, and in 1919 commanded the battleship Hamillies. 
Rear Admiral 1920, and A.D.C. to the King J919 — 20. He was Admiral 
Superintendent at Malta 1921 — 24. Vice- Admiral 1925, and Admiral on 
the retired list 1930. 

About 1927 he came to reside at the Old Rectory, Little Cheverell, where 
he died. He served as the High Sheriff of Wilts, was a staunch church- 
man and a member of the Diocesan Conference, a governor of Dauntsey's 
School, President of the Market Lavington branch of the British Legion, 
and was interested in every good cause in the neighbourhood. He leaves 
a widow and four sons. 

Long obituary notice, Wiltshire Gazette, vSeptember 29th, 1932. 

He was joint author of the Official History of the Eiusso-Japanese War, 
ITaval Section. 

Col. Thomas Ernie Powle, died October, 1932, aged 69. 
Buried at Charlton. Son of Thomas Everett Fowle, J. P. D.L. of Chute 
Lodge and Charlton St. Peter. He served many years in India in the 
Bedfordshire Hegt. On retirement he bought a small estate at Charlton 
and took up dairy farming, was a well-known member of the Tedworth 
Hunt, a fisherman, and a shot. He was made J. P. in 1922 and represented 
Enford Division on the County Council, and both on the bench and at the 
County Council he was always regular in his attendance. For many years 
he was a member of the Diocesan Conference and a frequent speaker. 

The Wiltshire Gazette, in an obituary notice, October 20th, 1932, says : — 



274 Wilts Obituary. 

" Colonel Fowle may be described (without any disrespect) as a * character/ 
His tall spare figure had a suggestion of Don Quixote, and some of his 
• offensives ' may be not inappropriately termed Quixotic in their hopeless- 
ness. His motions at the County Council, chiefly directed to the matter of 
expenditure, generally failed to get a majority, and his interventions in 
debate at the Diocesan Conference rather gave the impression of the leader 
of a forlorn hope. But his idiosyncraciesv^ere combined with — rather, were 
the expression of— a sincere desire for the good of his fellow-men, and his 
good-heartedness and entire lack of ostentation won him the warm friend- 
ship of those who knew him." 

George Edwards Wilbraham Northey, died September 

26th, 1932, aged 72. Buried at Ditteridge. Born 1860, served in Royal 
Engineers, Western Military Division, reaching rank of Captain. Resigned 
on being appointed Deputy Governor in H.iVI. Prisons. Later he was 
Governor at Portsmouth, Exeter, Chelmsford and Manchester Prisons, 
retiring from the service about 20 years ago. During the war he was Em- 
barkation Officer at Southampton and Railway Transport Officer at Victoria 
Station, and was afterwards Chairman of the Recruiting Committee of the 
Box area. He was J.P and D.L, for Wilts. He succeeded his father, 
Lt.-Col- G. Wilbraham Northey on his death in 1906 in the Cheyney Court 
Estate, being lord of the Manor of Box, Ashley and Ditteridge. He married, 
1885, Miss Hunter, d. of Capt. Hunter, of Bath, who with a son and daughter 
survives him- 

Rev. Arther Silver Murray, died October 8th, 1932, aged 

74. Buried at Horningsham Exeter C'oll., Oxon, B.A. 1882, M.A. 1885. 
Sarum Theolog. College 1897, Deacon 1898, Priest 1899 (Sarum), Curate of 
St. Edmund's, Salisbury, 1898—1900, Vicar of Horningsham 1900—1930, 
when he retired. 

Obit, notice Wiltshire Times, October 15th, 1932. 

Maud Evelyn, Dowager Marchioness of Lans- 

downe, died October 21st, 1932 Buried at Bowood. The daughter of 
the 1st Duke of Abercorn she married the late Marquess of Lansdowne in 
1869. As the wife of the Minister for War, and the Minister for Foreign 
Affairs at Home, of the Governor-General of Canada (1883 — 88), and of the 
Viceroy of India (1888 — 94), Lady Lansdowne played her part with great 
distinction. At Bowood in 1907 she entertained King Edward VIL and 
Queen Alexandra for several days. She was Lady of the Bedchamber to 
Queen Alexandra for some years. She was Lady of the Order of the Crown 
of India, the Order of the Companions of Honour, and the Order of Victoria 
and Albert. Her services during the war when Bowood was made a hospital, 
and the Officers' Families' Fund was founded largely by her eflforts 
brought her the distinction of Dame Grand Cross of the British Empire ; 
and her zeal in the cause of nursing in peace time, that of Lady of Justice 
of the Order of St. John of Jerusalem. Since the death of the late Marquesa 
she had lived partly in London and partly at Derreen in County Kerry. 
Obit, notice, Wiltshire Gazette, October 27th. 1932. 



Wilts Obituary, 275 

Field-Marshal Paul Sanford, Lord Methueii, 
G.C B., Cr.C M.Gr., G.C.V.O., died October 30th, 1932, aged 87. 
Buried at Corsham. Born September 1st, 1845. Eldest son of the 2nd 
Lord Mfthuen, his mother having been Miss Sanford, of Nynehead Court, 
Somerset. Educated at Eton 1858, and Sandhurst. Ensign in Scots 
Fusilier Guards 1864, Captain 1867. Brigade Major 1871. He was with 
Sir Garnet Wolseley in the Ashanti Expedition 1873—74. Lt.-Col. 1876. 
Assistant Military Secretary at headquarters in Ireland 1877, and then as 
Military Attache in Berlin until 1881, where he was very popular and 
received the 2nd Class of the Order of the Red Eagle from the Emperor Will I. 
ReturningtoEngland, 188l,hebecame A.A.andQ.VI .G., Home district. In the 
Egyptian War he was Commandant of Sir Garnet Wolseley's headquarters 
and was present at the battles of Mahuta and Tel-el-Kebir. C. B. 1881. 
He also received the 3rd class of the Order of the Osmanieh. In 1884 he 
went out to Bechuanaland where he raised and commanded Methuen's 
Horse during the native rising, for which he was made C.M.G. Col. 1888 
and went to S. Africa as D.A.G. Major-Gen. 1890. He succeeded his 
father as 3rd Baron 1891, and in 1892 was appointed to command the Home 
district for five years, after which he served as press censor on the H .Q 
staff during the Tirah Expedition. Lieut.-General 1898. On the outbreak 
of the S. African War in 1899 he commanded the 1st Division of the Field 
Force in the attempt to relieve Kimberley, and defeated the Boers at 
Belmont and Enslin but for want of mounted troops could not pursue his 
advantage, and on November 28th fought the battle of M odder River, and 
on December 11th failed to drive the Boers from their strong position of 
Magersfontein where the Highland Brigade was almost annihilated, and his 
force had to be withdrawn. He served in command of a mobile column in 
the Western Transvaal until February, 1902, when his very inadequate 
force met with complete defeat at the hands of De la Rey, and he himself 
was severely wounded and made prisoner. Released at once by the Boers 
he returned to England but was lame for the rest of his life. In 1904 he 
was given the command of the IVth Army Corps, or Eastern Command, 
and did much towards training the troops for modern war. In 1908 he 
became Commander-in-Chief in S. Africa and "did much to conciliate 
public opinion in the conquered provinces." He became Field- Marshal 
1911, and returned home in 1912. During the Great War he became 
Governor and Commander-in-Chief at Malta 1915 — 1919, and on his return 
to England became Constable of the Tower of London. 

" Lord Methuen," said The 7\mes, " will always be respectfully remem- 
bered by his countrymen as a chivalrous gentleman, who fought manfully 
and did his duty without any thought of himself. He was a perfect Knight 
who never swerved a hair's breath from the path of truth and honour, and 
would never believe evil of any other man." 

He married, first 1878, Evelyn, d. of Sir Frederick Hervey Bathurst, who 
died childless in 1879 ; secondly in 1884, his cousin Mary, d. of W. Sanford 
of Nynehead Court, Somerset, who with three sons and two daughters sur- 
vives him. He is succeeded by his eldest son, the Hon. Paul Ayshford 
Methuen, born 1886. Long obit, notice, Times, October 31st, 1932. 
VOL. XLVI, — NO. CLVIII. T 



276 Wilts Obituary. 

Thomas King, died December 25th, 1932, aged 77. Buried at 
Bromham. B. at Bromham, s. of James King, carpenter and wheelwright at 
Bromham. He was extraordinarily successful as a gardener not only in 
the local but in the large public shows. At the Crystal Palace in 1911 he 
won 1 1 silver medals and the 20-guinea cup presented to the competitor 
winning the largest number of prizes. He won in all between 1,100 and 
1,200 prizes. He was much in request as a judge at local shows and an 
enthusiastic supporter of the Bromham Horticultural Society. Like his 
brothers, James and John, he served in the old 2nd V. Battalion Wilts 
Regt , and like them he was a famous rifle shot. Between them they won 
prizes to the value of over ;^1,000. He married Hagar Hall, of Bromham, in 
1882, and had seven children, of whom a son and five daughters survive him. 
He was a Nonconformist, and in politics a Liberal. He took a prominent 
part all his life in Bromham affairs and will be greatly missed there. 

Long obit, notice, Wiltshire Gazette, December 29th, 1932. 

Frank Baker, died March 2nd, 1933, aged 68. Buried in Devizes 
Road Cemetery, Salisbury. Born at Fisherton 1865. Educated at the 
Elementary School, he became known more especially by his work in con- 
nection with Friendly Societies. He was an Oddfellow, a Freemason, and 
a member of the Ancient Order of Shepherds, but his chief life work was 
in the Order of Foresters. In this he attained in 1925 the highest possible 
position in the Order, that of High Chief Ranger, and had much to do 
with the management of the Society, as a whole. In 1902 he was elected 
the first " working man " representative on the City Council, and became 
Mayor in 1905. He was senior Alderman and senior member of the Council 
at the time of his death. He was made a Life Governor of the Infirmary in 
1905, and since then had been a member of all the important committees of the 
Council, becoming Chairman of the Educational Committee in 1922. He 
was appointed J. P. for the county in 1918. He married first, 1891, Bessie, 
daughter of Mr. H. White, of Andover, and secondly, 1901, Miss Maud 
Young, of Sturminster Marshall, who with a son and daughter survives 
him. 

Long obit, notice and portrait, Salisbury Times, March 10th, 1933. 

George Freemantle, died October 26th, 1932, aged 83. Buried 
at Britford. He was head verger of Salisbury Cathedral from 1879 to 1930, 
when he retired and became one of the secretaries of the " Friends of the 
Cathedral." He lived in the little house which is the only residence actually 
within the Cathedral Green. His whole life and interests were centred in 
the Cathedral, of which, indeed, to generations of clergy and visitors he 
seemed a necessary part. His funeral service in the Cathedral was very 
largely attended. 

On his 80th birthday a testimonial was presented to him by 500 sub- 
scribers. " Few can estimate the great debt owed for the reverent attention 
given to every detail of worship, for the care taken of the furniture, plate, 
embroidery and vestments, for the willing help and counsel most loyally 
rendered to the Cathedral body, not to speak of the welcome at all times 



Wilts Obituary, 277 

offered to visitors from far and near. ... He was a household word to 
the parishioners of the Close. ... To generation after generation of 
choristers he was a real personal friend to whom they owe an incalculable 
debt. ... In the Great War he attracted to his cottage on the Close 
Green men from all parts of the empire." It was said of him that " the one 
name heard in Australia in connection with Salisbury was that of George 
Freeniantle" 

Obit, notices, Salisbury Diocesan Gazette^ November ; Wiltshire Gazette, 
November 3rd, 1932 ; a portrait in The Sarum Record, December, 1932. 

Major Robert Clarke, died December 19th, 1932, aged 72. 
Born at Milbourne, near Malraesbury, December 1st, 1859. Enlisted in 
Royal Artillery 1877. Served in India as Warrant Officer, commissioned 
:as Lieutenant, November, 1892. Captain and Adjutant in 1st Hants Royal 
•Garrison Artillery Volunteers 1900 — 1905. District Officer in Royal 
Artillery and Adjutant in Militia and Volunteer Artillery. Served in 
-Sierra Leone 1909—1910, at Pembroke Dock and Cardiff 1910—1914. Area 
Commandant of Lines of Communication Western Section 1914—1917 when 
he was invalided from the service. He took a leading part in many activities 
^t Malmesbury. 

Obit, notice, Wiltshire Gazette, December 22nd, 1932. 

B.ev, Ernest Christian Alexander, died after an operation 

November 24th, 1932, aged 63. Buried at Westbury. Educated Gonville 
and Caius Coll., Camb., B.A. 1891, M.A. 1895, Wells Theolog. Coll. 1891, 
Deacon 1892, Priest 1893 (Durham). Curate of Pelton, 1892—96 ; St. Jude, 
IS. Shields, 1896—97 ; H. Trinity, Weymouth, 1898—1911 ; Vicar of Edington 
1911—22; Vicar of Westbury 1922 until his death. Rural Dean of 
Heytesbury, 1927. He was Chairman of the Diocesan Sunday School 
'Council. Very highly regarded both at Edington and Westbury. He leaves 
:a widow, two sons and two daughters. 

Obit, notice, Wiltshire Times, November 'HQth', Salisbury Diocesan Gazette, 
December 1932. 

Edward Champion Lon^, died November 5th, 1932, aged 45. 
Buried at Bremhill. Born at Southseaj s. of the Rev. G. E. Long, who was 
Vicar of Bremhill 1910—1917. He was a practical farmer, occupying the 
Olebe Farm, Bremhill. He had been a member of the County Council for 
seven years and was Chairman of the Calne Rural District Council. He 
held a lay reader's license in the diocese of Salisbury and occasionally took 
the service and preached at Bremhill. In all the Calne and Chippenham 
district he was held in high regard, and will be greatly missed. He 
leaves a widow and two children. 

Obit, notice, Wiltshire Gazette, November 10th, 1932. 

William Henry Barrett, died January 4th, 1933, aged 66. 
Buried at St. Paul's, Chippenham. Born at Cricklade, son of Police- 
Sergeant Barrett, entered as a boy the office of Messrs. Keary, Stokes & 

T 2 



278 Wilts Obituary. 

White, Solicitors, of Chippenham, and remained with them until his death. 
For many years assistant clerk, and after the death of Mr. G. A. H. White^ 
clerk to the Chippenham Bench of Magistrates. He was the borough 
auditor, and held other offices and was for 32 years assistant secretary to 
the Chippenham Agricultural Association, resigning in 1922 when a testa- 
monial was presented to him. He was a very prominent Freemason. 
Obit, notice, Wiltshire Gazette, January 5th, 1933. 

Col. Hichard Parry Crawley, died February 2nd, 1933, aged 
66.. Buried at Corsham. Son of the Rev. William Parry Crawley, Vicar of 
Walburton, Sussex. Born July 10th, 1876. Educated at Winchester and 
Sandhurst. Joined S. Wales Borderers in 1897 and fought in the Boer 
War. Seriously wounded at Magersfontein, he was twice mentioned in 
despatches. After the war he was transferred to the Army Service Corps 
and became Captain in 1903 and Major in 1914. In the Great War he 
served two years in France and later in Italy and Archangel. Brevet Lt.- 
Col in 1918. After the Great War he served on the Indian Frontier and 
became Lt.-Col. in 1921 and full Colonel in 1922 From 1925 to 1929 he 
was Assistant Director of supplies and transport of the Army of Occupation 
on the Rhine. He retired in 1929 and settled at Corsham where he took 
much interest in the British Legion, and acted as churchwarden. He held 
the Hoyal Humane Society's medal for a gallant attempt to save a life from 
drowning. He married, 1904, Alice Vida Mary, d. of the Rev. David 
Cochrane, Master of Etwell Hospital, Derbyshire, who with one son and 
two daughters, survives him. 

Obit, notice, Wiltshire Gazette, February 9th, 1933. 

Major Holand W. W. Grlmshaw, died February, 1933. 
Buried at Foxley. S. of Dr. T W, Grim-shaw, C.B., of Carrackmines, Co. 
Dublin, Registrar-General for Ireland. Served in the Royal Irish Regt., 
and in the Great War with the Indian ('avalry, Poona Horse Regt. He 
was severely wounded and retired in 1923. He became private secretary 
to Mr. H. L. Storey, of Burton Hill House, Vlalmesbury. He was a strong^ 
Conservative, a polo player and umpire at Norton, and was greatly inter- 
ested in the Malmesbury Boy Scouts and British Legion 

Obit, notice and portrait, Wiltshire Gazette, March 2nd, 1933. 

Major £dwiU Ernest Blaine, died February 20th, 1933, aged 
62. Buried at Manningford Bruce. Son of E. P. Blaine, of London. 
Educated at Harrow and Sandhurst. Joined Royal Scots Fusiliers, was 
wounded in S. African War and retired with rank of Major. Joined up again 
on outbreak of the Great War and served on thestaiSf in France. Married/ 
1922, and came to live at Manningford Bruce Manor soon afterwards. He 
identified himself in many ways with the life of the village, and founded a 
flourishing branch of the British Legion, in the work of which he was 
especially interested. He also acted as churchwarden. His death was 
a great loss to the parish. 

Obit, notice, N. Wilts Herald ^ February 10th, 1933. 



Wilts Obituary, 279 

. Rev. Charles Edward Perkins, died March, 1933. Buried 

at Little Hinton. Chichester Theological Coll., 1876. Deacon 1878, Prieat, 
1879 (Gloucester and Bristol). Curate of St. Matthias on Weir, Bristol, 
1878—81; Butleigh, 1881—82; Baltonsborough, 1882— 87 ; Vicar of St. 
Matthias on Weir, Bristol, 1887—1902 ; Rector of Little Hinton, 1902, until 
bis death. He was one of the most regular attendants at the Society's 
annual meetings. 

Col. John Reginald Wyndham, died March leth, 1933. 

Buried at Sutton Mandeville. Born April 8th, 1870, son of Rev. John 
Wyndham, Rector of Sutton Mandeville. Joined the Wilts Regt. 1890 as 
2nd Lieutenant; Lieutenant 1891 ; Adjutant 1897 — 1901; Captain 1898. 
Adjutant of 3rd (Militia) Battalion 1903—1908. Major 1908. Adjutant 
at the Dep6t, Devizes, 1909. Served in S. African War, 1901—1902. In 
the Great War, 1914, he landed with the 2nd Battalion at Zeebrugge 
and was taken prisoner, remaining a prisoner until 1918. He became 
Lt.-Col. and commanded the reformed 2nd Battalion at Hong Kong and in 
India. The founding of the Old Comrades' Association was largely due to 
liim. 

Harold Ainsworth Peto, died April i6th, 1933, aged 79. 
]5uried at Cheddington. Fifth son of Sir Samuel Morton Peto and brother 
of Sir Henry Peto and Sir Basil Peto, M.P. Well known as a designer of 
iormal gardens, he came to Iford Manor some 30 years ago, restored the 
house, laid out the terraced garden on the steep hill side and filled it with a 
large collection of architectural fragments obtained by him in Italy and 
elsewhere, the most notable of which is a " well head," really a Byzantine 
Capital, which came from the neighbourhood of Ravenna, and no doubt 
capped a column of a destroyed Church of that city of the time of 
Theodoric. There is also a considerable collection of wooden Gothic 
carvings. The house and garden, well known as a show place, were described 
in Country Life, August 26th and September 2nd, 1922. Mr. Peto never 
married, and took no part in public matters. 

Herbert Lushington Storey, died April 26tb, 1933, aged 80. 

Buried at Weston Birt. Born at Lancaster, March 14th, 1853, eldest son of 
Thomas Storey, who was knighted in 1877 for conspicuous services rendered 
to the town and county, principally in connection with the erection of the 
Storey Institute (Technical School, School of Art, Library, Newsrooms and 
Art Gallery). Mr. H. L. Storey was educated at the Lancaster Grammar 
School, Derby Grammar School, and Owens College, Manchester. He 
began his business training on the continent, and entered the house of 
Storey Brothers, of which his father was the head and one of the founders. 
He was a member of the I^ancaster Corporation for nine years, and to the 
time of his death a member of the Higher Education Committee. In 1879 
he founded one of the earliest branches of the Cambridge University 
Extension Lectures in Lancaster, and for many years acted as organising 
Secretary. For over 20 years he was Chairman of the Governors of 



280 Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles, 

Lancaster Royal Grammar School. He was one of the Charity Com^ 
missioners for Lancaster and a member of the Royal Albert Institution for 
the feeble minded, and in 1903 built at the cost of i'6,000 workshops where 
patients are trained in carpentry, bootmaking, printing, etc. In 1908 he^ 
enlarged the buildings of the Storey Institute at a cost of ^£10,000, and in 
1928 founded a Science Scholarship at Manchester University for students 
of the Storey Institute. He was High Sheriff of Lancashire 1904—5, and 
D.L., and in 1930 was presented with the Honorary Freedom of Lancaster 
in appreciation of his pioneer educational work in his native town, to which 
the present very high position of Lancaster in the matter of higher education 
is so largely due. The Westfield Memorial Village, with 70 cottages &Q.p 
for disabled ex-service men, which Ld. Haig described as " the finest War 
Memorial in the kingdom," largely owed its existence to him. He came to 
Malmesbury in 1921, living at first in the Manor House. He afterwards 
bought Burton Hill House, the residence of the Miles family, and laid out 
the gardens on a large scale. He sold the Manor House for a very small 
sum for the enlargement of the Cottage Hospital, and was a most generous 
donor to the Abbey Restoration Fund, in addition to the special gift of the 
oak screens for the choir stalls at the east end. He was twice married, and 
leaves a son and a daughter by each marriage. 
Obit, notice, Wilts Gazette, April 27th, 1933. 



WILTSHIKE BOOKS, PAMPHLETS, AND ARTICLES. 

[N.B.— This list does not claim to be in any way exhaustive. The Editor 
appeals to all authors and publishers of pamphlets, books, or views, in any 
way connected with the county, to send him copies of their works, and to 
editors of papers, and members of the Society generally, to send him copies 
of articles, views, or portraits appearing in the newspapers.] 

An Introduction to the Archaeology of Wiltshire 
from the earliest times to the Pagan Saxons, with 
chapters on Stonehenge, Woodhenge, Avebury, 
Silbury Hill, Barrows, Earthworks, etc. By M. E. 

Cunnington. Devizes. Printed by George Simpson & Co., 1933. 
8vo., pp. xii. + 156. Illustrated. 3s. 6d. 

The scope of this book is described by its author as follows : — " Part I. 
is intended to give a general outline of the archaeological periods as repre- 
sented in Wiltshire from the earliest times. Part 11. deals in greater detail 
with particular objects and monuments." It is in fact just what it calls 
itself, an " Introduction " to the study of Wiltshire archaeology which can 
be read with equal advantage by the man in the street who would like to 
know what really has been discovered as to the origin and meaning of the 
barrows and earthworks and stone circles that he sees, but is alarmed at 



Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles, 281 

long words and technical descriptions, or by the serious student of 
archaeology from outside the county who wishes to get some idea of what 
Wiltshire has to show in the way of prehistoric antiquities. Both will find 
this book to their liking. On the one hand it is very cheap, it is easy read- 
ing, and is written in simple language which everybody can understand ; on 
the other hand it is no mere compilation from other men's writings, but is 
the fruit of the author's own devoted study, and Mrs. Cunnington's know- 
ledge of Wiltshire archaeology as a whole is certainly second to that of no 
one living to-day. In these pages she is most commendably chary of 
" theories," and when her view does differ from what has come to be the 
orthodox opinion on any point, as for instance on the age of Stonehenge, 
she gives the reasons for her belief, and without dogmatising, states what 
seems to her the probable effect of the available evidence. 

Beginning with Eoliths as the earliest identifiable work of man, the case 
for and against their artificial origin is clearly given, and man's existence 
in the Miocene period is stated as possible, and in the Pliocene as probable. 
Passing on to the Palaeolithic period, when men were hunters and fishers 
without agriculture or domestic animals, she shortly describes the alterna- 
tions of climate in that period. Of the succeeding Mesolithic period no 
evidence in Wilts has yet been discovered. Between the Palaeolithic and 
the Neolithic periods indeed there seems to be a complete break, and there 
is no transition between them. In the Neolithic period the living sites on 
Knap Hill, and Windmill Hill, and the burials in the long barrows are 
treated of more fully, as are also the Beaker pottery, daggers, &c., of the 
Early Bronze Age people, with the recent, and as yet unique, discovery of 
the dwelling site of that age, on Easton Down, Winterslow. Of the 
succeeding Middle Bronze Age, the age of cinerary urns and cremations, it 
is noted that neither defensive earthworks nor dwelling sites of the period 
are known in Wiltshire. 

One of the best chapters— as indeed was to be expected — is that on the 
Early Iron Age from 600 or 500 B.C. down to the Roman Conquest. To 
this period belong the three village sites of All Cannings excavated by Capt. 
and Mrs. Cunnington, and the numerous pit dwellings of Swallowcliffe 
Down, and Fifield Bavant examined by Dr. R. C. Clay, as well as the large 
defended camp or settlement of Casterley, also explored by Capt. and Mrs. 
Cunnington. The majority of the great camps of Wiltshire and the neigh- 
bouring counties so far as they have been excavated, prove to be of this age. 

Many of the village sites, too, on the downs which are generally spoken 
of as Romano-British date from this earlier age, though they continued to 
be inhabited right down to the end of the Roman period in many cases. 
The section describing the life in these Pre-Roman villages is excellent. The 
dwellings themselves were either rectangular on the surface of the ground, 
or circular and sunk as pits, with " mud " or wattle and daub above ground, 
covered with thatch. The cooking was largely by means of " pot boilers,'' 
that is heated flints dropped into the water until it boiled, or pits in the 
ground converted into temporary ovens for baking or roasting by means of 
similar hot stones. The inhabitants cultivated the down round their 
villages in small rectangular fields, the boundaries of which are still visible, 



282 Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles. 

and wheat, barley, and oats, were certainly grown, for they have been found 
in the pits, and perhaps beans and peas. 

They kept cattle, sheep, goats, pigs, horses, and dogs, and captured red 
and roe deer whose bones are found with those of the domestic animals. 
They ground their corn with "saddle querns" for the later rotary quern 
does not seem to have come into use until shortly before the Roman 
Conquest. 

That cloth was commonly woven in the villages is shown by the constant 
presence of loom weights and spindle whorls, whilst iron slag and fragments 
of crucibles with bronze stains show that iron smelting and bronze working 
on a small scale was also carried on, whilst the remarkable collection of 
pottery found at All Cannings prove how skilful the potters of the time 
were. 

With regard to the fragments of human bone, such as a bowl made of a 
skull at Fyfield Bavant, found scattered with other rubbish on the village 
sites, Mrs. Cunnington suggests that they point rather to the careless burial 
of their dead amongst the village huts rather than to any such custom as 
head hunting, as has been suggested. 

The Roman occupation brought no great change in the mode of life of the 
mass of the people. The old downland villages continued to be occupied 
down to the end of the period. There was no break in continuity. Roman 
Wiltshire had a considerable agricultural population but no large towns. The 
sites of Gunetio at Mildenhall, Verlucioat Wans, and Nidumat Wanborough, 
are doubtfully identified. Sorbioduum was an important meeting place of 
roads, but it is questioned whether the site of the place was on the hill of 
Old Sarum at all. On the other hand, of villas 23 sites are known and 12 
others may be such sites. None of them are on the downs, but in wooded and 
sheltered positions in the valleys, especially in the neighbourhood of Bath. 
There is no known military camp in Wiltshire, and the roads of which 
several cross the county were part of the general road system of Britain 
and were not intended to serve local needs. Many of the villas are near 
these roads, but the village sites are not. 

On the departure of the Legions in 410 the old tribal system which seems 
to have been adapted largely by the Roman Government again came to the 
front as a loose confederacy of petty kingdoms. Comparatively few 
remains of the Pagan Saxons have been found in Wilts, at least in all the 
central part of the down country. Old Sarum was not taken until 552, and 
the archaeological evidence agrees with that of the " Chronicle " in putting 
the effective Saxon occupation of central Wilts late in the 6th Century after 
the conquest of the Thames Valley. The immediate result was the ruin of 
the Roman towns and villas, which were never used by the Saxons, who 
settled on the sites of the present English villages in the river valleys, 
whilst their strip system of cultivation of open or common fields, took the 
place of the small rectangular fields of the native population. This does 
not mean that the native village population was exterminated, but the 
break between the two systems was complete, and mediaeval England owed 
little or nothing to the civilisation of Rome. The Saxon cemeteries on the 
borders of the county contain no burials by cremation, and as this was the 



Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, Siud Ai^ticles. 28,3' 

earlier Saxon custom as seen in the east of England, its absence points like 
all the other evidence to the late date of the conquest of Wiltshire. 

Having thus sketched shortly the archaeological record of the county 
down to the Saxon Conquest, Mrs. Cunnington gives a series of short 
chapters or sections on various archaeological matters of interest. Knowle 
Farm gravel pit with its wealth of Palaeolithic implements of the Chelles 
and St. Acheul types, numbering up to 1920, according to Mr. Kendall, some 
10,000 specimens, and the curious " glaze " on many of its flints, found also 
at Walkers Hill, Oollingbourne, and near Aldbourne, has a section to itself, 
the "glaze " being attributed to sand polish by water or by air. 

In the section on Silbury Hill she expresses no opinion on its age or pur- 
pose except that she regards the evidence of the 1H67 excavation that the 
Roman road swerved to avoid the hill, as altogether putting out of court 
the suggestion that it was a Norman " Motte." On the other hand she 
does not regard the floor of flint flakes found 9ft. deep in the silt of the 
ditch by Mr. Pass, as sufficient evidence of the Bronze Age of the mound. 

Woodhenge is shortly described, and the peculiar pottery found there, 
which has not been found elsewhere, is regarded as probably of the Middle 
Bronze Age, which would thus be the age of the timber rings. 

Her article on Stonehenge is a good one ; she says that whatever theory 
may be held it is a fact that the axis is orientated to the sunrise, but as to 
the various theories of its purpose as a temple dedicated to sun worship, or 
as an astronomical observatory, or calendar for the division of the year, 
she writes— " Whether these speculations bear any relation to the true 
history of the monument is a matter of doubt, that, as far as can be fore- 
seen, is never likely to be cleared up " As to its age she expresses no 
opinion beyond this in connection with the discovery of Iron Age pottery in 
the Y and Z holes ; " If these holes are of the same date as the main 
structure, and the excavators maintain that they are, the implication of an 
Iron Age date would be difficult to combat." On the other hand she says 
also of the presence of blue stones from Bowles' Barrow—" This proves 
that some blue stones were already in Wiltshire in the Long Barrow period, 
and therefore makes it probable that those now at Stonehenge were here 
also, but it in no way proves that they already stood as a circle on the 
present site, still less that Stonehenge as we know it was in being at that 
time." 

As to the age of Avebury she thinks that it is clearly later than the 
Neolithic earthworks of "interrupted ditch" type on Windmill Hill. 
^' The evidence at present available suggests that Avebury belongs to the 
Early Bronze Age." 

Of the Sanctuary on Overton Hill, she considers that the presence of a 
Beaker burial and of pottery like that from West Kennet Long Barrow 
points to its origin in the Early Bronze Age, the timber circles being earlier 
than those of stone, and that it was perhaps the earliest portion of the 
Avebury system to be erected. 

Barrows long and round, and their contents, are very fully treated and 
illustrated. Altogether 96 long barrows have been identified in the county 
of which 12 or 15 were chambered. The presence of a horse's bone in one 



284 Wiltshire Books, PamphletSy and Articles, 

is noted as a proof that the horse was already in Wilts in late Neolithic 
times. She is inclined to think that the mixed and imperfect collections 
of bones found in the long barrows are best accounted for by supposing 
that the bodies were first buried elsewhere, and the bones afterwards col- 
lected together and covered by the long barrow. The idea that they were 
family sepulchres opened from time to time to receive fresh bodies is, she 
argues, negatived by the difficulty of opening the majority of the barrows 
which have no chamber. She allows, however, that it is possible that these 
originally had a wooden chamber. Of the various theories of the origin of 
the Megalithic culture she favours the belief that the Mediterranean 
peoples spreading westwards and northwards through Spain and France 
brought this culture with them to Britain. 

The different types of the round barrow, bowl, bell, and disc, and their 
age and contents are dealt with and fully illustrated, and incidentally the 
curious " Pond Barrows " often associated with groups of Bronze Age bar- 
rows, are discussed. She decides that they are certainly ancient, and are 
neither ponds nor moots, for there is no entrance to them, but like Sir 
R. C Hoare she cannot suggest what their purpose was. As to the 
domestic pottery of the Bronze Age, of which, in the absence of known 
dwelling sites of the period (except the recently-discovered Winterslow site) 
we are ignorant, she concludes that it was in all probability of the same 
types as that used in the barrows. 

The later Bronze objects, spear heads, socketed celts, &c., not found in 
the barrows, in which Wiltshire is, compared with other counties, poor, as 
well as the gold ornaments and amber beads and necklaces found in the 
barrows in which on the other hand our county is singularly rich, are well 
illustrated. 

The evidence of woven cloth, the impression of which has been preserved 
on other objects in many Bronze Age barrows, shows that apparently flax 
was grown and linen woven as early as the middle period of that age. 

There is an interesting note on the segmented beads of blue vitreous paste 
which have been said to be imports from Egypt or Crete, where very 
similar ones occur during the 18th Dynasty 1500—1300 B.O. About 76 of 
these have been found in the county in 22 barrows, of which a list is given ; 
a larger number than have been found in all the rest of England put to- 
gether. Mrs. Cunnington points out that the segmented form would 
naturally be assumed in the making of vitreous beads, that the material i» 
quite likely to occur as a by-product of smelting bronze, and that if these 
beads did come from Egypt it is at least remarkable that no other Egyptian 
object of any kind has ever been found in this country associated with ob- 
jects of the Bronze Age. She concludes, therefore, that the beads were 
made in Britain, and not imported. 

Under the head of Earthworks she gives a descriptive catalogue of 98 of 
the principal earthwork enclosures of all ages in the county. The earliest 
of these are those assigned to the late Neolithic period, with interrupted 
ditches such as Knap Hill and Windmill Hill, Avebury, which may date 
from about 1800 B.C., but with the exception of these, and a few small 
rectangular enclosures such as were excavated by Pitt Rivers and may date 



Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, mid Articles. 285 

from the latest Bronze or earliest Iron Age, all the larger camps which have 
been examined prove to be of the Early Iron Age, and were apparently- 
normally inhabited. It has been suggested that many of those in the south 
of England were made in the period between the invasion of Caesar and 
Conquest by Claudius, as a result of the Roman Conquest of Gaul. A few 
may have been re- occupied after the departure of the Komans but there i» 
no direct evidence of this in Wiltshire. 

As to Wansdyke, Mrs. Cunnington is inclined to favour the suggestion 
of Frof. Oman that it dates from the dark time between the departure of 
the Romans and the Saxon Conquest, and was the boundary between two 
British kingdoms, perhaps erected during the 40 years check to the iSaxon 
invasion after the British victory of Mt. Badon about 500 A.D. Alter- 
natively it may have been a defence by the Britons against the Saxon 
invasion from the north by way of the Thames Valley. 

The Early Iron Age villages excavated at All Cannings, Swallowclifife, and 
Fifield Bavant, are shortly described with the evidence provided by their 
pottery, showing the transition from the Hallstatt and Finger-tip type at 
All Cannings to the Bead Rim La Tene type of Fifield Bavant. 

It is remarked as singular that whilst we have in Wiltshire innumerable 
burials of the Middle Bronze Age, but no dwelling sites ; in the Early 
Iron Age we have many dwelling sites but no burials (except the 
Marlborough Bucket) — the explanation being that burial in urnfields had 
been substituted for that in Barrows, and that the urnfields of Wiltshire 
have not yet been discovered. 

Pit dwellings and storage pits, sunken ways, lynchets, &c., have their 
separate notes, and various notable individual objects, the Marlborough 
bucket, the Chute flint money box and British gold coins, the Rudge Cup, 
the Saxon jewellery from Roundway, and the Wilton bowl, are illustrated 
and described. With regard to the last, Mrs. Cunnington does not mention 
the suggestion recently made that these remarkable hanging bowls, found 
for the most part in Saxon graves, are not really of Saxon manufacture at 
all, but of Celtic, i.e., British make, and represent precious loot taken by 
the Saxon chieftains in whose graves they are found. But this after all 
cannot be said to be proved. It is indeed difficult to find anything to cavil 
at. There are a few misprints in the earlier pages, Broom certainly never 
grew on the bare chalk downs, and Mr. Kendall's initials should read 
G. H. O. instead of O. G. H. But looked at as a whole there is no denying 
that within the limits she has allowed herself the author has managed to 
compress into this small book a really astonishing amount of most accurate 
and up-to-date information covering the whole field of Wiltshire archseology, 
whilst for those who desire to study the matter more fully for themselves 
her extremely full series of references to the original accounts of everything 
she mentions form practically a complete bibliography of the subject. And 
all this can be pur chased for the modest sum of three shillings and sixpence. 
It should be read by every educated person in the county. 

The Second Belgic Invasion. By Chr. Hawke» 

and Cr. C, Dunning. Aritiq. Joum., Oct, 1932, Vol. XII., 411 — 
430. In this paper the authors return to the charge in defence of their 



286 Wiltshire Booksj Pamphlets, and Articles. 

theory of a separate Belgic invasion of Wessex from Normandy about the 
middle of the 1st century, A.D., which had been attacked by Mrs. 
Cunnington in a previous paper in the Antiquaries Journal (XII., pp. 27, 
34). They hold that there were two movements from Belgic Gaul to 
Britain, one to S.E. Britain before Caesar's conquest, probably about 75 B.C., 
marked by the pedestal urns of the Aylesford — Swarling group, and the 
second from Normandy to Wessex (Hants, Wilts, Berks, &c.) about 50 B.C., 
which brought with it the potter's wheel, and was characterised by the 
bead-rim bowl pottery of the late La Tene type. In support of their theory 
they give a distribution map of this particular pottery showing the Wessex 
area, including Wiltshire as crowded with sites where this pottery has been 
found, whilst the rest of Britain is absolutely blank. 

The whole argument appears to rest on the occurrence of bead-rimmed 
pottery which can be definitely assigned to the pre- Roman period, as dis- 
tinguished from Romanized ware of the same general character but of post- 
conquest date. The question is of considerable importance to Wiltshire 
archaeology, inasmuch as it is claimed that the great camps, Casterley, 
Winkelbury, Battlesbury, Oliver's Camp, Oldbury.&c, are in all possibility 
due to this second Belgic invasion. 

The l/4th Battalion the Wiltshire Regiment, 
1914—1919. By Lieutenant George Blick, edited 
by Major-General Stanley, with Forewards by 
Brigadier-General Lord Koundway, C.M.G., M.V O., 
D.S 0.,and Brigadier-General H. J. Huddleston, C.B., 

C.M.G., D.S.O., M.C. 1933. Cr. 8vo„ cloth, pp. 142. Price 3s. 6d. 

The " Regimental Records "of the l/4th Wilts Regiment were written up 
and kept in the Orderly Room of the battalion during the whole period of 
the war — and lost at Trowbridge ! It is to replace them in some measure 
that the author " decided to attempt a brief record of what happened during 
those years (of the war) with the hope that it might be of interest to the 
present and future members of the 4th Battalion." 

It was during the annual training of the Territorial companies in 1914, on 
August 4th, that the order to mobilise reached them and they entrained for 
Devonport. Five days later they were back in camp at Durrington. On 
October 9th they embarked for India to relieve regular troops there, and 
the voyage out is well described, as a convoy of eleven ships guarded by 
cruisers and destroyers, passing on their way two convoys of 32 ships in all 
containing Indian troops on their way to the Western Front. In India 
they were stationed first at Delhi under Lord Radnor, and during the hot 
season at Dehra Dun and at Chaubattia Station. Delhi and the conditions 
of life and training there are well described. In 1917, after some time spent 
at Poona and Kirkee, they embarked on September 16th, 1917, for Egypt, 
and on arrival moved up by Kantara to the lines before Gaza, where the 
battalion had its first experience of war. The trench fighting before the 
town and the rapid pursuit northwards of the Turks after its fall occupy a 
good many pages. During these operations the great shortage of water 



Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles. 28T 

seems to have made a greater impression on the men than anything else. 
The Turks were pursued northwards, making a stand here and there, and 
losing many prisoners. The battalion got as far north as Mt. Carmel, 
spending a good deal of time in road making and guarding prisoners. The 
severest action in which they were engaged was that at the capture of 
El Tireh on September 19th, 1918, when Col. Armstrong, who had long 
commanded the battalion, was killed with three other officers and sixteen 
men, whilst six officers and sixty-two men were wounded. Hostilities 
on the Palestine front ceased on October 31st, 1918. After spending some 
time at Ramleh, Kantara, and Port Said, the battalion was sent in April, 
1919, to Port Sudan and Khartoum, and then returning home was com- 
pletely demobilised by November 10th in that year. 

The author himself served with the battalion throughout the war, and he 
gives in this little book a plain, unvarnished, day-to-day account of its 
doings and its losses from the beginning to the end of the war, which 
will be valued by those who themselves belonged, or whose friends belonged 
to the l/4th Battalion the Wiltshire Regiment. 

Noticed, Wiltshire Times, February 18th, 1933. 



Witchcraft in Wiltshire, 1667—1701. By B H 

Cunniugton. An article in the Wiltshire Gazette, March 2nd, 1983* 
On the general subject of witchcraft in the 17th century, with twelve ex- 
tracts from the Records of Wilts Quarter Sessions from 1667 to 1701, 
concerned with the prosecution of witches. A woman named Barlow, in 
1630, and Anne Bodenham, of Fisherton Anger, in 1653, were executed for 
witchcraft, as well as several women of Malmesbury in 1670. In 1672 
Elizabeth Peacock, of Malmesbury, who had been acquitted two years 
before, was again accused and acquitted, whilst two other women of the 
same place, Judith Witchell and Ann Tilling were sentenced to death but 
were reprieved. But in 1685 all three of these women, with eleven others, 
were before the justices again on the same charge, and the three above- 
named were sentenced to imprisonment whilst the eleven others were set at 
liberty. In 1689 Margaret was sentenced to death but was reprieved. 
The last prosecution for witchcraft appears to be that of Joanna Turner in 
1701. She was found not guilty. An interesting case is that of Christiana 
Weekes, of Cleeve Pepper, who in 1649 was indicted for using certain 
wicked and diabolical arts called " witchcrafts, enchantments, charmes, and 
sorceres," in professing to tell where lost goods could be found, and in 
particular for informing certain persons where two flitches of bacon would 
be found. She was acquitted but in 1651 she was again indicted, a man of 
Manton having given her i!4 4s. to charm an evil spirit out of his leg, she 
having persuaded him that he had been bewitched by Dorothy Rushton, of 
Clatford. She had also said that she knew of another Manton man who 
had stolen divers calves. After being acquitted in 1652 of stealing beans, 
she was in 1654 again in trouble for professing to know where lost goods 
could be found, and who had stolen them. What happened to her on this 
occasion is not recorded. 



288 Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles, 

Parson Herbert. The Saint of Bemerton. An 

«,nonymous article in The Times, March 3rd, 1 933. The article begins thus ; — 
"George Herbert was a saintly man ; and the world which is always 
puzzled by the reality of sainthood, has found two methods of explaining 
him. The older way was to make him all soft and as gentle a country par- 
son as ever beamed in the pious fiction of a parish magazine. The other 
way, more in favour since " Eminent Victorians" set a fashion, is to see his 
piety as the refuge of a baffled ambition ; the showing-off of one who, 
having failed in the world, resolved to cry sour grapes at the top of his 
voice. Neither view (both are stated here in an extreme form) has the 
countenance of Herbert's first and best biographer, Isaac Walton. Like 
most other saintly men and women, George Herbert refuses to fit into any 
conventional mould ; but to follow him through his short life is to discern 
a character much less simple than the conventional saint, much less melo- 
dramatic than the disappointed courtier, and much more worthy than either 
to be honoured by his Church and his country." 

George Herbert of Bemerton, Poet and Saint. 
Notes of a Lecture February 23rd, 1933, by Canon 
J. M. J. Fletcher, F R. Hist S, at the opening of the 
George Herbert Tercentenary Exhibition at the 
Public Library, Salisbury. Pamphlet, ejin. x 4in., pp. 14. An 

excellent sketch of Herbert's life ; his family in which were still the three 
Earldoms of Pembroke, Carnarvon, and Powis ; his parents and his mother's 
influence ; his position as public orator at Cambridge ; his Wiltshire con- 
nection with Dauntsey, with Baynton in Coulston, the home of his wife, 
Jane Danvers ; and finally with Bemerton. He restored the Churches at 
Bemerton and Fugglestone and practically rebuilt the Rectory at Bemerton. 
His life at Bemerton is described and the influence of his writings in his 
own time and at the present day, though he seems to have been forgotten 
all through the 18th Century. The date of his death is uncertain but he 
was buried on March 3rd, 1632/3. 

The Life of William Beckford. By J. W. Oliver, 
D Litt. (Edin.), London Oxford University Press, 

1932. 8vo., pp. xi. + 343. Portrait of Beckford, and view of Fonthill 
Abbey. This, the third full dress biography of Beckford is excused by its 
author thus : — " Nine years ago when the family papers of the Duke of 
Hamilton were lodged in the Register House, Edinburgh, I had the good 
fortune to be allowed to examine the manuscripts of William Beckford, 
which, at his death in 1844, had passed into the hands of his daughter Susan 
and so into the keeping of the Hamilton family. I was thus enabled to 
make what I believe is the first thorough examination of those documents 
carried out since the days immediately succeeding Beckford's death and, 
with the aid of the fresh material which they provided, to attempt the pro- 
duction of a new and adequate biography. ... To tell the story of 
Beckford's life frankly, justly, and tactfully, was obviously going to be no 



Wiltshire Books, Pam'phlets, and Articles, 289 

«aRy matter ; and I do not now flatter myself that I have entirely succeeded 
in doing so. I have done my best, however, to establish the truth about 
him and, at the same time, to deal justly and sympathetically with one whose 
posthumous reputation I have felt to be very largely in my hands, I hope 
that I have succeeded in making his life and character more intelligible 
than they have hitherto been." The book consists very largely of letters 
both from and to Beckford, of which an enormous number seem to have 
been preserved. As a young man these are chiefly to or from the first Lady 
Hainilton who acted as a mother to him, and to or from Louisa, the wife of 
Peter Beckford of Stepleton, Dorset, who was violently in love with him. 
As to the scandals of his early life, the author does not attempt to deny 
that there was considerable foundation for them, but as regards the stories 
current as to the mysterious iniquities of his later life at Fonthill after the 
death of his wife, he concludes that they rest on no evidence whatever. He 
gives an account of various writings of Beckford of whick the MS. is pre- 
served, although they were never printed. The building of the Abbey is 
fully described, and it is noted that it cost Beckford £273,000. Alderman 
Beckford's house was pulled down and its materials were used to build the 
Abbey, except one wing which was incorporated in the later house, until 
the whole was demolished in 1921. The only fragment of the Alderman's 
work now remaining is the Lodge Gate at Fonthill Bishop. The sale of 
1801 was of pictures, &c., displaced by the gradual pulling down of the old 
house, and not suited for display in the new Abbey. The planting of 
Lansdowne bill and the building of the tower, after the sale of Fonthill is 
fully described. As to the Abbey itself the author contends that " the Abbey 
should be considered, not as a piece of architecture, but as the most 
magnificent feature in a magnificently conceived scheme of landscape 
gardening .... in an age of picturesque gardening." 

The Wilton Diptych. English ! By P. H. Crlpps- 

Day. Connoisseur i March, 1933, vol. xci., pp. 167—169. The arms of 
Richard IL and his badge of the White Hart on the back of the Diptych 
are illustrated. The writer contends that the painter of the crest and arms 
must have had in his mind the crest helm and shield of arms of the Black 
Prince still suspended over his tomb at Canterbury, and also illustrated in 
this note. Mr. Cripps Day thus reinforces Mr. Beard's contribution, in The 
{Connoisseur of December, 1931, that the painter of the Diptych was an 
English artist. 

The Records of the County of Wilts, being extracts 
from the Quarter Sessions Great Rolls of the Seven- 
teenth Century. Extracted and Edited by B. 
Howard Cunnington, F.S.A. (Scot)., with a foreword 
by the Most Honourable the Marquis of Lansdowne. 
Devizes. Printed and Published by George Simpson 

^ Co., Devizes, 1932. 15s. net. 8vo., pp. xvi. + 377. Frontis- 
piece, Petition of John Dicke. 



290 Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles. 

The great mass of documents and papers preserved in the county muni" 
ment room at Devizes has long been calling for someone who should 
examine, arrange, and bring some kind of order to the collection. To this 
work C'apt. Cunnington has devoted himself during the winter months of 
the last three years, and this book now published contains the most inter- 
esting fruits of his great work, so far as the records of Quarter Sessions in 
the 17th century are concerned. He has here transcribed and printed the 
most interesting of his discoveries, and his volume does not of course pro- 
fess to do more than this. To print the records in full would be an im- 
possible task- A certain number of the extracts, such for instance as the 
story of the Skimmington at Quemerford, have appeared from time to time 
in the Wiltshire Gazette, 

Capt. Cunnington writes : — " With the possible exception of Devonshire, 
it is doubtful if any other county has such a continuous record as Wiltshire 
has of the proceedings of its Quarter Sessions. Whilst those of the former 
begin at a somewhat earlier date, the Wiltshire records, from 1603 onwards, 
form an almost complete account of the work carried on by the justices for 
the benefit of the county and the preservation of order." As early as 1605 
the justices ordered that John Kent, the then Clerk of the Peace, should 
view the Bridewell in Devizes in order that a place of safe keeping for the 
records might be found. Apparently the records remained there until 
January, 1642/.3, when the justices passed a resolution that " upon consider- 
ation how the Sessions Records may be preserved in this time of danger 
(during the Civil War) a strong chest with two locks and keys for that pur- 
pose be provided and kept in the vestry house of Warminster Church." 
" At some later period the records were transferred to Wilton, and after- 
wards to Fisherton Anger Prison, where they were kept in a separate 
chamber built for the purpose. When that prison was given up in 1875, 
they were sent to Devizes Prison and stored in eight unoccupied cells until 
the present muniment room was built adjoining the Assize Courts at Devizea 
in 1878 " 

A certain number of items from these rolls were printed in the Report of 
the Historical MSS. Commission in 1901. These are not printed in this 
book. All the chief events of the 17th century in the county are reflected 
in these rolls. Of course there is considerable repetition. Maimed soldiers 
are continually petitioning for grants, and their petitions are supported as 
often as possible by letters from influential persons. During the Common- 
wealth period the petitions are naturally from men who have served on the 
Parliamentary side, whilst after the Restoration the Royalists come in for 
their share. 

There are a certain number of cases in which witchcraft is alleged though 
it does not appear whether the accused were found guilty or not. In 1694 
at Road a crowd seized three old women and swam them in the river as a 
test. In 1670 Jane Townsend, of Latton, was indited because she had a 
teat or nipple on her body about half an inch long, which was suspected to 
be a witch's mark. In 1632 Margaret Sellar, of Chittway (Chittoe), hung 
a dog with a silk girdle and made of its powdered liver a philtre for men. 



Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles. 291 

On the whole, however, Wiltshire does not appear to have been obsessed 
by the witch mania as some other districts were. 

Fires come before the justices in the shape of applications for relief, or 
authority to send out " briefs " for that purpose. At West Lavington on 
April 26th, 1689, 226 "bays of buildings" were burnt, valued at £5,367, 
whilst the loss of goods was put at £1608 18s. 8d.; and in 1634, the two 
villages of Winterbourne Dauntsey and Winterbourne Earls were almost 
totally destroyed, the damage being put at £5,481. Unlawful bull baiting is 
complained of at Calne in 1612, and at Warminster in 1677. In 1654 a coal- 
finder had leave from the Earl of Hertford to dig at Erchfont for coal and 
prays Quarter Sessions for assistance on the job. Thomas Croft, of Bowood, 
is presented to the Hundred of Calne as an eavesdropper in 1671. There 
are continual complaints of the multiplicity of unlicensed or superfluous 
alehouses from all over the county with requests that they may be suppressed. 
In 1627 and 1628 men were hanged for horse and sheep stealing. In 1612 
the parents of an illegitimate child were ordered to be whipped publicly in 
the churchyard by the tythingman. In another case, at Whiteparish, after 
the public whipping, the father was to pay lOd. a week until the child is 
three years old and after that to keep the child until he is old enough to be 
apprenticed, the mother paying 4d. a week to him. At Clack " being a 
market town " John Gale was appointed as constable and the Saracen's 
Head was to continue as the only inn until further orders. Petty larceny 
was punished by a public whipping on market day in Devizes or else- 
where, until the culprits' "backs do bleed." In 1612 a Church sale was 
held at Donhead Mary for the benefit of the Church after Evening Prayer. 

Staverton Church being unused in 1659 the bell was sold for £5 3s. At 
Whaddon people were presented for playing at ninepins and culverholes 
on the Lord's Day in 1651. At Hindon in 1636 Samuel Yar worth success- 
fully took sanctuary in the Church against the constables. In 1626 there 
was a Skimmington at Marden because Robert Moxham had been beaten 
by his wife. At Long Newnton there was a custom of " carrying a garland " 
on Trinity Sunday and in 1641 there was a riot when Malmesbury men 
tried to carry it ofif. 

In 1639 it was ordered that the beacons on Lyddington Down should be 
watched by three Hundreds, and not by the Hundred of Kingsbridge alone. 
At Wylye the elm near the Church was the " Common meeting place " at 
which Will. Ffarrett & Eliz Longe were to be whipped until their backs do 
bleed, as the parents of an illegitimate child. In 1654 Mrs. Hester Burchelh 
of Preston, in Lyneham, having had money stolen, sent to a conjuror in 
Oxford who helped her to get it back. Fines for swearing (is. an oath) 
were given to the poor. 

The plague is much in evidence, in the form of petitions relating to relief 
for the sufferers from Devizes, Salisbury, Wilton, Wootton Bassett, Maiden 
Bradley, and elsewhere. In 1617 certain inhabitants of Calne claimed as 
tenants of the Honour of Ewelme, exemption from the obligation to serve 
on Grand or Petty Juries ; with what result is not stated. Of old gambling 
games, " Putt " and " Penny Prick " are mentioned, and " Coathe " is used 
as the equivalent of " Rot " in sheep. A Potterne man is presented for 

VOL. XLVI. — NO. CLYIII. U 



292 Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles. 

keeping a rookery on his land. The Morris dance at Woodborough is 
stated to be a very disorderly proceeding. St. Edith's Marsh, at Bromham, 
is called "Tidworth's Marsh" or " Tiddie Marsh." Recusants who were 
numerous in S. Wilts, whilst there were very few in N. Wilts, Quakers, 
and Nonconformist attendants at Conventicles all figure as law-breakers. 
The only example in these records of the infliction of the punishment of 
" Peine fort et dure " in other words pressing to death, for refusing to plead 
" guilty " or " not guilty," is that of Katherine Peters in 1641 whose original 
crime was the stealing of a cloth and a sheet belonging to Frances Goddard, 
Esq., at Standen Hussey. There are many indictments of tradesmen for 
issuing unauthorised copper tokens at the end of the l7th century. 

At the end of the volume the chief appendix contains a full transcription 
of a large number of letters, either wholly autograph, or with autograph 
signatures, addressed in many cases by persons of importance to the justices, 
most of them dealing with the pensions of maimed soldiers, or the building 
of cottages on the property of the writers. There is also a very useful 
appendix of eight pages giving in full the tables of wages for all sorts of 
work, decided on by Quarter Sessions in 1655 and 1685. Altogether Capt. 
Cunnington is to be congratulated on having given students of I7th century 
history one of the most important existing mines of information of all sorts 
respecting Wiltshire during that period, in this stout and well-printed 
volume. 

Marlborough College Nat. Hist. Soc. S.eport for 

1932. The usual lists Botanical, Entomological, and Ornithological, of 
species noticed during the year are given. That of birds is the longest ever 
noticed in one year. Three Kingfishers' nests were found, one in a chalk 
pit, another in a gravel pit, and a third in a bank, but not by the river. In 
Savernake Forest the Herons had three nests near the Column and six near 
Ouselett. The botanical list gives 560 species and varieties observed during 
the year. The White Admiral butterfly was again seen in Cobham Frith 
Wood, and several Beetles, Ichneumon Flies, and Caddis Flies new to the 
district were observed. There is a paper by G. M. Young on " Saxon 
Pewsey " in which the boundaries as given in the Charter conferring the 
Crown property on Hyde Abbey, Winchester, for the purpose of providing 
clothes for the Monks, are traced. Many of these such as Ceolbrihts' Pit 
and the two barrows remain to-day, though Luse barrow has disappeared 
entirely. Mosslea is identified with Maizleey Copse, near Rainscombe. 
" Headstocks " is a puzzle. It does not here seem to be any kind of gallows, 
and it is suggested that it means piles driven in near the river to keep the 
ploughed land from slipping into the water. Several illustrations of the 
modern boundary are given. A very useful paper on "A Wiltshire 
Waggon " by the Kev. P. H. Lane, is given with six good illustrations of its 
details. The waggon is of the " Hoop Pave " type, with the " Rave " curved 
upwards over the hind wheels used in the Marlborough district for the last 
150 years, and similar to the Somerset type, but apparently not now used in 
Hants or Oxfordshire. The standard measurements of such a waggon are 
given. They were probably evolved since 1750 when farming on a large 



Wiltshire Boohs, Pamphlets, and Articles, 293 

scale became popular. By an act of 1751 the breadth of the wheel track 
was limited, whilst a further act of about the same time limited the load 
carried by any vehicle on the high road to three tons. The farm waggon of 
of the later half of the 18th century was one to carry heavy loads, but it 
could not have a wide track because of existing ruts often of great depth 
not only on the farm, but also on the public roads. The loading surface 
was therefore increased by " raves " projecting over the wheels. As the 
deep ruts necessitated large wheels behind, whilst the " raves" themselves 
could not be more than 4ft. 9ins. from the ground in the centre because of 
the difficulty of loading, they (the " raves ") had to be " upswept" over the 
4ft, lOin. hind wheels. These " raves" could not support the load without the 
support on each side of the fore, middle, and hind " staffs" or brackets of 
iron, each of which is furnished with a curved hook (" hitch ") to which ropes 
securing the load can be attached. Additional support is given by ' ' strouters " 
of wood behind the wheels. Nowadays, however, the modern " trolly " or 
'• boat waggon " is superseding the old waggon. " Modern roads have made 
smaller wheels possible ; gone is the need for " hoop raves," gone is the 
difficulty of " lock " ; gone are the tolls ; and the old fashioned Wiltshire 
Waggon is rapidly becoming a thing of the past." A most useful paper. 



The World as in my Time : Memories of Sir Henry 
Newbolt, 1862—1932. London, Faber & Faber, 

1932- 2 vols., Large 8vo. Vol. I., pp. xvi. + 321, 17 illustrations. 

The book begins with a charming account of the revisiting for the first 
time in 1 927, by the author, of Bilston Vicarage, Staffordshire, where he was 
born in 1862, the son of the then Vicar. On this peg are hung the recollections 
of his early childhood, his family and their relatives and neighbours. 
Then follows his first school at Caistor-on-the- Wolds, apparently as nearly 
perfect as any private school could be. In 1878 he won a scholarship at 
Clifton where he remained until 1881 under Percival and afterwards Wilson 
as headmasters, becoming in due course Captain in the School Rifle Corps and 
head of the school, famous as a runner and a shot. The school, its system 
and its masters are described at considerable length with the utmost 
affection and loyalty. From Clifton he went up to Oxford in 1881, and 
his four years at Corpus, his friends and acquaintances, and his doings 
during term time and vacations, take up a considerable portion of the volume. 
On leaving Oxford he became a barrister and practised for some years. 
He left the Bar, however, in 1898 and became in 1900 Editor of the new 
Monthly Review published by Murray. When he resigned this post after 
having held it for four years, the centenary of Trafalgar (1905) was 
approaching, and he set to work on his book The Year of Trafalgar. This 
led to his examination in detail of the evidence of the original log books of 
the various ships engaged in the battle in the Record Office, and he came 
to the conclusion that the current accounts of Nelson and Collingwood's 
tactics during the battle were incorrect in very important particulars. The 
appearance of his book led to a subsequent newspaper controversy until in 

U 2 



294 Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles, 

1912 the Admiralty decided to appoint a committee " to examine and con- 
sider the evidence relating to the tactics employed by Nelson at the Battle 
of Trafalgar." The committee in their report in the following year 
decided that in every particular the landsman was right, and the naval 
writers were wrong, no small triumph for the former ! 



ITevil Maskelyne. By Mrs A. W. Iiaue Hall. Journal 

of the British Astronomical Association, Vol 43, No. 2, 1932—33, pp. 67—77. 

" Nevil Maskelyne, the fifth Astronomer Royal, won for himself the title 
" Father of Lunar Observation" and although he made valuable additions 
to the knowledge of the time in many other branches of astronomy, this 
gives the key to his life's work. He is chiefly remembered as the founder 
of the Nautical Almanac first published in 1766 for the year 1767, and the 
tremendous service rendered by this and ethers of his publications towards 
the perfecting of nautical astronomy are summed up in the words of Admiral 
Smyth. '• Seamen must never forget that they are indebted to him for the 
Nautical Almanac, the management of chronometers, and the establishment 
of Lunar observations." The Royal Obsevatory had been founded by 
Charles IL in 1676, " For the purpose of rectifying the tables of the motions 
of the heavens and places of fixed stars in order to find out the much desired 
longitude at sea and for the perfecting the art of navigation . . . and 
Maskelyne more than any of the Astronomers Royal before or since, made 
the improvement of the practical business of navigation his chief aim, and 
none of all the incumbents of the oflSce kept its original Charter so close 
before him." 

The above are the opening words of a valuable article which after some 
account of the Maskelyne family history at Purton and Basset Down, goes on 
to describe the astronomer's life and work at considerable length. Educated 
at Westminster and Catherine Hall, Pembroke Hall and Trinity, Cambridge, 
successively, he became Fellow of Trinity in 1757, and Fellow of the Royal 
Society in 1758. In 1761 he made a voyage to St Helena under the auspices 
of the Royal Society, to observe the transit of Veuus. His estimated 
expenses which were paid in addition to a fee of £150 were as follows : — 

£ s. d. 

Boarding at St. Helena at six shillings per day for one 

year 
Liquors at five shillings per day for the same time 
Washing at ninepence per day 
Other expenses and incidental charges at one shilling 

and sixpence per day 

241 16 3 
Liquors on board of ship for three months going and 
three months coming back 50 



109 10 





91 5 





13 13 


9 


27 7 


6 



;^291 16 3 



Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles. 295 

" Maskelyne as an Astronomer Royal, marks the transition between the 
old and new administration ; between the individual investigator who kept 
his results more or less to himself, and the head of a public department 
continuously publishing its work for thejbenefit of all who could make use of 
it . . . One of Maskelyne's first acts after his appointment was to 
arrange with the Royal Society for the provision of a special fund for 
printing the Greenwich results, a step as revolutionary in astronomical 
progress as the publication of the Nautical Almanac." 



296 



ADDITIONS TO MUSEUM AND LIBRARY. 
Museum. 

Presented by Mr. A. J. Matthew : Case of Birds shot in Savernake Forest. 



Library. 

Presented by The Author, Mr. J. B. Jones: " Wiltshire's Crime," (articles 
on Alfred Williams). 

,, „ The Author, Capt. B. H. Cunnington : " Records of the 

County of Wilts, being extracts from the Quarter Sessions 
Great Rolls of the Seventeenth Century." Wiltshire 
Tradesmen's Bill Heads, a collection mounted in scrap 
book. 

„ „ The Author, Mr. A. T. Gilling : " A Few Odd Things " 

by Ateegee, 1932. 

„ „ Mrs. Main : A number of back numbers of the Magazine. 

„ „ Mr. C. C. Bradford : " Sunday Evenings at Home " by 

Rev. H. C. Adams, 1875, cr. 8vo. (containing account of 
death of Ruth Pierce. 

„ „ The Author, Mr. G. Blick : "The l/4th Battalion The 

Wiltshire Regiment 1914—1919. 1933, cr. Svo. 

„ „ The Author, Canon J. M.J. Fletcher, F. R. Hist. Soc. : 

" George Herbert, of Bemerton, Poet and Saint." Notes 
of a Lecture, 1933. 

„ „ Canon E. H. Goddard : The Long Barrows of the Cotswolds, 

by O. G. S. Crawford, 1925. 

„ „ Mr. F. Stevens, O.B.E., F.S. A. : 7 photographs of Salisbury 

and the Avon Valley. Folio Volume containing MS. of 
Domesday for Wiltshire, and MS. Poems by Geo. Bubb 
Dodington. Small MS. Volume Terrae Pembrochianae, 
Copy of Roll at Wilton, 1756. Wilts Arch. Soc. 17th 
meeting at Wilton 1870. List of photographs by Mr, 
Thompson, Ethnographical Series, pamphlet Svo. 



297 



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Printed and Published by C H. Woodward Exchange Buildings, Station Road, t)evii:6s. 



The North Wilts Museum and Library at Devizes. 

Ill answer to the appeal made in 1905 annual subscriptions 
varying from £2 to 5s. to the amount of about £30 a year for this 
purpose have been given since then by about sixty Members of 
tlie Society and the fund thus set on foot has enabled the 
Committee to add much to the efficiency of the Museum and 
Library. 

It is very desirable that this fund should be raised to at least 
£50 a year in order that the General Fund of the Society may 
be released to a large extent from the cost of the Museum and 
set free for the other purposes of the Society. 

Subscriptions of 6s. a year, or upwards, are asked for from all 
Members, and should be sent either to Mr. D. Owen, Bank Cham- 
bers, Devizes, or Canon E. H. Goddard, F.S A , Clyffe Vicarage, 
Swindon. 



M. BAILEY, Bookbinder, 

14, Queen Street, Salisbury. 



Bindings, Re-bindings, and Renovations. 
Old Books and Documents Restored. 



Estimates for all classes and all quantities oj hookhinding ivork. 



Wiltshire Birds. 

Mr. C. M. E. Pitman, 39, Eamparfc Eoad, Salisbury, is 
collecting notices of Wiltshire Birds, with a view to an annual 
report to be published in the Magazine. He would be greatly 
obliged if observers would send him notes of anything of interest 
at the above address. 



Woodward, Printer. Devizes. 



THE SOCIETY'S FVBLIGATIONS {Continued). 

STONEHENGE AND ITS BARROWS, by W. Long, Nos. 46-47 of the 
Magazine in separate wrapper 7s. 6d. This still remains one of the best and 
most reliable accounts of Stonehenge and its Earthworks, 

WILTSHIRE— The TOPOGRAPHICAL COLLECTIONS OP JOHN 
AUBREY, F.R.S., A.D. 1659-1670. Corrected and enlarged by the Rev. 
Canon J. E. Jackson, M.A., F.S.A. 4to., Cloth, pp. 491, with 46 plates. 
Price M2 10s. 

WILTSHIRE INQUISITIONES POSTMORTEM. CHARLES I. 8vo., 
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DITTO. IN THE REIGNS OP HEN. IIL, ED. L, and ED. II. 8vo., 
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DITTO. THE REIGN OP ED. IH. 8vo., pp. 402. In six parts 
as issued. Price 13s. 

A BIBLIOGRAPHY or the GREAT STONE MONUMENTS of 
WILTSHIRE, STONEHENGE, and AVEBURY, with other references, 
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1901, of the Maodzine. Price 5s. 6d. Contains particulars as to 947 books, 
papers, &c., by 732 authors, 

THE TROPENELL CARTULARY. An important work in 2 vols., 8vo, 
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Wiltsliire Parishes of the 14th and I5fch centuries. Only 150 copies were 
printed, of which a few are left. Price to members, ^61 10s., and to non- 
members, £2. 

THE CHURCH BELLS OP WILTSHIRE, THEIR INSCRIPTIONS 
AND HISTORY, BY H. B. WALTERS, F.S.A. Published in III. Parts. 
Price 16s, (N.B. — Separate Parts can no longer be sold.) 

A CALENDAR OP THE FEET OP FINES FOR WILTSHIRE, 1195 
TO 1272, BY E. A. FRY. 8vo., pp. 103. Price 6s. 



WILTSHIRE TOKENS. 

The Society has a considerable number of 17bh and 18th 
century Wiltshire Tokens to dispose of, either by sale, or exchange 
for others not in the Society's collection. 

Apply to Capt. B. H. Cunnington, F.S.A. Scot., Curator, 
Museum, Devizes. 



BOOKBINDING. Books carefully Bound to pattern. 

Wilts Archgeological Magazine bound to match previous volumes 

Or in Special Green Oases. 
We have several back numbers to make up sets. 

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No. CLIX. DECEMBER, 1933. Vol. XLVI. 



THE 

WILTSHIRE 

Archaeological & Natural History 

MAGAZINE, 

Published under the Direction of the 

SOCIETY FORMED IN THAT COUNTY 

A. D. 1 8 5 3. 



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WILTSHIRE 
Archaeological & Natural History 

MAGAZINE. 



No. OLIX. DECEMBER, 1933. Vol. XLVI. 



Cotiunts. PAGE 

The Wiltshire Hundreds : By H. B. Walters, F.S.A. 301—311 

Notes on the Records and Accounts of the Overseers of 

THE Poor of Chippenham, 1691—1805 : By F. H. Hinton. 312—335 
William Gaby, His BooKE. 1656 [II.].: By Edward Coward. 336—349 
Evidence of Climale derived from Snail Shells, and its 
Bearing on the Date of Stonehenge : By Mrs. M. E. 

Cunnington, Hon. F.S.A.., Scot 350—355 

A Subscription Book of the Deans of Sarum (1662—1706) : 

Bv Canon F. H. Manley.... 356—360 

The Eightieth General Meeting of the Wiltshire 

auch^ological and natural history society, held 

AT Winchester, July 31st, August 1st and 2nd, 1933. 361—365 

A Terriar OP the Common Fields belonging to Broad 

Town & Thornhill in the County of Wilts. 1725 : 

Transcribed by Canon E. H. Goddard, F.S.A 366—379 

The Giant's Caves Long Barrow, Luckington : By A. D. 

Passmore , ,. 380—386 

Notes. — Skeleton found in a Barrow at Idmiston. Skeleton 
found on Boscombe Down East. Chessmen in Salisbury 
Museum. Saxon Sculptured Angel. Ruined House at 
Chute. Camp Hill Reservoir, Salisbury, 1933. Saxon 
Brooches found at Coleshill (Berks). Recent Air Discoveries. 
Sheila na Gig Figure on Oaksey Church. The Great 
Bustard. Folk Lore, Shrewton. The " Pelican " Portrait 
of Q. Elizabeth. A Saxon Saucer Brooch from Mildenhall. 
Bromhara, Quaker Burial Ground and Meeting House. 
Chitterne All Saints Churchwardens' Accounts, Extracts 
from, 1732 onward. A Second Stonehenge *' Altar " Stone ? 387—397 

Wilts Obituary 398—400 

Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles 401 — 414 

Additions to the Library 415—416 



ILLUSTRATIONS. 

Map of Wiltshire showing Hundreds and Parishes 302 

Plan of the Giant's Caves Long Barrow, Luckington 1 381 

Plate I.— Luckington Giant's Caves Long Barrow, West and 
East Chambers. Plate IL, Fig. I.— West Chamber ex- 
cavated, looking North. Plate II. , Fig. II. — West Chamber 
looking North. Plate III., Fig. I. — West Chamber ex- 
cavated, looking South. Plate III., Fig. II.— East Chamber 
looking North. Plate IV., Fig. I.— Looking North through 
South Chamber, after excavation. Plate IV., Fig. II.— 
South Chamber excavated, looking South 384—385 

Plan of Camp Hill Reservoir, Salisbury 390 

Saxon Bronze Saucer Brooch, Mildenhall 393 

The larger of the two Sarsens at Berwick St James. The smaller 
of the two Sarsens at Berwick St. James. Two Sarsen 
stones at the junction of the by-road with the street at 
Berwick St. James 396—397 




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THE 

WILTSHIRE MAGAZINE. 



MULTORUM MANIBUS GRANDE LEVATUR ONUS."— Ovid. 



No. CLIX. December, 1933. Vol. XLVI. 

THE WILTSHIEE HUNDEEDS. 
By H. B. Walters, F.S.A. 

My attention has recently been called to a map of the County of Wiltshire 
by its possessor, Dr. Cecil W. Cunnington, of Hampstead, who, as his name 
suflaciently indicates, is greatly interested in all matters relating to that 
county. He has kindly allowed me to use it as the basis of a paper on a 
subject in which I happen to be specially interested, that of the divisions 
of the county known as Hundreds. 

But before I proceed to my main theme, it may be of interest to say a 
few words on the map itself, which presents some unusual features. It is 
on a scale of approximately three miles to the inch, mounted on linen in a 
cloth cover, which bears the legend : — 

" Cary's New Map of Wiltshire, divided into Hundreds, exhibiting the 
whole of the Turnpike and Cross Roads, the course of the Rivers, Market 
and Borough Towns, Parishes^ Hamlets, Parks, &c,," and is stated to be 
" Published by J. Gary, Engraver and Mapseller, 86 St. James' Street, 
London." It however bears no date, and is difficult to identify with any 
of the known maps published by Cary in his Atlases of the Counties of 
England. These extend, as may be learned from Chubb's Catalogue of 
Wiltshire Maps ^ and from Dr. H. G. Fordham's John Cary, p. 85, from 
1803 to 1828. The British Museum has several editions down to 1818, but 
curiously enough the Wiltshire map is missing from the Atlas of 1828. 

Fordham however states that Cary published another edition in 1834, 
which is not in the British Museum, and a small piece of internal evidence 
leads me to the conclusion that Dr. Cunnington's map must be of that date. 
At the same time I am not aware that Cary ever published these county 
maps separately from his Atlases. The evidence for the date is as follows, 
and clearly shows that the map was subsequent to the Reform Bill of 1832. 
Of the many Parliamentary Boroughs which the county contained previous 
to the passing of that measure, those of Old Sarum, Bedwyn, Downton, and 
Hindon, are no longer marked by the stars which in county maps of the 
period, including Cary's, are used to designate boroughs returning members 
(a star for each member). Calne, Devizes, Malmesbury, and Westbury, 

^ Wilts Arch. Afaff., xxxvii., p. 211. 
YOL. XLYI. — NO. CLIX. v 



302 2'he Wiltshire Hundreds. 

only boast one star apiece, while Salisbury, Wilton, Marlborough, Cricklade, 
and Chippenham, still have their full complement of two. Moreover a 
broad red line divides the county into the Parliamentary Divisions of North 
and South Wilts, this being also a creation of the Reform Bill. It is true 
that the same plate has been used for printing the map as for previous 
editions (e.(7., Smith's Geological Map of 1819), but the alterations in the 
stars might easily have been made as required. 

Another interesting feature is that some early railways are indicated in an 
indigo-coloured ink or pigment, and it seems most probable that these have 
been subsequently added. The Great Western Railway pursues its present 
course across the map by Swindon and Chippenham to Bath, throwing out 
branches from Chippenham to Bradford and Westbury, and the Gloucester 
line oddly starts from a point halfway between Swindon and Wootton 
Bassett. In the south, Salisbury is only reached by the railway which 
comes in from Southampton and Romsey, and which formerly had its 
terminus on the southeast side of the city near St. Martin's Church (now 
converted into a goods yard) ; the main South-Western line is non-existent. 
These data enable us to fix the period of the insertions later than 1840, in 
which year the Great Western main line was opened. 

John Cary died about 1836, and further editions of his Wiltshire map 
apparently continued to be issued, but in 1855 we find a map printed by 
Crutchley, who afterwards became a well-known map-publisher, and who 
on this occasion certainly used Gary's plate for the purpose. In this map 
it is interesting to note the arrival of the South- Western main line at 
Salisbury, which dates from 1847, but it then formed no physical connexion 
with the old Southampton line, and at the new station on the north side of 
the city only merges in the Great Western line now linked up from 
Westbury. 

But to me the chief interest of the map under consideration is a feature 
which, though characteristic of all county maps from the days of Camden, 
has long ceased to interest the cartographer, and that is the division into 
Hundreds. An examination of this map shows that there are 29 such 
divisions, each marked by a differently-coloured border. In some of the 
earlier Cary maps the whole of each division is filled in in colour, and this 
is also a characteristic of an excellent map (on a smaller scale) published 
by R. Rowe in 1811. In the 1772 edition of Camden these divisions are 
very faintly marked, and the same applies to the Crutchley map of 1855. 
Moreover the map in Camden is inaccurate in some particulars, as is also 
Gary's, whereas in Rowe's map I have only detected one apparent error. 

The Hundreds vary greatly in size, one or two containing only two 
parishes, others between twenty and thirty, while others again are curiously 
broken up and scattered over the map, a feature to which I shall have 
occasion to refer later. Still more interesting is their nomenclature, some- 
times quaint, sometimes apparently inexplicable, though in Wiltshire the 
majority of the Hundreds are named after their principal towns or large 
villages, such as Bradford, Chippenham, or Ramsbury. The names of 
eleven others have now quite disappeared from the map, and these of 
course yield interesting philological problems. 



By H. B. Walters, F.S.A. 303 

The march of progress in civil administration has now replaced these 
units by poor law unions, rural districts, and other prosaic achievements of 
the last century, as well as by political and ecclesiastical divisions, and they 
have almost entirely fallen into disuse ; though one name which cannot 
otherwise be traced on the map still remains in the case of the Rural 
District of Whorwellsdown in North-west Wilts. But even if their interest 
is now purely antiquarian and philological, they cannot be entirely ignored 
by the modern student of topography ; in fact, many quite recent works, 
notably the Victoria County Histories of England, have still retained them 
as a convenient basis for arrangement of their subjects, just as naturally as 
did the county historians of the Eighteenth Century, or at a later date Sir 
K. C. Hoare in his Modern Wilts, and Jackson in his edition of Aubrey. 

On the subject of the English Hundreds in general I do not now propose 
to say more than what concerns Wiltshire. It may suflSce to say that this 
form of local government goes back to a considerable antiquity, possibly to 
the time of the Saxon Conquest of England, and a small piece of evidence 
to be detailed later seems to point to its existence in Wiltshire as early as 
the Seventh Century, or even earlier. In Southern England the Hundreds 
are of smaller size than in the Midland and Northern counties, and Wilt- 
shire is no exception to this rule, though it has fewer than its neighbours 
Hants, Dorset, and Somerset. The number has, however, been reduced in 
the course of history by the combination of two or more Hundreds into 
larger ones. In Domesday we find the names of forty Hundreds, in the 
Rotuli Hundredorum {temp. Henry III.)' there are 38, while in more recent 
times the number, as already noted, has been reduced to 29. I propose 
first to trace the history of these divisions, as far as evidence is obtainable. 

The twenty-nine modern Hundreds are as follows (see accompanying 
map): — 

(1) North Wilts. 
Bradford Melksham 

Calne Potterne and Cannings 

Chippenham Kamsbury 

Damerham, North Selkley 

Highworth Swanborough 

Kingsbridge Whorwellsdown 
Malmesbury 

(2) South Wilts. 

Alderbury Elstub and Everley 

Ambresbury Frustfield 

Branch and Dole Heytesbury 

Chalke Kinwardstone 

Cawdon and Cad worth Mere 

Damerham, South Underditch 

Downton Warminster 

Dunworth Westbury 
To which must be added the Liberty of Salisbury. 

^ OflBcially published in 1812 — 18, from documents preserved in the 
Tower and the Court of Exchequer. 

X 2 



304 



The Wiltshire Hundreds. 



The first actual mention of the Wiltshire Hundreds is in Domesday Book>- 
though there is no actual mention of them in the great Domesday Book it- 
self. But, fortunately, they are preserved in another form, in the Exon 
Domesday which has been admirably edited, so far as Wilts is concerned, 
by Canon W. H. Jones in his Domesday for Wiltshire (1865). The Exon 
Domesday Book is preserved in Exeter Cathedral Library, and describes 
the five south western counties, the Wilts portion giving a list of the forty 
Hundreds with the owners of the principal estates in each. Of these 22 are 
reckoned as in North Wilts, 18 in South. I give the list here, noting 
the correspondence with the more modern Hundreds, and commenting 
subsequently in more detail on the individual names. 

North Wilts. 



Cicemethorne 


hMalmesbury 


Selchelai 


Selkley 


Sterchelee 


Bradeford 


Bradford 


Thorngrove 


\ 


JVI elchesam 


M elksham 


Dunelawe 


IChippenham 


Calne 


Calne 


Cepeham 
Crecelade 


J 


Wervesdone 


Whorwells- 
down 


Scipe 






[Bishops 


Wurde 


rHigh worth 


Canenge 


Cannings in 


Staple 


J 




Potterne] 


Bamesberie 


Ramsbury 


Rugeberge 


^ Swanborough 


Chingbrige 


hKingsbridge 


Stodfald 


[ and 


Blachegrave 


Swaneberge 


J Potterne 


Thornhylle 








South Wilts 


;, 




Westberie 


Westbury 


Ambresberie 


Ambresbury 


Warministre 


Warminster 


Stanford 


Chaike 


Hestredeberie 


Heytesbury 


Caudune 


^Cawdon and 
J Cadworth 




Elstub and 


Cadeworde 


Eilestebbe 


Everley 


Domerham 


S. Damerham 


Chenewarestan 


Kinwardstone 


Windredic 


Underditch 


Mere 


Mere 


Ferstesfeld 


Frustfield 


Donworth 


Dun worth 


Alwarberie 


Alderbury 


Dolesfelde 


^Branch and 
J Dole 


Dunton 


Downton 


Brenchesberge 







The next known list inipoint of date is that given in the Eotuli Hun- 
dredorum of Henry III.'s reign (1256), which diflfers from Domesday in 
certain particulars. There are only 37 names in all, Thorngrave and 
Dunelawe in Chippenham being apparently merged in " Cyppeham " and 
the three Hundreds of Scipe, Wurde, and Staple being combined in one 
named Altelburgh, which we may regard as a translation of " Highworth." 
Another change of name is that of Cicemethorne (Malmesbury) which now 
appears as Chegelew, and there are many minor differences of spelling but 
none of particular importance. In a later Rotulus of Edward I.'s time. 
(1279) a new Hundred of Cnowel Ep'i Winton appears, which obviously 
refers to the parish of East Knoyle, originally in Mere, but detached at- 



By H. B, Walters, F.S.A. 305 

some time together with Fonthill Bishops and Hindon, as forming part of 
the Bishop of Winchester's lands and therefore eventually transferred to 
Downton (see post). 

For further information about the'names and geographical boundaries of 
the Hundreds we are at a loss until we come to the Eighteenth Century, 
with its revival of interest in county topography. The fashion was probably 
«et by Gibson in his edition of Camden's Britannia (1695) which is the 
first to give maps of each county showing the Hundreds, though not always 
very clearly or accurately marked. The maps of Gary and Howe are far 
more instructive, and we also have for North Wilts Jackson's edition of 
Aubrey, and for South Wilts Sir Richard Hoare, who gives separate maps 
for each Hundred. 

It will be noted that the modern maps include two Hundreds unknown 
before the Fourteenth Century. One of these is Potterne and Cannings, 
which added Potterne and other parishes to the original Hundred consist- 
ing only of Bishop's Cannings. The other is North Damerham, the 
appearance of which in the far north of the county seems difficult at first 
sight to account for. It was, however, one of the so-called " Ragged 
Hundreds," * which are scattered all over the county, and are to be explained 
as estates lying in different parts of it, but reckoned as. portions of the 
principal manor. These probably date from about the 13th Century, when 
the influence of the great ecclesiastical landowners became powerful ; they 
include N. Damerham, Downton, and Elstub and Everley. 

I will next proceed to discuss the Hundreds in detail, their extent, and 
their history so far as it is known. 

(1) North Wilts. 

Bradford. Contains ten parishes, and probably was always of the same 
extent as now, except that Westwood has been transferred to Elstub (see 
below). It covers the area roughly coincident with the Bradford portion of 
Potterne Deanery. 

Calne. Contains seven parishes, from Heddington to Berwick Bassett ; 
Bromham was formerly included, but is now in Potterne. 

Chippenham is composed of the Domesday Hundreds of Thorngrave, 
Dunelawe, and (Jepeham, and is one of the largest, now containing 19 
parishes, forming the N.W. corner of the county, except for those sub- 
sequently transferred to N. Damerham (see below). The Jatter were 
originally in Thorngrave, together with Castle Combe. Dunelawe 
apparently included Alderton, Littleton Drew, and Luckington, and also 
Easton Grey, now in Malmesbury.''* The remainder were in Cepeham. I 
have noted below the conterminousness of the Hundred and Deanery. 

Damerham^ North. This Hundred now contains the four parishes of 
Kington St. Michael, Grittleton, Nettleton, and Christian Malford. Its 
history is interesting. A document of 1319^ relates to the transference from 
Chippenham to this Hundred of the lands in the aforesaid parishes, all 

^ Jones, Wiltshire Domesday , p. xxxi. 

' Domesday gives the manor of this parish as being in Dunelawe. 

' Jones, Domesday t p. xxxii. ; Jackson, p. 124, 



306 ' The Wiltshire Hunctrtds. 

belonging to the Abbot of Glastonbury, whose principal estate was Soutb 
Damerham {q.v.), in the extreme south of the county. This is consequently 
one of the " Ragged Hundreds." 

Highworth is another large Hundred,^ containing 22 parishes, and formed 
from the Domesday Hundreds of Crecelade, Scipe, Staple, and Wurde 
(Highworth). As already noted, by the 13th Century the number had been 
reduced to three, Scipe and Wurde being combined into " Altelburgh " in 
the Rotuli Hundredorum. Staple Hundred contained Purtonand Lydiard 
J!klillicent ; Crecelade and Wurde the parishes round those towns ; and Scipe 
the parishes immediately north of Swindon.^ The Hundred is now almost 
conterminous with Cricklade Deanery. It also included Poulton, now m 
Gloucestershire. 

Kingshridge contains 11 parishes,^ and subsequently to Domesday in- 
cluded Blackgrove and Thornhill, the former containing Swindon and 
Wootton Bassett, the latter Chiseldon, Liddington, and Wanborough. The 
original " Chingbridge " included Clyflfe Pypard and Lyneham, and its 
traditional meeting place was in the former parish though its exact positioa 
is unknown. 

Malmesbury, the largest of the Hundreds, contains 32 parishes/ and wa& 
formed at the Dissolution from the Domesday Hundreds of Cicemethorne 
(later called Chegelewe) and Sterchelee, These two Hundreds appear to 
be of very remote antiquity, as the town of Malmesbury was divided 
between them, St. Mary's being in the former Hundred (with Broken- 
borough), St. Paul's in the latter (with Corston and Rodbourne). This 
would account for its not giving its name to a Hundred, and as the Abbey 
was founded in 675, it would seem that the divisions were earlier than that 
date, when the town was still of no importance. The name Cicemethorne 
is found as late as 1340, but in the Rotuli Hundredorum Chegelewe occurs. 
Apparently it was the northern part of the present Hundred, Sterkelee the 
southern. The former is represented byChedglowin the parish of Crudwell, 
and the latter is the name of a farm in Great Somerford. Both together 
are now conterminous with Malmesbury Deanery. 

Melksham. Contains eight parishes, and has apparently always been of 
the same extent. 

Potterne and Cannings.^ Now contains seven parishes. As already 
noted, it is not mentioned before Edward III.'s reign, the original Hundred 
of Cannings having included only the parish of Bishop's Cannings, while 
Potterne and the other parishes were originally in the Hundred of Rugeberge 
(see below). Bromham was also subsequently added from Calne. It in- 
cludes the town of Devizes. 



* Jackson, p. 150. 
See list of manors given under each heading in Domesday. 
^ See Jackson, p. 162, 
^ Jones, p. xxxi. ; Jackson, p. 206. 
^ Jackson, p. 306. 



By H, B, Walters, F.S.A. 307 

Ramshury includes four parishes ouly : Ramsbury, Baydon, Bishopstone, 
and Hinton farva. Its extent is the same as in Domesday. 

SelHey contains 13 parishes, extending from Avebury to Aldbourne, and 
including Marlborough. The meeting place of the Hundred is unknown. 

Swanhorough is a large Hundred containing 23 parishes (the next in size 
to JVialmesbury), and formed from the Domesday Hundreds of Rugeberge, 
Stodfald, and Swaneberge. As already noted, these originally included 
some parishes now in Potterne. Stodfald formed the western portion, 
Swanborough the eastern. The meeting place is said to have been 
Swan borough Tump in North Newnton parish, but there is no trace of this 
on the map. 

Whorwellsdown contained six parishes, including Steeple Ashton and 
Edington.i It is represented in modern times by the Rural District of 
Whorwellsdown. I cannot find any name on the map which would give a 
clue to the meeting place of the Hundred, but it may have been on the 
Downs above Edington. 

(2) South Wilts. 
Alderhury. Contains 14 parishes, Plaitford being detached, and is 
probably little altered since Domesday. Like other Hundreds it corresponds 
roughly with the Rural Deanery of that name. 

Amhreshury. In this Hundred are 1 3 parishes ; it is unaltered since 
Domesday, and corresponds to the modern Deanery in area. Its principal 
place was of course the modern Amesbury. It also included West Wellow, 
now in Hants. 

Branch and Dole. A large Hundred, comprising 17 parishes, lying south 
of the Plain between the Wylye and Avon rivers. It has been formed from 
the two Domesday Hundreds of Brenchesberge and Dolesfeld, which were 
united in James I.'s reign. Dolesfelde formed the northern half, 
Brenchesberewe the southern. 

Chalhe. This Hundred, called Stanford in Domesday, contains eight 
parishes in the valley of the Ebble, with the outlying Semley in Dunworth. 
The name of course still exists in Broadchalke and Bowerchalke, as also in 
that of a Deanery. 

Cawden and Gadivorth. Another double Hundred, the two being 
separate in earlier times; it contains 13 parishes, of which Cawden formed 
the southern part (on the Ebble and Avon), Cad worth the northern (on the 
Nadder) It also included Bramshaw, now in Hants. 

Bamerham, South. This may be regarded as one of the " Eagged 
Hundreds," being split up into separate parts. The reason for this we 
have already seen, viz , that it comprised the lands of the Abbot of Glaston- 
bury. Besides South Damerham with its chapelry of Martin, it included 
Compton Chamberlayne, Eongbridge Deverill, and Monkton Deverill. 
Gary's map gives the first named parish as in Cawden and Cad worth, which 
is surely incorrect. For North Damerham, see above, p, 305. 

Downton. This Hundred originally consisted only of the parish of 
Downton with Standlynch. But the lands belonged to the Bishop of 

* Jackson, p. 345. 



308 The Wiltshire Hundreds. 

Winchester, who subsequently added to it other lands of his in the county : 
East Knoyle and Hindon from the Hundred of Mere, Fonthill Bishops 
formerly in that of Dunworth, and Bishopstone in that of Cawdon. 

Dunworth. This Hundred contains 13 parishes, all in the valley of the 
Nadder, corresponding to the modern Deanery of Tisbury. The only 
exceptions are Semley, which is part of Ghalke, and Fonthill Bishops (see 
above). 

EUtuh and Everley} A typically "ragged" Hundred, containing 13 
parishes scattered all over the county. The original nucleus is the Everley 
part, which however was then only known as Elstub, and included Everley, 
Enford, Fittleton, Netheravon, and CoUingbourne Ducis. These lands 
belonged to the Priory of St. Swithin at Winchester, toj which in the time 
of Edward I. were transferred no less than seven others : Westwood from 
Bradford, Wroughton from Kingsbridge, Ham fromKinwardstone, Stockton 
from Branch and Dole, and Alton Barnes and Priors and Patney from 
Swanborough, the last-named being then in the part known as Stodfald. 
Elstub is said to have been the name of a field in Enford. 

FruBtfield has always been one of the smallest Hundreds, and at the 
present day contains only two parishes, Landford and Whiteparish. 

Heyieshury contains 14 i)arishes, and extends from Horningsham to 
Orcheston St. George. It has lost Longbridge Deverill, transferred to 
South Damerham (see above). 

Kinwardstone contains 13 parishes, occupying the eastern part of the 
Vale of Pewsey, and extending to the border of Berks and Hants. The 
meeting place is traditionally supposed to be, as a writer in the Magazine'^ 
states : " A curious Sarsen stone lying a few yards beyond the sign-post 
pointing to Chute, Ludgershall, and Andover, about l| miles east of the 
Scots Poor Inn, on the Roman Road lying along the northern border of 
Chute parish. It has been claimed to be Kinwardstone . . . which is 
also the name of a farm near Grafton." The farm is still marked on the 
Ordnance Map, and seems likely to have preserved the name of some 
neighbouring stone, a Sarsen or otherwise. 

Mere. This Hundred now includes only the parishes of Mere, Kingston 
Deverill, West Knoyle, Maiden Bradley, and Stourton. It has lost Monkton 
Deverill to S. Damerham and East Knoyle to Downton (see above). 

Underditch. A small Hundred including three parishes at the base of 
the great earthwork of Old Sarum, viz., Stratford-sub-castle, Wilsford, and 
Woodford. There has been no alteration in its boundaries. 

Warminster. This Hundred contains nine parishes, mostly round 
Warminster, but Dinton, Pertwood, and Fisherton Delamere are detached. 

Westbury. Though a fairly large Hundred in area, this Hundred has 
never contained more than the original parish of Westbury with its chapel- 
ries of Bratton and Dilton. 

It is interesting to note the correspondence between the ecclesiastical 
divisions of the county and the Hundreds. Doubtless, as in many other 

- ' Jackson, p. 365. 

^ Wilts Arch. Mag.f xxxix., p. 286. 



By H. B. Walters, F.S. A. 309 

<;ounties, the formation of the Rural Deaneries was largely influenced by 
the nature of the civil divisions, and the nomenclature is frequently 
identical. There is strong evidence of this tendency in Wiltshire, especially 
in the part which now forms the Archdeaconry of Swindon in the Diocese 
of Bristol, and has been for many years divided into the three Deaneries 
of Chippenham, Malmesbury, and Cricklade. These correspond almost 
exactly to the three Hundreds of Chippenham, Malmesbury and Highworth, 
all Hundreds of considerable size and containing about 25 parishes apiece. 
In the Wiltshire part of Salisbury Diocese there were originally only 
seven Deaneries (Sarum, Ghalke, Wylye, Amesbury, Potterne, Avebury, 
and Marlborough), each of which included more than one of the Hundred 
divisions, but the portions correspond in several cases. The Amesbury and 
Alderbury portions are practically conterminous with the Hundreds of 
those names, and similarly the Chalke and Potterne portions of their 
respective Deaneries ; the Wylye portion corresponds to the Hundred of 
Branch and Dole. These cannot be mere coincidences. 

So far I have confined myself to a topographical and historical account of 
the Wiltshire Hundreds. There is, however, another interesting aspect of 
the enquiry, and that is, the philological. 

In reviewing the lists of Hundreds of the English counties, it will be 
noticed that, where they are not named after towns or well-known places, 
the names have a tendency to follow on certain lines, bearing such termin- 
ations as tree, low, hoe, or stone. Obviously such names, which unfortunately 
have for the most part disappeared from the modern maps and have become 
difficult to explain, relate to the trees, stones, or other natural objects at 
which the meetings of the Hundreds were conveniently held. In Wiltshire 
the only one of these common terminations which occurs at the present time 
is stone, and this is only found in Kinwardstone. The element low, however, 
was found originally in Ghegelewe (perhaps Ceadda's hlaw) and Dunlawe, 
both in North Wilts. In actual fact the majority of the Wiltshire Hundreds 
are named from their principal centres, and it is only in eleven cases that we 
find ourselves involved in philological difficulties. The number is, however, 
largely increased if we include the names only found in Domesday or other 
early records. Unfortunately, Ekblom in his invaluable monograph on the 
Place Names of Wiltshire has ignored the Hundred-names altogether ; but 
in the case of the known names his work supplies all the information we 
need. I now propose to go through some of the names and see what light 
can be thrown on their meaning, 

Chippenham. Ekblom's view that this name has nothing to do with 
*' Ceaping " or "Chipping," a market, is confirmed by Mawer (see Place 
Names of Bucks, p. 218, s.v. Chippenham). 

Of the Domesday sub-divisions of this Hundred, Thorngrave was probably 
named from a meeting place of the Hundred, as was also Dunelawe, from 
hlaw, a burial-mound. This common suffix of a Hundred-name is only 
found in one other instance in Wilts. 

Highworth. This place was originally known simply as Worth, and in 
that form gave its name to the Domesday Hundred, which, as already noted, 
becomes in the 1 3th Century Altel worth, and so attains its modern form. Of 



310 The Wiltshire Hundreds, 

the earlier sub-divisions besides Worth and Cricklade, Scipe has not beeo 
explained, but Staple means an upright post used as a meeting place. It 
also occurs as the name of a Hundred in Sussex {P.N. Sussex, p. 518 ; c.f. 
P.N. Worcs , p. 226). 

Kingsbridgf, appearing in Domesday as Chingbrige, may have nothing to 
do with royalty. The other early sub-divisions were Blachegrave and 
Thornhylle, and presumably all three were the names of meeting places. 
Jones (p. xxxi.) explains Blachegrave as "black grove'* ; the meaning of 
Thornhylle is obvious. 

Af al mesbury contdimed the two Hundreds of Cicemethorne (afterwards 
Chegeslow) and Sterchelee. It is interesting to note a third instance in 
this part of the county of a thorn-tree as a meeting place, and in Chegelowe 
a second example of a klaw or burial-mound for the same purpose. 

Potterne and Cannings. Mawer derives the latter word from the same 
root as Caunsall in Worcestershire {P.N, Worcs,, p. 257 ; c.f. P.N. Devon, 
pp. 390, 649), an Old German personal name Cann. 

Ramshury is from the Scandinavian personal name Hraefn ; see P,N, 
Hunts, p. 212, sv. Ramsey. 

Swanhorough. Jones, p. 175, quotes Dr. Ingram's conjecture that the 
name=Sandbeorg, from a large tumulus with that name near North 
Newnton ; but the early forms forbid doing such violence to phonetics, 
although the tumulus may have existed under the name of Swanborough. 

The other two Hundreds which originally comprised part of this (with 
Potterne) were Kugeberge (? rough hill or barrow) and Stodfald. In regard 
to the latter name, JVJawer has an interesting note in his Introduction to 
Survey of Eng. Place Names, p. 150 (see also P.N. Beds, p. 178, under 
Stotfold). He collects ten ancient and twelve modern examples of the 
word, though he was apparently not aware of this Wiltshire example, and 
suggests that though the word obviously means " an enclosure for a stud of 
horses," it does not necessarily n\ean this literally, but may only mean an 
enclosure that resembled one, Hence, he sa>s, the Saxons applied the word 
to Roman enclosures such as Aldborough and Lympne. He aptly compares 
the name of the Glass House given in the War to a ruined farm on the 
Vimy Ridge, merely from its appearance. 

Whorwellsdown. Jones' suggestion (p. xxxi.) that the word means "the 
hill by the ancient well" may be correct ; " hoar," or hor^ was often used 
to describe ancient places. But in view of such early forms as Wervesdone 
(D.B.) and Wervelesdone {Rot. Hund.) I am rather doubtful. 

Ambresbury (old form of Amesbury). Mawer compares Ombersley 
{P.N. Worcs., p. 268) as presenting similar difficulties. He traces the first 
part to an archaic Vandal name Ambri or Ambre ; it may also occur iu 
Ambersham, Sussex. 

Branch and Dole. As already noted, a combination of the two names 
Brenchesberewe and Dolesfelde. 

Dunworth obviously contains the prefix dun=d, hill, which is also found 
in Donhead in this Hundred. 



By H. B. Walters, F.S.A, 311 

Ehtuh has usually been supposed to mean " elder-tree stump." The stub 
certainly seems to bear this meaning. As already noted, it is the name of 
a field in Enford parish. 

Kinwardstone. Obviously " Oyneweard's stone." See above, p. 308. 

Underditch. The meaning appears obvious, but the original form as 
given in Domesday creates a dilficulty. Wandredic, or Wondredic, seems 
to require some other explanation, and the W can only be disposed of on 
the supposition that the name was changed into a more easily understood 
form, on a well-known etymological principle. 



312 



NOTES ON THE RECORDS AND ACCOUNTS OF THE 
OVERSEERS OF THE POOR OF CHIPPENHAM, 
1691—1805. 
By F. M. HiNTON. 

Near the West Door of Chippenham Parish Church are two chests. When 
the Church was visited by the Wilts Archaeological Society a few years ago, 
Mr. E. M. Awdry gave an outline of the history of the Church, and, referring 
to one of the chests, stated that it had not been opened within the memory of 
any one then living as the keys were missing. Since then it has been opened ; 
the contents are chiefly books of accounts of the Overseers of the Poor of 
the late seventeenth and the eighteenth centuries, together with bundles of 
receipts. 

The earliest of the records are in a book bound in leather stamped 
CHIPPENHAM POOR. It contains the accounts for the period April, 
1691 to October, 1705. 

Until near the end of Elizabeth's reign there had been no Poor Law as we 
now understand that term. Before that time there had been laws which 
were intended to repress vagrancy by severe punishments, but which did 
nothing to remove its causes. 

The relief of the poor in each parish had down through the Middle Ages 
been regarded as the duty not of the State but of the individual Christian 
and of the Church. And when at length Parliament legislated for the 
treatment of the poor and authorised the levying of Poor Rates, it was 
natural that for the unit area of administration of such laws Parliament 
should select not the county or the Hundred but the parish, and that for 
administrators they should select the parochial bodies already existing, viz.t 
the parish Vestries with their officers — the Churchwardens, Constables, etc. 
"... In 1572 — 6 we have a comprehensive Poor Law . 
aiming at a complete and systematic maintenance ... for all 
sections of the indigent poor including for the first time ... a 
definite provision for the unemployed ablebodied, whose labour, pre- 
sumably usually aS home workers at piecework rates, was to be 
efi'ectively organised by the public officers." (" English Poor Law 
History," S. & B. Webb.) 
In 1601 an Act, which was the foundation of our present Poor Law, was 
passed. This ordered two or more householders to be appointed in each 
parish to act with the churchwardens as overseers of the poor. It empowered 
them to raise money by a rate ; such money was to be used : 

1. to set to work all persons who had no means and who used no 
ordinary trade by which to earn a living. 

2. to provide a stock of flax, hemp, wool, thread, iron, and other 
stuff to set the poor to work on. 



Notts, Records, and Accounts of the Poor of Chippenham, 31S 

3. to relieve the lame, impotent, old, blind, and others poor and not 
able to work. 

4. to apprentice the poor children, whose parents could not afford to 
keep them. (Such children were to be apprenticed till each " manchild " 
should reach the age of twenty-four and each "womanchild" until 
twenty-one or marriage.) 

Poor persons refusing to do work appointed them might be committed by 
the Justices to the House of Correction or to the common gaol. 

This was the most important Act dealing with the care of the poor until 
the Poor Law Amendment Act of 1834. 

But the Records of the Chippenham Overseers previous to 1691 (early in 
the reign of William and Mary) are not to be found, and probably there had 
been here as elsewhere great laxity. In 1691, however, an Act was passed 
which ordered that a book should be kept in a specified way. The preamble 
to the Act states that : 

" Many inconveniences do arise by reason of the unlimited power of 
the churchwardens and overseers of the poor who do frequently from 
frivolous pretences (but chiefly for their own private ends) give relief 
to what persons and number they think fit and such persons being 
entered into the collection bill do become after that a great charge ta 
the parish . . . it is enacted that a BOOK or BOOKS shall be 
kept in every parish, wherein the names of all persons who receive col- 
lection are to be registered with the date when they are first admitted 
to have relief and the occasion which brought them under that necessity. 
And yearly in Easter week . . the parishioners are to meet in 

the vestry . . . before whom the said book is to be produced and 
all persons receiving collection [i.e., relief) are to then be called over, 
and the reasons of their taking relief examined, and a new list made of 
such persons as shall be thought fit to receive collection and no other 
person is to be allowed to have or receive collection . . . but by 
an authority under the hand of one Justice of the Peace . . ." 
Accordingly we find that the Chippenham accounts commence immediately 
after the passing of the Act, 1691. And each year the list of those who 
were to receive pay during that year and the amount each was to receive 
monthly was entered. At that time the amounts varied from two to eight 
shillings per month. (It must be remembered that the usual rate of pay 
for a labourer was at that time one shilling a day). The average number 
of persons on the monthly roll from 1691 to 1705 was about forty. There 
was then no workhouse, and those receiving parish pay usually lived in 
their homes or, in the case of children or impotent persons, were placed 
under the care of other householders who in many cases were themselves in 
receipt of relief. " Parish Pay " in Chippenham was handed to the 
recipients on a certain Sunday in each month after morning service at the 
" Pay Table " in the Parish Church, and this continued down to the. passing 
of the Poor Law Amendment Act of 1834. 

In addition to the monthly lists which were]]fixed at Easter for the year^ 
there is given for each month a list of what were called " Extraordinaries," 
that is relief given to persons who from various causes became necessitous 



314 Notes, Records, and Accounts of the Poor of Chippenham. 

during the year. These " Extraordinaries " are of greater interest than the 
monthly lists, and from them we can learn much about the condition of the 
poor. Relief to the " Extraordinaries " was often given in kind as well as 
in money ; Kendall Gulliver was given half-bushel of malt Is., and a boy a 
pair of shoes which cost 2s, 4d. 

" The Widow Plaisted for 1 bushel of wheat for Wm. Milsom 4/3." In 
1691 Mr. Harris, an apothecary in Ohippenham, for a considerable time was 
paid ten shillings a month '• for keeping a mad woman," and for a Chaine, 
Lock, and staple 1/2. Such entries as the following are frequent : — 
" Gave Wm. Higgins & his family beere in sickness 7/6." 
Beer was often given to sick paupers as was also malt " to make dyett 
(diet) drink," probably taken as a tonic. 

A notorious form of relief was the payment of rents of houses occupied 
by the poor. In 1693 4^18 2s. 5d. was paid in rents by the Overseers, and 
year by year the amounts increased. The Vestry, which appointed the 
Overseers and which would have control of the relief, was largely composed 
of owners of house property ; and payment of rents on behalf of poor 
tenants was often as much a relief for the landlord as for the poor tenant. 
Throughout England such payments went on increasing to such an extent 
that in 1832 the Commission appointed to examine the administration of 
the Poor Law reported that this form of relief had been greatly abused. 
Mr. Mark Hovell in his book, The Chartist Movement, writes : — 

"Owners of tumbledown cottages, for example, being also guardians, 
paid their own rents to themselves by way of out-relief to their miser- 
able tenants." 
The Chippenham Vestry in 1775 showed that they realised the abuse of 
this form of relief for in that year they resolved 

" that the Overseers do not pay any Rents ... for any persons 
living in houses rented at more than forty shillings per annum except 
in such cases as shall be expressly ordered by the Churchwardens & 
Overseers &l such Inhabitants as shall be assembled at a Vestry or at 
the pay Table." 
In spite of this resolution the payments increased until in 1802 they 
reached the sum of JP239 3s. 3id. 

The total amount disbursed in relief of all kinds in 1691 was ^£44 19s. lOf d. 
By 1803 it had risen to ^2714 15s. 5|d., but the latter sum included the 
Militia Account of £231 19s. 6d. 

As already stated, the Act of 1691 directed that none could receive regular 
monthly relief but those whose names had been placed on the list at the 
beginning of the year. A later" Act (1696) ordered that every person re- 
ceiving parish relief should wear on the arm a badge consisting of the 
initials of the name of the parish in red cloth on a blue ground ; Chippenham 
Parish was indicated by the letters " C. P." Among the entries for May, 
1697, is 

" Paid for the Act of Parliament 6d." 
and later 

" Pd. for Red Cloth and Cuting the Letters ffor the pour pepells 
Coats 3s. 6d." 



By F, H. Hinton, . 315: 

The badging of the Chippenham Poor continued throughout the eighteenth 
century. In 1720 there was " paid Tho. Reynolds for setting on ye marks 
<fe making Ed. Milshams Froke 4s. Od." ; and in 1724 " Att ye Vestry pd. 
Thos. Reynolds 4/- for two years Setting ye parish marks & for cloth for ye 
same marks," and in 1798 " Richard Aland as per receipt for marks for the 
year 7s. 6d." 

There is reason to believe that only those whose names were on the 
monthly lists were so distinguished ; people who received occasional or 
*' Extraordinary " relief were probably not badged. 

It may be thought that the badges were intended as marks of ignominy ; 
but there was need of publicity, as administrators of Poor Relief then and 
€ven later were often guilty of gross irregularities. 

The Provision of Medical Tkeatment, Medicines, Etc. 
As might be expected, the " Extraordinaries " or special reliefs were in 
many cases rendered necessary by illness. Down to 1706 sums were paid 
to Doctors and Apothecaries for medicines and occasional medical treat- 
ment, e.g., 

April, 1698. " Gave Doctor Palmer for his serving the poor . . £1." 
October, 1699. " Paid Dr. Kem for attendance on 3 poor people £1 Os. Od." 
March, 1707. " Paid Dr. Wilson for advice attendance & curing many 
Poor Persons this year 3 Gines " (guineas). 
" & paid Thomas Harris for Medicines for the poor 
U 7s. 8d." 
In 1708, for the first time a contract was made for medical treatment for 
the year. The writers of English Poor Law History say, " As early as 
1718 we find the energetic Vestry of Woolwich 'farming out' the . . . 
medical and surgical cases of the poor for an inclusive sum of twelve 
pounds per annum." But Chippenham had then for ten years used the 
method of contracting : — 

1708. " Memorandum ... at the parrish meeting it was then 
agreed for ye time to come ye overseers shall pay unto Mr. Bushell for 
Physicke medicines and Chyrurgery and advice for all such pore people 
as shall be recommended unto him by ye overseers of ye parrish the 
sum of five pounds to continue for one whole year." 
During the following century the amounts paid annually under similar 
agreements increased until in 1802 the amount was ^45. 

Dr. Kem or Kemm is mentioned in 1699, and the name occurs in 
connection with medical treatment from time to time down to 1 801 . Thomas 
Spencer was appointed Surgeon- Apothecary for 1794 and for various sub- 
sequent years. In 1753 a woman was appointed — Mrs. Jane Mortimore — 
to provide medicines and attendance at a salary of £'15. 

An item of expenditure in 1691 reminds us that barbers combined the 
exercise of simple surgery with their other work : — 

" Gave Wm. Jones, barber, towards the cost of Frank Collers childs 
foot in money . . , £l 10s. Od." 
The accounts of the Overseers of Lacock show that during the first half 
of the eighteenth certury Broughton Gifi'ord water was regarded as a cure 



316 Notes, Records, and Accounts of the Poor of Chippenham, 

for certain diseases, and sick people were frequently supplied with it. There 
is no evidence that it was supplied by the Chippenham Overseers, but in 
1737 five shillings were paid for Holt water for John CoUer. In 1722 a 
bottle of " Bostock's Cordial " was given to Jane Batten's daughter, but 
there is no hint as to the nature of her illness. In 1734, 10s. was paid to 
Richd. Tavinor " Carrying his child to the Salt water bit with a mad Dog," 
and again in 1759 for John Palmer's expenses and horse hire " carrying P.'s 
boy to the Salt water £1 2s. 3|d. was paid." 

Down to the end of the 18th century Small Pox was always endemic and 
frequently epidemic. In years of severe epidemic the lists of "Extra- 
ordinary " reliefs were much longer ; and Statutory provision was made 
that parish expenditure incurred through Small Pox epidemic should be 
entered separately in the Overseers' accounts. Nothing similar to our 
Isolation Hospitals existed, but at different times a degree of isolation was 
secured by sending the patients to a cottage at Pecingel, Rooksnest, Cockle- 
bury, or Hardings. Some woman of the parish was employed to attend 
them and food was supplied by the parish. 

Though the authorities took what care they could to prevent the disease 
from spreading in the parish, they showed little regard for other communities, 
and some entries show that vagrants and those travelling with passes, if 
infected with small pox, were conveyed on their way elsewhere at the 
expense of the parish : — 

May, 1713. " Gave a stranger whose child had ye small pox 6d. and 
a fellow to carry her hence 6d." 

1736. " Pd. to car : a man to Trowbridge in ye small pox 7/-." 
The following are typical of the entries referring to expenditure on 
parishioners suffering with the disease : — 

" Pd. cart hire and other charges in removing a family in small pox 
to Pecingell ... 9s. 2d. 

Pd. for provisions, malt, bread, and other necessarys while there 
17s. 4d. 

Pd. John Sparrow for bacon, butter, cheese & milk for ye same 3s. 5d. 
Pd. Sarah Wickes for a months attendance on several families in ye 
small pox 12s. Od." 
The overseer who kept the accounts in 1722 is more vivid in his state- 
ments than most of the overseers of the 18th century ; he writes :— 

" Pd. John Cliflfords wife for her attendance & carrying necessarys to 
Capt. Gearys Servant belonging to Generall Evans Regt. in ye Small 
pox the Capt. refusing to pay saying twas for ye good of ye Towne . . 
12S." 
And 

" Gave a Soldiers wife belonging to Generall Evans Regt. her husband 
being marched with the rest and she beingjdelivered of a Child & having 
not a farthing to subsist on. Att severall times 1 2s. Od." 
{Note.— In spite of England's pride in the heroic deeds of the British 
Army in the War of the Spanish Succession which ended in 1713, the feel- 
ings between civilians and the military were often bitter. This was largely 
due to the fact that there were no barracks and a regiment posted in the 



By F. H. Hinton. 317 

county would be billeted in houses, especially public houses, up and down 
the whole county. The soldiers were regarded as a nuisance in such houses, 
as owing to the incredibly small pay they received they could add little to 
the trade of the inns.) 

Wine, gin, beer, and biscuits were among the provisions supplied to small 
pox patients. Fuel, ashes, and lime were sent to the pest house, the two 
last probably being used as disinfectants. 

The first reference to inoculation against small pox is found in 1776 when 
4s. was paid to inoculate a woman ; but in 1779, at a Vestry 

" it appearing that the Small pox is likely to become general in the 

town it was then and there unanimously agreed to inoculate the poor 

of the parish and that Mr. John Barry, Surgeon, does undertake the 

same at two shillings & sixpence each person & find them in necessary 

Medicines." 

Accordingly in September 426 persons were inoculated at a cost of ^53 5s. 

Again in 1 785, 136 persons were inoculated at the expense of the parish. 

The numbers given show that, as in other parishes, the overseers paid for 

the inoculation of poor persons whether in receipt of relief or not. 

'* At a Vestry meeting held in February 1793 it was determined to 
inoculate the poor on March 18th, of which previous notice to be given 
in the Church and Mr Richard Kemm offering to undertake to inoculate 
and treat such diseases as may be incidental thereto at 2s. 6d per head 
finding the necessary medicines it is agreed to accept his proposals." 
On that occasion 273 poor persons in Uhippenham were inoculated beside 
Chippenham poor living outside at Bremhill ( 14), Studley and Stanley (19). 
It was necessary that public notice of the inoculation should be given either 
by the Town Crier or by announcement in the Parish Church or by both, 
and this explains an entry dated July, 1796 :— 
" Crying the Small pox 3s. Od." 
Later than 1779 there appear no items of expenditure which suggest the 
incidence of a small pox epidemic. There were epidemics in 1705, 1732 — 3, 
1737, 1763, 1772—3. 

Both the Chippenham and the Lacock Overseers' Accounts show that 
during the first half of the 18th century Spanish bags were frequently sup- 
plied, apparently to sick persons I have not been able to discover what 
they vvere ; possibly they were a form of bedding. The price was generally 
one shilling each ; the Chippenham overseers sometimes obtained them from 
Bradford, though Mr. Gabriel Goldney, a clothier of Chippenham, supplied 
some in 1739. 

An unusual item of expenditure is one of 1773 :— 

'* A Quicksilver Gridle(? girdle) for Fritch's girl I4d." 
In 1723 the overseers " gave to Anne P. going to Ye Bathe for ye recovery 
of her Limbs as per agreement 1 (»/-." Bath was at that time usually called 
"Ye Bath." From about 1767 for several years a sum ot two guineas per 
annum was paid to the Bath Hospital by the overseers. 

Funeral Expenses paid by the Overseers. 
The funerals of paupers were conducted in a manner which entailed the 
VOL. XLVI — NO. CLIX. Y 



318 Notes, Records, and Accoimts of the Poor of Chippenham. 

minimum of expenditure, and details are frequently given, e.g.^ in 1694 the 
expenses incurred by the burial of John Griffin were " For laying him out 
2s Od ; A coffin 7s. 6d. ; Shroud 3s. lOd. ; Bread & beer 3s. 6d. ; cheese 
Is. 6d. ; For digging his grave and ringing ye bell 2s. 6d.; an affidavit Is. Od.*' 

With the exception of burials of persons who had died from small pox no 
mention is made of payments for the bearers. I found this to be the case 
also in the Lacock Records. And it is probable that men receiving Poor 
Relief acted as bearers and partook of the bread, cheese, and beer, for there 
is always mention of this refreshment. 

A payment was sometimes made for the use of a pall, e.g. : — 

" A shroud & use of ye black Cloth for Aldwyn G.'s wife 7/-." 
" A black Cloth for John Cullimore." 

The item, an affidavit for John Griffin Is. Od." should perhaps be explained. 
In the reign of Charles II. with a view to stimulating the demand for 
woollen manufactures an act was passed ordering that bodies should be 
buried in woollen. There had to be produced evidence that this had been 
obeyed in every case, and it was necessary that some person present at the 
time the body was placed in the coffin should make a statement on oath 
that the law had been observed in this respect. The parson was bound to 
receive such an affidavit before allowing the burial. The Act remained on 
the Statute Book for one hundred and twenty years, though it was not 
strictly obeyed towards the end of that period. There are many items re- 
ferring to the purchase of woollen for this purpose and to payments of fees 
for affidavits. 

1708. *' Paid for affidavits for ye severall persons being buried in woollen 
whose names are here incearted at 6d. each." 

1710. " Paid Mr. Zealy for wool for burying 9s. 4d." 

In 1723 Mrs. Zealy received Is. 4d. for wool at the burial of a pauper. 

The Law of Settlement and Removal. 
After the passing of the Poor Law Act of 1601 it was found that paupers 
of an extremely poor parish would move to another where the *' collection " 
was larger. This was particularly the case in London. In the reign of 
Charles II. a private bill was introduced (1662) into the House of Commons 
with a view to stopping this practice in London. But the county members 
successfully moved amendments which extended its application, and the 
Act was passed so as to apply to the whole of England. Briefly put, the 
Act provided that if a man moved from one parish to another the church- 
wardens and overseers of the parish to which he had moved could at any 
time within forty days of his arrival send him back to his old parish. If 
he were a poor man and likely to become at some future time a charge to 
the parish, he would not be allowed to remain. This Act was called the 
^* Law of Settlement " ; a later modification of it provided that no person 
might move from one parish to another without a guarantee or certificate 
from the churchv .^us of his original parish that they would be respon- 
sible for his maintenance or relief should he ever " come on the parish." 
The original parish would still be his " Place of settlement." A memorandum 
dated September, 1742, runs :— 



By F. H. Hinton. 319 

" A certificate was granted to Isaac Cambridge and Jane his wife 
from Chippenham to Bromhara. Signed by Richard Singer and Roger 
Warne, Churchwardens, and Henry Winstone and John Bull, Over- 
seers." 
Chippenham overseers would thus remain responsible for Isaac and his 
"wife though no longer in Chippenham. The accounts show numerous cases 
of relief of persons whose place of settlement was Chippenham though 
living elsewhere. In a bundle of vouchers is a letter applying for relief in 
respect of John Tuck, living in Liverpool, as one of his children was suflfer- 
ing from small pox. Two pounds were granted and paid, by a bill drawn 
on Clowes and Harding, London, to a Mr. Meek on behalf of Tuck. 

Though the Settlement Act was designed to abolish abuse and to secure 
economy, a perusal of the overseers' records of any parish in England would 
show that it led to greater abuse and to far greater expenditure. For the 
whole country for the year ending March, 1834. as shown by the ninth 
annual report of the Poor Law Commission (1843), the sums expended in 
the removal of paupers and in law suits relating thereto amounted to more 
than ^258,000. 

An industrious, healthy man might wish to remove to a place where he 
might carry on his craft more profitably ; frequently such a man was 
refused the necessary certificate. On the other hand a less satisfactory 
person would be granted a certificate by the churchwardens who would hope 
that time or circumstances might, in the event of relief being ne'e'ded, cause 
the place of settlement to be overlooked. The Chippenham accounts 
abound with items of expenditure in respect of legal proceedings with other 
parishes which demanded payment for relief of persons who claimed 
Chippenham as their place of settlement, and with parishes which declined 
to acknowledge their responsibility for their poor who might be living in 
Chippenham The following is one of scores of such entries : — 

1743. " Paid money expended on a trial at the assizes between Chippen- 
ham and Nettleton concerning Edward Gale's settlement 
£11 9s. 9d." 
As a rule a person's place of settlement was his birthplace, but there 
-were exceptions. If a boy or girl served a full term of apprenticeship in 
a parish, that parish became his or her place of settlement. In apprenticing 
the children of poor parents the Vestry frequently appointed them to em- 
ployers outside hippenham, eg., Bradford, Calne, Melksham. In that 
way future responsibilities with regard to such were thrown on others. 

A person by becoming the tenant of property of ten pounds or more in 
annual value could obtain settlement in a parish ; thus Joseph Sansum, who 
apparently in 18U0 applied for relief, relieved Chippenham by gaining a 
settlement in Malmesbury by 

"renting about two acres of land in Westport including ^ acre of 
orchard and residing in the parish of Malmesbury bouU . .^ether of 
more than the value of Ten Pounds p.a " 
If a woman of one parish married, her husband's place of settlement 
became hers even though he might not be living there. 

If a person was buried in a parish other than his place of settlement there 

Y 2 



320 Notes, Records, and Accounts of the Poor of Chippenham. 

was an additional fee paid for " breaking the ground." If the deceased was^ 

a pauper the fee was paid by the overseers as is shown by many entries : — 

1695. " Paid Mr. Lake for breaking the ground for a stranger . . 1/-." 

(Mr. Lake was the Vicar of Ohippenham.) 
1708. " For burying ye Widow Kippence . . . for breaking ye ground 
at Draycott 1/-." (The widow had lived at Draycot, but her 
place of settlement was Chippenham.) 
The unfortunate Law of Settlement was a terrible burden on the working 
class. G. M. Trevelyan says in " England under the Stuarts " : — 

" The power granted by the Act was frequently and stupidly exercised 

by jealous ratepayers, the fluidity of labour was checked, and the 

working class deprived of personal and economic freedom for over one 

hundred and thirty years." 

Individuals and whole families having become chargeable to the parishes 

in which they were living were constantly being sent back to their places 

of settlement, 

" Thus was produced the mournful and onerous ' general post ' of 
indigent folk, men, women, and children, in all states of health and 
disease, perpetually criss-crossing the kingdom under expensive escort, 
which lasted two whole centuries." {Ung. Foot Law History^ S. & B. 
Webb.) 
The expense of moving them fell upon the removing parish as the follow- 
ing extracts show :— 

1707. " For a warrant of Removal For John Coxes Family ... 2s. 6do 
Paid for 4 horses and for corn & hay at Bath in serving {i.e.^ 

carrying out) the order for Coxes Family ... 9s. 8d, 
Pd. John Norris for going ... Is. 6d. 
And expenses in Dyett (food) and beer ther ... 8s. 3d." 
1710. Expenses including legal charges of the removal of William A., 
into Hampshire amounted to £10 15s. 8d. and one of the items is 
"Three Horse Heires (hires) ^\ 19s. 6d." 
1738. " Pd. Mr. Sartin for carrying 2 women & 3 children to London 
£1 8s. Od. and in money to discharge the expenses on ye Koad 
£2 8s. Od." 
Such entries abound throughout the eighteenth century. 

But the class selfishness which allowed such legal tyranny is stressed hj 
the fact that under the Act the churchwardens and overseers might not 
refuse to allow the migration for a limited time of such persons as wished 
to go to another parish to work on the land during hay and corn harvests. 
At such times there would be in some parishes a shortage of labour, and 
the landowners and farmers, while ready enough to use the law of settle- 
ment to tie workmen to their respective parishes, were for selfish reasons 
equally ready to avail themselves of a provision of the law to secure cheap 
labour for the harvest. In Chippenham in May, 1738, there was an unusual 
outlay on shirts, and this note is added : — 

" The reason of severll shirts being given this month was to quallify 
ye respective Psons. to whom they were given to get their own 
maintenance at Harvest work." 



By F. H. Hinton. 321 

Apprenticing the Poor Children. 

Before the time of Queen Elizabeth legislation dealing with the poor had 
chiefly provided for the punishment of rogues and vagabonds. But 
Elizabethan statesmen recognised that destitution may be involuntary and 
they attempted to strike at the root of it by providing work for destitute 
persons, and the Poor Law of 1598 provided, inter alia, that in each parish 
the overseers should take the children of the poor and bind them as 
apprentices for domestic and other occupations. It should be observed that 
children of all poor persons not necessarily in receipt of relief were to be 
so placed by the Vestry. 

At that time the usual period of apprenticeship was seven years but over- 
seers were empowered to place as apprentices children of seven years of age 
and bind them for a period ending in the case of a *' manchild " at twenty- 
four years of age and of a *' womenchild " at twenty-one or at marriage ; 
thus a boy of seven would be apprenticed for seventeen years and a girl for 
fourteen years. Such a system of apprenticeship was in practice a cloak for 
the provision of cheap labour, especially as by Statute no one below the 
rank of a yeoman's son could be apprenticed to a merchant or shopkeeper, 
and in certain occupations, e.g., glover, weaver, fishmonger, and saddler, 
only children of craftsmen might be apprenticed ; but for certain more 
simple crafts it was lawful for any ploughman, wheelwright, smith, rough 
mason, etc., to receive any child. In too many cases a girl apprenticed 
to a householder for domestic work was from early childhood to womanhood 
the unpaid household drudge. 

Not only were the overseers required to arrange the apprenticeship of 
every poor child, but a householder was compelled to accept such apprentice 
if required to do so. 

A large number of items of expenditure shown in the accounts have 
reference to the apprenticing of children ; the following are examples : — 

1693. " Pd. for apprenticing Amos Blanchett to Nath. Row of Melksham 
in money 40s., Clothes 23s. Indentures & expenses 4s." 

1696. "Paid and gave Thos. Howell with Wm. M.'s Gerill (girl) to bind 
her apprentice & two shifts k stockings £l 16s." 

1704. "Paid for apprenticing Widow Salters Junr. son with Thomas 
Hannam of Bradford weaver £1 15s." 

1706. " Pd. John Cox of Bradford for taking Jane Fleetwoods Daughter 
Elizabeth to be an apprentice with the indentures & expenses 
£4 5s." 

1715. " Paid Hen, Ladd Junr. with his apprentice West in money £2 and 
a shirt & 2 neckcloths 3s." 

1751. " Pd. Mr. Humphreys for Jack Jones to scribble 21s." (To scribble 
is to tease or comb wool, flax, etc.) 

Between 1797 and 1801 the apprentices placed included one with an 
umbrella maker at Walcot, ten with weavers, one with a cloth dresser, and 
three with burlers. (A burler is one who picks knots, loose threads, etc., 
from cloth.) 

In the latter part of the eighteenth century children were probably ten 



322 Notes, Records, and Accounts of the Poor of Chippenham^ 

years of age when apprenticed, for examination of the monthly relief pay- 
ments show that it was at that age that relief in respect of them ceased. 

As in most parishes, the overseers of Chippenham placed a considerable 
number of the children with employers outside the parish. This was done 
" to save the rates " ; such children in later life would not, if they were in 
need of relief, be able to claim Chippenham as their " place of settlement.'* 

In the whole of the records there is nothing to suggest that a child having^ 
once been apprenticed his progress or welfare was of interest to the Vestry. 

Institutions for the Chippenham Poor at Various Times. 

We are so accustomed to the existence of institutions for the accom- 
modation of the impotent, aged, orphaned, and sick poor, institutions 
known at various times as " poor houses," " workhouses," " union houses," 
that it is difficult to imagine England without such. And yet less than two' 
hundred years ago there was no workhouse in Chippenham nor, indeed, in 
most of the parishes of England. The first attempt at maintaining a work- 
house in Chippenham was made in 1736. 

To trace the development of Poor Law Institutions here and elsewhere it 
is necessary to go back to much earlier times when the State was not 
concerned with the poor as the poor except in the matter of repression of 
vagrancy. As already stated the relief of the poor in each parish was long 
regarded as the duty of the individual and of the Church. 

Many parishes had possessed poor houses. S. & B. Webb say, "The poor 
house consisted of a cottage or several cottages," and they quote from the 
Poor Law Inquiry Commissioners' report, " No regular provision for diet is 
made and little order or discipline is maintained in them." 

As far as can be gathered from the accounts of the Chippenham overseers 
there was no poorhouse in Chippenham ; poor children and the aged and 
sick poor were relieved in the houses of relatives or other persons, sometimes 
themselves in receipt of poor relief. 

1691, January. " wid Serrill for keeping a sick souldier three weeks I7s.'' 
February. '* Wid. Serrill for eleven days keeping a sick souldier & 
for beer at bis funeral 7s. 6d." 

1 696. " Paid ye Wid. sorrell for lodging a travelling women and money 2s.'* 

At about the same time payments were made " to ye Widow Keeping att 
severall times for ye sick people in ffoghamshire." 

The Chippenham Overseers evidently endeavoured to carry out their duty 
in respect of able-bodied unemployed persons. Such were given the 
opportunity to earn their living in their homes by weaving and by occupations 
connected therewith. In 1726 John Rogers' loom had for some reason,^ 
possibly debt, been seized, and the Overseers paid £2 for its redemption. 
In 1737 they paid 4s. " for a turn for G. & mending one " ; these were 
probably spooling turns. In 1731 " by order of a Vestry " 5s. was paid for 
the hire of a loom for Henry Ladd. In addition there was a loom possessed 
by the parish, for in 1731 money was paid for " mending the parish loom "" 
and also " for yarn for the parish Loom." 

But in 1723 (9 George I.) an Act was passed " which gave to single parishes^ 



By F. H. Hinton. 323 

the necessary legal power . . . to build workhouses in which the able- 
bodied might be employed, and the children, the sick, and the aged main- 
tained . . . Within a decade . . . over a hundred workhouses were 
set up by parishes . . ." {English Poor Law History^ S. & B. Webb.) 
The promoters of the Act, there is reason to believe, hoped that the 
establishment of such institutions would tend to reduce pauperism. A 
contemporary pamphlet quoted in " English Poor Law History " stated, 
" The advantage of the workhouse to the parish does not arise from what 
the poor people can do towards their own subsistence, but from the 
apprehensions the poor have of it. These prompt them to exert and da 
their utmost to keep themselves ofi" the parish and render them exceedingly 
averse to come into the bouse until extreme necessity compels them." 

" One section of the Act authorised the withholding of relief from any 
person who refused to come into the workhouse . . . Within a few years 
no fewer than a hundred-and-fifty workhouses had been built with the 
result of everywhere reducing the rates." {Eng, Poor Law Hist.) This, 
however, is not true in the case of Chippenham for the establishing of a 
workhouse here did not bring about such a reduction, possibly because here 
the workhouse was not strictly used as a deterrent or as a "means test,'* 
but relief continued to be granted to others than those in the " House." 

The first experiment in the maintenance of a workhouse in Chippenham 
began in 1736, and ended in 1739 when the house was given up and the 
contents were sold. The overseers had dispensed during 1735, the year 
before the commencement of the experiment, £394, while, during the last 
year 1739, the amount was £449. 

I could find no entry which suggested where in Chippenham the house 
was situated. It was the property of Thomas Nowel ; the rent paid by the 
overseers was ten pounds fifteen shillings a year, and they sublet a part of 
it at a rent of one pound ten shillings. 

The management of the house appears to have been given to a married 
couple, John and Elizabeth Higgins ; their salary was eleven pounds fifteen 
shillings. John was responsible for setting the inmates to work. In 1737 
the overseers " reed, of John Higgins for work done at the workouse 
£1 15s. 5d." Next year, however, Elizabeth received the salary and we 
find the parish spending in 1742 £3 ISs. to pay the fees for John to get out 
of prison. 

Very few details of the expenditure involved in setting up and maintain- 
ing the workhouse are given. Generally the entries are such as : — " Pd. 
Koger Warne for Goods sent to ye Workhouse £25 9s. 7^d." The largest 
bill is that of Mr. Anthony Guy, £31 19s. 2d., and he was a lawyer. The 
total capital outlay was about one hundred and twenty pounds. 

During the year 1739 — 40 the experiment ended ; the furniture, etc., was 
sold. 

" Pd. John Aland for Crying ye Work Hous Goods to be sold . . 6d. 
Pd. Thomas Sparrows man for valuing the Goods at ye workhouse 
. . . 6d. 

Expense i selling do. . . . Is. 5d. 



324 Notes, Records, and Accounts of the Poor of Chippenham. 

Pd. William Cambridge for selling goods at ye Workhouse and for 
work ... 2s. 6d." 
The proceeds amounted to £12 4s, 

Although not stated it is evident from the entries of expenditure of the 
next thirteen years that during that period there was adopted a system of 
*' farming " or contracting in respect of pauper children and, perhaps, some 
of the impotent poor, for the " Monthly Pay " lists include lump sums for, 
usually, eight or nine persons at fifteen pence per week each, paid to Betty 
Higgins, probably the aforesaid Elizabeth. 

In 1753 the Vestry passed the following resolution : — 

" that a salJary not exceeding Forty pounds be allowed to a Master and 

Mistress of the workhouse now erecting within the said parish for the 

Reception and Maintaining of the Poor thereof. The same to be paid 

by the Overseers for the time being. That Notice of such allowance 

be given next Sunday at the church during Divine Service and a time 

be then fixed to choose such Master and Mistress." 

From that date there are entries referring to the workhouse, but the 

scheme adopted was not in complete accordance with the resolution, for 

there is no record of payment for the erection of a workhouse, but a rent of 

fourteen pounds was paid annually to h'ichd. Smith, and later to Mrs. 

Lucas. No payments to a Master and Mistress are recorded, but provision 

was again being made in the *' Monthly lists " for a woman to receive 

amounts in respect of several persons in the workhouse— ten shillings or 

eight shillings and in the case of children four shillings each per month. 

The overseers also supplied fuel and clothing. In 1797 there were sixteen 

children ; the allowance then paid was nine shillings each per month. 

There were at that time nine rooms in the house and twenty-five inmates. 

The third room on the ground floor was occupied by W., his wife, two 

children, and Sarah L. Such persons received a sum for maintenance ; 

thus Sarah Godsell received ten shillings a month living in the workhouse 

and her daughter was allowed two shillings a month for looking after her. 

One shilling per quarter was paid for the schooling of each of a few of 
the children. 

An Experiment in the Profitable Employment of the Poor. 
As we have seen, there had been in Chippenham from time to time efforts 
made in accordance with " the idea of Elizabethan legislators— which aimed 
primarily at finding means for the able-bodied to earn their maintenance." 
As early as the end of the seventeenth century the idea of making the 
labour of the poor into a source of actual pro6t to the nation was expressed 
by various reformers. " It appeared obviously reasonable to them that, if 
capital were provided and simple manufactory industries were set up, the 
labour of the men, women, and children thus directed could not fail to add 
to the nation's wealth." In many districts attempts were made to carry 
out this idea and everywhere it proved a failure. The authors of English 
Poor Law Histoty, who deal with the reasons for this in passages more 
lengthy than can here be quoted in full, give as a fundamental reason from the 
17th to the 19th century why " all the schemes for the profitable employment 



By F, H,Hinton. 325 

of the poor failed lamentably to gain by the sale of their products anything 
approaching even a bare subsistence for those who were employed was the 
fact that their enterprises were invariably and necessarily started, not in 
response to any economic demand . . . but actually because the demand 
for these products had so lessened that the workers had been dismissed 
from employment." 

Nevertheless as late as 1799 the Chippenham Vestry began an experiment 
in the profitable employment of the poor. The fact that the expenditure 
of the preceding year had reached £1,700 and that the last years had been 
marked by bad harvests and much unemployment may have led to the ex- 
periment. There is no record of a Vestry resolution referring to it but a 
special account was opened, " Expenses incurred in Spinning & Weaving." 
Details of expenses in setting up the work are given. In the first year 
£'66 9s. 3|d. was spent, while the receipts amounted to £l 3 Os. 2d. In 1802 
expenses were £22, and in 1803 the expenses in spinning and weaving flax 
were £17, and in the scribbling, spinning, and weaving of wool, £13; but 
for the year 1801 — 3 there are no records of receipts for work done and the 
experiment seems to have died out. 

Maintenance op Roads and Bridges. 

Though the overseers made no payments for the upkeep of roads, there 
are many references to expenditure in respect of repairs to county bridges. 
The responsibility for the maintenance of all roads, whether main or by- 
roads, rested on every parish, that is, the parishioners of each parish were 
responsible for the sections which lay within its boundary ; and it was the 
duty of the Vestry to appoint annually an unpaid official named the super- 
visor or surveyor of the Ways. Turnpike Trusts began to be formed in 
1706 but until much later most of the roads in England continued to be 
maintained by the parishes through which they passed. There is, however, 
as early as 1728, a reference to a Turnpike in the neighbourhood of 
Chippenham : — 

May, 1728. " Horse hire to Sheldon and AUington to collect money for 
the poor . . . 12d. 
Turnpike . . . Id." 

But the upkeep of bridges on the main roads was provided for in a very 
different way. If it could be proved that the repair of a particular bridge 
was the duty of a particular person or body of persons, that person or body 
was liable to a fine to be imposed by the King's Judges at the Assizes or by 
the Justices at Quarter Sessions if the bridge was in a state of disrepair. 
In practice the fine was equivalent to the amount necessary for the repair. 
Sometimes the owner of a certain estate was held responsible " ratione 
tenurae," for the repair of a bridge ; or a municipal corporation might be 
under the obligation to maintain a bridge as an incident of its tenure of 
certain lands. Thus, Queen Mary made a grant of land in Westmead, etc., 
to the bailiff and burgesses of Chippenham : — 

" for the better government and rule of the borough ... as well 
as the maintenance of two burgesses to be present ... at our 



326 Notes, Records^ and Accounts of the Poor of Chippenham, 

Parliament as in the reparations of a certain great bridge built near th&^ 
River Avon in the borough." 

And still in the 2(Jth century the Borough contributes to the maintenance 
of the bridge. 

But when it could not be proved that any person or body was responsible, 
the responsibility lay upon the county as a whole, and the Justices in 
Quarter Sessions could raise a levy upon the county to provide money for 
the necessary repair of a bridge. This was done by fixing a quota to be 
paid from each parish from the rates. The following are some of the 
amounts so paid by Chippenham :— 

1703. "Haringham (? Harnham) Bridge £2 lis. Od. (this sum included 

also the quota of ' Vagabond Money.') 

1704. Bradford Bridge 3s. Id. 

1704. Pd. towards the repair of Trowbridge 9s. lid. 

1705, Pd. Richard Wastfield Constable of ye Hundred several pro- 

portionals for ye repair of Bull Bridge in ye Parish of Wilton 
charged on Chippenham 4s. 5^d., on Stanley 2s. 8d., on Tytherton 
Lucas Is. 3|d., & on Allington Is. Od., in all 9s. 5d. 
1705. Pd. Richard Wastfield . . . for ye repair of Lacock Bridge 

£2 Os. 2d." 
The last-mentioned bridge is Ray Bridge ; the Justice's Order for its 
repair was shown to me by the Rev. C. Gott, formerly Vicar of Lacock. 

The accounts to be paid to the County occurred so irregularly and were 
so small, comparatively speaking, that the assessment and collection of rates 
for bridges were included in the Poor Rate ; thus it is that Bridge Money, 
though not related to Poor Relief, appears in the Overseers' Accounts. 

Some Poor Travelling Folk. 
The laws against vagrancy were so severe that a person setting out from 
his parish on a journey for lawful purposes would usually obtain, from a 
Justice of the Peace, or some other person of authority, a pass, a sort of 
written passport. Among those who travelled with passes were soldiers 
discharged on account of sickness or wounds, seamen moving from one port 
to another, wives of soldiers who, after their husbands had been sent over- 
seas were returning to their homes. If they were destitute the overseers 
of the parishes on their route were required to assist them on their way. 
The Chippenham overseers in 1721 paid 

" for a horse & man to carry a sick seafaring man to the Bathe being 
his way homeward viz. to Exeter ... 2s. 6d. (The Bathe was, of 
course, the city of Bath.) 

Gave him in money being a very great object of Charity . . Is. 6d. 
1723. To two travelling seafaring men from Bristol to London with 
a pass . . . 6d." 
And in 1728 "Gave three Dutchmen cast away travelling from Bristol to 

London in great distress . . . 12d." 
The number of such travellers helped by the Chippenham overseers 
varied greatly ; during wars there were many, and especially at the end of 
a campaign. In the early part of 1749, just after the end of the War of the 



By F. H. Hinton. 327 

Austrian Succession, a large number of soldiers and sailors were so assisted, 
as also in 1763 at the end of the 8even Years War. 

Among the papers found in the Chippenham chest containing theaccount 
books are four passes which have been carried by travellers, and, being 
filled with entries made by overseers of parishes between Pembrokeshire 
and Chippenham, were probably replaced by new passes issued by the 
Chippenham overseer. They are very soiled and tattered and are dated 
August, 1814. The travellers were women, wives of soldiers embarked for 
foreign service. They were Mary Kelly and her child and Catherine 
Maxwell and her six children travelling from Milford to Portsmouth, and 
Eleanor Sylivian and her child and Ann Smith with her three children 
going to Portsmouth from Caermarthen. The written entries on the passes 
show that in passing the travellers on from parish to parish overseers had 
allowed l^d. for an adult and one penny for a child per mile. 

Besides people travelling with such passes there was the very large num- 
ber of persons, already referred to, who were being moved to their " places 
of settlement," they and their families, from parishes where they had re- 
sided and had become chargeable. 

Neither the person travelling with a pass nor the person being removed 
to his place of settlement would be termed a vagrant or vagabond ; both of 
these had a definite starting point and a definite destination. Vagrancy 
was a different matter and presented a diflScult problem from very early 
times. 

During the Middle Ages and even much later severe penal laws were 
enacted with a view to abolishing vagrancy. The roads were infested with 
vagrants and vagabonds, and robbery and other crimes were frequent. The 
nursery rhyme :— 

" Hark, hark, the dogs do bark, 
The beggars are coming to town," 
had a very real meaning for English children. One writer at the end of 
the 17th century estimated that there were then no fewer than sixty 
thousand vagrant families in the country. The Act of 1601, the great Poor 
Law Act, which provided for the relief of the poor in every parish, also 
ordered the churchwardens to punish every vagrant and to pass him on to 
the next parish which lay on the route to his proper place of abode. The 
punishment might be detention in the House of Correction, whipping on 
the bare back " until the body be bloody," and, in case of those who per- 
sisted in their conduct after conviction, transportation for seven years. 
This particular scale of punishments was provided by an Act of Parliament 
of 1744, and it is interesting to find that later in that year at a meeting of 
the Chippenham Vestry it was agreed 

" that William Lawrence, Scribler, do have a new Hatt, New coat, and 
a Beedles Staff at the expense of the said parish and also a sallary of 
ten shillings . . for apprehending such rogue or rogues, Vagabond 
or Vagabonds as he shall find wandering and begging in the Towne of 
Chippenham aforesaid or the precints thereof and taking him, her, or 
them before some or one of his Majestys Justicec of the Peace . . . 
and if convicted as such to receive such other reward as by Law i» 



-328 Notes, Records, and Accounts of the Poor of Chi'p'pen'ham, 

allowed for apprehending such Rogue or rogues Vagabond or 
Vagabonds." (A scribbler was one who teased or combed wool.) 
The Vestry was probably induced to appoint the beadle by the fact that 
the same 1744 Act had increased the reward for apprehending a vagabond 
to ten shillings. Thus the ten shillings salary paid out of the parish rates 
would form only a small part of the amount paid to a zealous beadle, the 
" rewards " being paid by the county. 

The Vagrant Acts, by their very severity, defeated their own purpose *, 
Justices of the Peace often hesitated to inflict whippings on vagabonds, the 
worst crime of many of whom was asking charity. In many places as in 
Chippenham the law was not put in force except as a threat to secure that 
vagrants should leave the parish before they should become a charge on it ; 
for if a vagrant fell ill the parish had to relieve him though it was not his 
place of settlement, thus :— Dec. 1699. " Pd. Grace Tavinor for keeping 
the vagrant . . . I4s." (The vagrant must have been ill while in the 
parish.) 

Dec. 1701. •' Pd. Wm. Tavinor for tending upon a woman who threatened 
to leave her child on the parrish and for earring her out of town 
.... 2s. 6d. 
1706. Paid for carrying of a traviler to Bristol that lay ill at the Ancre 

(Anchor) ... 3s. 6d." 
Had he stayed on in Chippenham ill or had died here there would have 
been expense to the parish. 

But in ordinary cases, from 1699 onwards, the cost of removing vagrants 
fell upon the county as a whole, towards which each parish paid a quota ; 
the annual quota for Chippenham was thirteen shillings and is entered as 
^' Vagrant Money," " Vagabond Money" ; it was sent by the overseers to 
the Constable of the Hundred together with the Gaol Money and money 
for the repairs of county bridges. 

1703. " Pd. Thos. Crook for ye repairs of Haringham Bridge and send- 
ing away vagabonds . . . £2 lis. Id. 
1705. Pd. ye Constable of ye hundred for carrying vagrants out of ye 
County ... 6s. 6d." 

The only punishment mentioned in the Chippenham records as being in- 
flicted on vagrants is that of commitment to the House of Correction, often 
called the Bridewell, probably that at Devizes. In 1707 there were several 
cases of men being sent to the Bridewell. But commitment to the House 
of Correction was not restricted to vagrants ; the Justices might send there 
any able-bodied pauper if idle or riotous or refusing to do work to which 
he might be set by the overseers. An entry of 1754 is — " Pd. ye Constable 
of Frogham Shear (Foghamshire) carrying P. to Bridwell . . . 7s. 6d." 
(Members of the family of P. for generations received parish relief.) 

The 1744 Act, already referred to, also provided that any male rogue or 
vagabond over twelve years of age might, after punishment, be sent " to be 
employed in His Majesty's Service by sea or land " ; and in that same year 
the Chippenham overseers paid the Parish Constables (by order of the 
Vestry) 11a. 6d. which they had expended in "Impressment and keeping in 
custody men to serve His Majesty." 



By F. H. Hinton. 329^ 

All cases of impressment were not, however, those of vagrants. In 1703 — 

" Justices are to raise and levy such able-bodied men as have not 

. . . visible means for their maintenance . . . and hand them 

over to the officers of the Queen's Forces." 

" Clauses directing the impressment of all able-bodied paupers were in 

force until 1780 {Constitutional History of England^ F. W. Maitland ) 

The following probably refers to the " pressing " of a Chippenham man : — 

1706. " Paid for the child that her (whose) Father was pressed as a 

ISoldier . . . 5s. Od." 
Scribbled notes on the inside of the cover of one of the books are undated 
and apparently refer to bounties received for impressments : — 

'" Received for ye taking Wm. Axford and sending him a souldier ye 
sum of i'3. 

Heceived for ye taking up Robert Williams Daniel Winbowe Edward 
Clarke and sending them as souldiers . . . £^. 

Received for ye Taking up of one other Souldier . . . ^3." 

Gaol and Marshalsea Money. 
There are many entries in the accounts referring to " Gaol Money ,'* 
"King's Bench and Marshalsea Money," which were paid by the overseers 
through the Constable of the Hundred. By an act of 1531 a county was 
obliged to maintain a prison ; hence the " Gaol Money." Distinct from 
this, though often lumped with it, was another, " Marshalsea Money," or 
" King's Bench and Marshalsea Money." The King's Bench, the Marshalsea, 
and the Fleet were three prisons in London, many of the inmates being 
imprisoned for debt. As early as 1729 — 

"A Committee of the House of Commons brought to light hideous 

cruelties in the Fleet and Marshalsea. The office of Warden was a 

valuable bequest or perquisite to be held through life In the course of 

time the reversion of this office was sold by auction. Fees for safe 

custody were exacted by all forms of cruelty and oppression until at 

last the scandal became so great that certain holders of this reversionary 

office were brought to trial for murder and cruel treatment." {Encyclo' 

pxdia Britanmca) 

Although in that same year, 1729, an Act was passed which abolished 

gaolers' fees, the system continuued. Nearly fifty years later John Howard 

was 

" shocked at discovering that persons who had not been declared guilty, 
or against whom the grand jury had failed to find a true bill, or even 
those whose prosecutors had failed to appear were confined in gaol until 
certain fees were paid to the gaolor." {Dictionary of National 
Biography. ) 

" Innocent men acquitted at their trial might be consigned to a living 
death because they could not pay the fees demanded by the ruffians 
who had charge of the prisons." {History of British Civilization y. 
Stratford. Wingfield ) 
The overseers ot Chippenham in March, 1723, " paid to Walter Alio way 
for releasing his brother out of prison 



530 J^otes, Records, and Accounts of the Poor of Chippenham. 

Gaolor's fees . . . 18s. 6d. Turnkey . . . 2s. 6d. 

traveling charges . . 5s. Od. more .... 3s. Od." 

There is nothing to show why Alloway was in prison, but we may con- 
sider it probable that either he had been acquitted at his trial or, having 
served a sentence, he was unable to pay to his gaolers the fees they 
demanded. 

In 1742 an entry occurs :— " Pd. Mr. Ant. Guy for releasing John Higgins 
out of prison and his fees ... £'3 18s. Od." Mr. Guy was a lawyer. 

By an act of 1601 each parish was bound to contribute a sum not exceed- 
ing sixpence or eightpence a week for prisoners in the county gaol, and 
another Act in the reign of James I. ordered that each parish should con- 
tribute not less than twenty shillings a year as a relief for the prisoners in 
the King's Bench and Marshalsea. In 1696 the overseers 

" Paid John Sumner towards his expenses in going to ye devizes 
sessions in dividing {i.e., probably, apportioning to the townships of 
the parish, viz , Chippenham, Tytherton) and getting to Rights the 
Gaole and Marshnlsea Money to bring it lower ... 2s. 6d." 
Chippenham's quota was 13s. annually and this was also the amount of 
the Vagrant Money quota. Such entries as the following occur frequently : — 
1698. " Pd. Jaile and Marshalse . . . 6s 6d. 
1700. Goale and marshall money for Chippenham ... 6s. 6d. 
1704. Paid towards the Relief of prisoners in ye Queens Bench and 

Marshalsea , . . 19s. 6d. 
1706. Gaole and Marshell moneys for two years Chipnam 13s. a year 
i'l 6s. 
For Tytherton Lucas 13s. 
1772. Gaol and Marshal money . . . £3 18s. Od." 
Later these payments were included with others payable to the county in 
a lump sum, thus :— 

1776. " County Rates assessed upon Chippenham . . . £,b 4s. 4d." 
The amounts payable by each parish for the prisons and relief of prisoners 
were, like Bridge money and Vagabond money, so small that the rate 
necessary to raise them would have been only a fraction of a farthing in the 
pound, and the cost of separate assesment and collection would have been 
greater than the sura to be raised. For that reason they were included 
with the Poor Rate and the payments were made to the county by the 
overseers. 

Illegitimate Children. 
For many years a separate account called the " Bastardy Account " was 
kept showing the sums periodically paid by the fathers of illegitimate child- 
ren to the overseers and by them handed to the mothers. The average 
number on the list in the account was about 16 or 17. 

" A special activity of the zealous oflScial was the attempt to indemnify 
the parish at the cost of private individuals for the expense of main- 
taining paupers. This activity was practically confined to the case of 
illegitimate children. . . . The timely discovery of unmarried 
women with child ; the cajoling, persuading, or intimidating them to 



By F. H. Hinton. 331 

■** swear " the expected child to some man, preferably one of substantial 
means ; the bargaining with the person, under threat of immediate ap- 
prehension, for a lump sum down, or an undertaking for a weekly con- 
tribution — all this noisome business formed part of the duties of the 
overseers of the poor. . . . No further evidence of fatherhood than 
the woman's oath was required for issue of a warrant against the 
putative father ; and if the accused man could not there and then find 
sureties to guarantee the payment of the weekly contribution that 
eventually might be required from him any Justice of the Peace might 
straightway commit him to prison pending the trial of the case at the 
quarter Sessions." {Eng Poor Law History, S. & B. Webb.) 
The Chippenham overseers, however, frequently adopted another course ; 
they sometimes encouraged (if not almost compelled) the putative father to 
marry the woman, and in some cases paid for the marri^ige licence and gave 
a sum with which to begin housekeeping. 

1762. " l*d. Mr. Jason (the Vicar) for a licence for Chas. Kendall 30/-. 
Pd. Mr. Jason for marrying him to Han. Scotcher 5/-. 
Paid the Clerk 2/6 the sexton 12d. Paid for a ring one penny." 
1777. ''A licence to marry Wm. Stevens £l 14s. Od. 

to the minister for marrying them 10s. 6d. 

Pd. the clerk & Sexton 3s. 6d. 

Pd. Expenses with Wm. Stephens when in Hold 4s. 6d. 

Pd. David Woodman his expenses with Stephens 2s. Od. 
Pd. for examination & Warrant 2s. Od. 

Pd. Wm. Stephens ^1 Us. 6d." 

(David Woodman was the parish beadle.) 
In another case the items of expenditure were in respect of a warrant of 
arrest 2s., horse hire to Bath 3s., hire of a chaise to bring the arrested man 
from Bath 16s. 6d.. a marriage licence £'2. 2s Od., expenses while in custody 
two days 9s., Parson 10s. 6d,, Clerk 2s. 6d , Sexton Is. 6d , Duty 3d., ex- 
amination (by the Justice) Is., the man who went to arrest him 2s. 

One series of items with regard to a foundling has much of pathos and, 
perhaps, of humour : — 

August 9th, 1735. "A child left at Mr. Colborne's Bulk about two 
months old. 

Paid for a stay and Covering of it and petty coats for the child . . . 
12s. 6jd. 

Beer when baptized ... 2s Od." (And it must be remembered 

that publichouse keepers were at that time liable to a fine if they sold 

less than a quart for one penny. A bulk or balk was a stall or standing 

placed in front of a shop I have reason to think that Mr. Colborne's 

shop was on the east side of the Market Place.) 

In no other case could I find such liberal outlay on a child. At funerals 

beer was supplied for the bearers, but this is the only occasion that I 

found it supplied at a baptism. It is diflacult to guess who consumed the 

beer unless it was certain members of the Vestry It suggests that for 

some reason not now to be discovered the little foundling was regarded 

more favourably than was usually the case , perhaps there were shrewd 



332 Notes, Becords, and Accounts of the Poor of Chippenham^ 

guesses k* ^o her parentage. Later occur entries of payments to Edward 
Brooks for keeping Eliza Bulk ; so that the overseers, as always when a 
foundling was baptised, selected a surname as well as a Christian name for 
her, and what more suitable name could they choose than that derived from 
Mr. Colborne's bulk? Still later comes, " Leading strings for E. Bulk Sjd. 
& shoes 6d." In the following April her name was placed on the " monthly 
list " for relief for the year ; but in December there was supplied for her — • 
then nearly two years old — a coffia at the cost of 2s. 

Chippenham and the County Militia. 
The accounts for the periods, 1759 to 1766, 1779 to 1783, and 1792 to 1803, 
show that there were many payments in respect of Chippenham men in the 
County Militia. To understand the meaning of many of the entries it is 
necessary to know something of the militia of that time. There had 
been from the time of the iSaxon kings a national force known as the 
"Fyrd" and later as the militia. At one time every man was bound " to 
have arms suitable to his degree down to the man who need but have bow 
and arrows." Changes vrere made from time to time. But in the early 
part of the eighteenth century it was an inefficient force as was proved in 
the '45 Rebellion, and this led to a reorganisation in 1757. From that time 
"all men between eighteen and fifty, except certain specially exempted 
classes, were liable to serve or to find substitutes. The quota, however, 
for each county was fixed by statute." {Constitutional History of 
Unglomd, Maitland.) 
The men were selected by ballot. A man drawn in the ballot must serve 
for three years, and the number of days' exercise and training in each year 
was fixed. In times of special danger the king could call out and embody 
all the militia. It was so embodied during the Seven Years' War (1756 — = 
1763) and thirty thousand men in England were raised by ballot The first 
reference to the militia in the Chippenham accounts is in 1759:—" Pd. 
several families on account of the Militia." An entry of 1761 is " Received 
of the Treasurer of the County more than paid to the Militia men . . . 
£4 4s Od." ; this reminds us that the militia " was a county force com- 
manded by the lords-lieutenant ; it was not administed by the War Office." 
{Encycl. Brit) 

That there were so many payments and receipts by the overseers must 
not lead us to imagine that the militia men or their dependants were re- 
ceiving poor relief. A man received, on being drawn in the ballot, a sum 
of three guineas and while he was on service his wife and children received 
allowances, but though these allowances were paid through the overseers 
they were not parish moneys but were supplied by the county. 

If a man drawn by ballot wished to be excused he had to pay ten pounds 
for a substitute ; thus in 1766 " Thos. Fitch for a man to serve in his stead 
in the militia . . . 10s. 6d." Ten shillings and sixpence would not 
meet the cost of a substitute but we may assume that Fitch was able to pay 
part of the £10 and appealed for assistance from others, including the 
Vestry. 
The militia was not again embodied until 1778 to 1783, the time of the 



By F. H. Hinion. 333 

War of American Independence. In 1779 John Truscott, Wm. Hoel, 
Ambrose Nash, Jas. Lovel, and John Cherrington were ballotted and each 
received three guineas. Between 1779 and 1783 sixteen Chippenham men 
were drawn. 

The next embodiment was in 1792. " In Great Britain the county militia 
was permanently embodied during the greater part of the Napoleonic Wars 
. . . a regular army all but in name." {Encycl. Brit.) 

The overseers in 1792 paid £23 lOs. for the support of families of 
Chippenham men serving as substitutes for men drawn in other parishes ; 
in 1793 they paid the overseers of Lyneham sixteen weeks' pay at three 
shillings a week for the family of a Lyneham man serving for a Chippenham 
man. In 1794 they "paid for printing Blank Orders for Militia Men's 
familys and for the Act . . . 12s. 8d." 

The amounts paid on account of militia men were, in 1794, ^6150, and in 
1799, £410. 

Some amounts are in respect of volunteers. From 1758 militia captains 
were allowed 

" to accept volunteers instead of the ordinary militia men who were 
compulsorily furnished pro rata by each parish. In 1 778 the volunteers 
were voluntary substitutes for militia men though formed in separate 
companies of the militia units, but volunteer corps began to form them- 
selves independently of the militia." {Encycl. Brit,) 

Some Sources of Parish Revenue. 
The chief source of revenue for the purposes of poor relief in the 18th 
century was the Poor Rate which the overseers with the consent of two or 
more Justices were authorised to levy. There were other sources but the 
Chippenham overseers derived only small sum from any of them and 
nothing from most of them. Statutory provision was made that fines in- 
flicted for infraction of the Game Laws, fines inflicted on alehouse keepers 
for allowing tippling or for selling less than a quart of beer for one penny, 
for drunkenness, wood stealing, and profane swearing should be handed to 
the overseers for the poor. Thus in 

1717. " Reed, of Ed. Vennell for swearing ... 5s. Od. 
Reed, of M ary Nutt for swearing ... 4s. Od. 
Reed, of Wm. Willis . , . convicted of wood stealing 5s. Od 
1736. Reed, of Nicholas Burgess and Thomas Harris one Pound for 
suffering Persons to tipple in their Houses on the Lords Day 
and 6s. 3d. of Jos. Lad ye Elder and Jos. Lad the Younger for 
Tippling therein. 
Reed, of James Harris 20s. Od. for selling without a license." 
In the 17th century there had been received for the purpose of poor relief 
payments in respect of tolls from the market. I failed to find any records 
of such unless an entry in 1694, " Reed, of Mr. John Scott Bayliffe of the 
Burrow (Borough) £1 8s. 6d." refers to such tolls. But in 1698 a note was 
entered — "There remain uncollected for ye Proffitts of ye Marketta and 
fair for 38 months £2 4s. 4d.'* 
YOL. XLVI. — NO. CLIX. Z 



334 Notes, Records, and Accounts of the Poor of Chippenham. 

, And " Paid a man and spent at ye strayning (distraining) of ye market 
standings 3s." 

Eighty-five years later at a Vestry meeting it was *' agreed as the sum 
assessed upon the tolls of the market held in Chippenham towards the 
relief of the poor has been refused payment of for some years past that an 
Opinion of Counsel be taken upon the Right of such refusal . . ." 

There is is no subsequent reference to the matter, and one assumes that 
it was found impossible to enforce the payment. It will be noticed that 
the 1783 entry refers to the assessment upon the tolls and not to the tolls 
themselves. 

Miscellaneous Entries. 

While the Lacock accounts show that family names of the 17th century 
still persist in the parish, there are very many Chippenham names of the 
end of the 17th century which, I think, are no longer found in Chippenham, 
e.g., Gulliver, Kekewich, Gurgiful, Goodcheap, Plaisted, Dafron, Shingles, 
Greenaway. 

At the end of each year the overseers' accounts were examined and 
signed by two Justices ; some autographs to be found in the books are those 
of G. Hungerford, G. Speke Petty, R. Long (1698), J. Montague, John 
Talbot (1740). 

Recently there has appeared in the Wiltshire Gazette correspondence con- 
cerning the history of No. 24, High Street, and Thomas Figgins is mentioned 
as a former occupier. 1 find that he was churchwarden in 1736, 1737 
(probably), and 1738, and Overseer in 1742. In 1753 T. Figgins, junior, as 
a member of the Vestry, signed a resolution. 

Apparently for two generations members of the Zealy family were sur- 
geons and apothecaries in Chippenham. A Mr John Zealy was paid £10 
for attending the poor for the year 1740. Over the door of No. 33, St. 
Mary's Street, now occupied by Mr. Walter Rudman, is carved in the stone, 

JOHN ZEALY SURGEON." Mr. Rudman has in his possession a 
Ibook, " Doron Medicum or a Supplement to the New London Dispensatory," 
full of recipes ; on the fly-leaf is written : — 

"Mr. John Zealy 1716 
Ejus Liber 1699 

17." 

There is in existence a document concerning a law suit between a Zealy, 
of St. Mary's Street, and a tanner concerning a nuisance arising from the 
stench of a tanyard near. 

Two agreements, which should have been entered in the book of the 
Minutes of Vestry Meetings and not in the account books, are found on the 
inside of the cover of a book. One of 1716 is a contract entered into by 
John Hayes, clockmaker, Robert Hayes, tiler, and Daniel Hayes, tailor, of 
Sherston Magna, to supply a new clock and set of chimes at the Parish 
Church ; the other agreement, 1738, is with Samuel Elliott for the repair of 
the clock and a new set of chimes. 



By F. H, ffinton, 335 

An entry of May, 1795, is " Lost by a five Guinea Note when Cross's 
Bank at Bath Stopt payment ^£'3 18s. 9d." 

According to S. & B. Webb, " whether women ratepayers were entitled 
to vote at Vestry meetings was a moot point often formally decided ad- 
versely by resolution." Yet Mary Pinchin held the office of churchwarden 
in 1 705 and that of Overseer in 1710; and in 1798 Catherine Crook was 
one of the Overseers. 

Among the bundles of bills paid by the overseers are a few of the 
churchwardens' bills ; one is that of John Witts, 1811, for 

" Cleaning and Oiling the Fire Engine Pipes 10s. 6d." 



z 2 



336 



WILLIAM GABY, HIS BOOKE. 1656. [IL] 

[Continued from Vol. XLVI., pp. 50—57.] 

By Edward Coward. 

The first entry on one side of the book is " due from Joseph Thomas for 
twice going up with 4 beast and once coming downe with too which is 
8s. 6d." There are about 120 entries of a similar nature and the charge i» 
always the same, 9d. apiece for going up and Is. 3d. for coming down. The 
beasts were draught oxen, that is made clear. And they were goiug up 
Bagdon hill, that is clear too, because there are 22 entries of helping coaches 
up the hill, and Bagdon hill is on the old coaching road between Bath and 
London. It was the road along which all coaches from London to Bath 
travelled for about 100 years— 1650 to 1750. It is the same hill down which 
Cromwell's soldiers tumbled after their defeat on Roundway Down. 
Netherstreet lies at the foot of it. Tradition says that the oxen were hitched 
On at the end of a little lane near the bottom of the hill which is still called 
" hitchin lane." 

One reads of Princess Amelie being carried in a sedan chair all the way 
from London along this road in 1728, and of Princess Caroline coming by 
coach in 1750 being met at Sandy Lane by Beau Nash. This was the last 
time it was used by royalty. A better road was opened up through Box, 
Chippenham, and Calne, and the road over the downs was gradually given 
up. Those who know the road will realise what passengers must have 
suffered. 

But to get back to Gaby's book, what puzzles one is that beasts " downe 
the hill " or " downe " were always charged more than " up." One would 
have expected the reverse. Again, no specific job was ever named in con- 
nection with " down," whereas coaches and wagons were often helped " up." 
But some of the earlier entries read " up at hill " and this may give the 
clue. I suggest that where the job is not specified the oxen were going to 
cultivate the adjoining land and as that on the top is very light whereas at 
the bottom it is exceedingly heavy the charge for a day's work on the 
bottom land, or " down," was considerably more than on the top. This is not 
a very satisfying explanation, but I can give no other. Against it there is 
one entry which reads, *' helping Gabrielle downe." No charge was shown 
in connection with this but it certainly suggests that Gabrielle was actually 
helped down the hill. On the other hand it may mean that Gabrielle had 
been helped on the land at the foot of the hill. 

The Gaby family had lived in these parts for many generations, In 
1539 there was a muster of the military array throughout the kingdom and 
amongst the Byllmen at Bromham is an Edward Gaby. 

At the Quarter Sessions at Devizes in April, 1634 (see Mr. B. H 
Cunnington's exceedingly interesting book, " Wilts Quarter Sessions 
Records, 17th Century ") the constables of Bromham presented Daniell 
Webb Tithynman for abusing and making a jest of Walter Gaby, Constable 
of Bromham. The following is a shortened pedigree of the family : — 

William Gaby (no date) had sons, one of whom was William (the author) ;. 



William Gahy, His Boohe. 1656. II. 337 

•he married Sarah Eat well and had sons, William, Walter, Robert, John. 
John had nine children. His son, John II., born 1720 died 1777, of Brom- 
ham, yeoman, married Mary Hale, 1741, and had ten children. His son, 
John III., born 1745, married Sarah Wilkins and had ten children. His 
son, Ralph Hale, clothier, Chippenham, born 1774 died 1819. His son, 
Edward, of Clapton, London, and St. Ediths, Bromham, born 1813 died 
1870, married Emily Cruicshanks Hale, and built the present house at St. 
Ediths and lived there. He had ten children of whom Emily (Mrs. 
Hooper) and Eliza Catherine (Mrs. Wiltshire) survive. His son, Walter, 
married Miss Bownas and had two sons— Victor and Clive — who both sur- 
vive. Another son, Ralph Hale, solicitor, Chippenham, married Miss 
Matravers and had one daughter who survives. 

January 5th, 1658. Walter King & Will Grafton and Will Bruer were 
about mending ye wagon a whole day and we had new rave staves of him 
and again Ben : and he put on too new peecs and again Will Bruer was here 
a day : before all this was done he put a new box into one wheel and 
fastened another and before that he had of my Father in money 2/-. And 
we had a peele (a baker's shovel) of him wch Blanchet put in a(t) Rowde. 

£ s. d. 
For one dayes work for the thatcher and boy 2 2 

A rate for Constables charge 3 

Tho. Tayts 3 lambs came in the beginning of June and so did 

Webbs. 
Tayts lambs went out St. James eve. Edyeth Webb sold her 

4 sheep at devises tyde and her 3 lambs at All Saints day. 
July 5th, 1659, to Michaell Elmer for 1 dayes work in Edye- 

thalye (name of field) 1 

To Tho. Webb and Mark for 1 dayes work in 

Frickmore and Abotswood 2 

for bringing the rushes home 

(It is to be noted that the general rates of wages as recorded 

by Gaby seem to be appreciably higher than those fixed by 

Quarter Sessions to govern this period.) 

Nov. 2nd, 1660. Then accounted with Alice Gaby for this 

yeare's wages and I oweth her in all the summe of 3 10 
Aug. 20th, 1660. Then payd to the tithing man being money 
demanded upon the parsonage by the name of contribution 1 

payd for scouring the hamme ditch 
April 15th, 1659. A noat of what I have layd out about lines 
living for rates and other expenses thereabouts 
It to Jo : Bowman for trenching 

It to John Slade for plants 

It to Jo. Bowman for hedging 
for four contri : rates 

for one dayes work for a man to mend the hedges 

for too dayes next the coapses 

for custom rent 
for a stile 



15 





10 


4 


7 


6 


1 





5 


10 


6 


2 





8 


1 


8 


10 





2 


6 



338 William Gahy, His Boohe. 1656. II. 

je a. d. 

for four rates for ye poore 17 4 

for three dayes for thatching 6 6 

for constable's charg 10 6^^ 

for tithing for one yeare 1 16 6 

for court silver 4 

for carrying 7 load of oates 7 

for three score of Kids (Kids=faggots made of brushwood) 6 

April 13th, halfe a rate for the poore 2 2 

for head silver 4 

for 3 wants (moles) of your owne 4 

for 2 between us 3 

May 29th contribution rate 3 4 

custom rent 10 8 

June 16th, 1659 for lords rent 7 4 

for 4 plants 1 4 

Tho. Tayt 3 dayes a threshing of oates 2 3 
Tho. Tayt for too dayes 
Tho. Webb for one a threshing of rye wch my Uncle must 

pay half of it 2 3 

payd Tho. Webb for ripping (reaping) 3 dayes & a halfe 5 3 

To Abell Gye the same 5 3 

To John Webb for binding 3 dayes & a halfe 4 6 

for 1 bushelle of wheat 7 

1 load of straw at least 10 
for carrying of three load of faggots to ye barne out of ye 

ground 6 

for wintering of 10 she(ep) 10 

for wintering of kine & sheep 1662 18 

John Ansty Octo : the begin : 61 1 duzen & half of read 4 

for chimneyes (hearth money or tax) 3 

for 5 tadde of hey 2 6 

a peck of peaze 7 

for keeping crowes (Bird keeping) 8 
Then payd to Theophilus Pead the summe of 17s. 4d. being 
money demanded upon Mr. Abraham Richards hismeanes 

for the use of the poore of the parish of Brumham 17 4 
This rate was made May the 1 

more payd for him by the name of pont mony 17 
(pont mony was doubtless the same as the bridge tax for 
the repair of bridges) 
Nov. 19th Then payd to Benjamin Webb for custom rent and 
old rent and 2d. for alane (the piece of iron at end of 

plough to which the horses were attached) the sum of 17 7 
which was due from Mr. Abraham Richards 

To pay for hous rent for lines hous every year 15 II 

for rent for Tayts hous every year 8 & 

for this hous 4 9 



By Edward Coward, 



^m 



March 15th, 1657, for 2 bushells of coale 
for 1 peck of peaze 
for five dayes thrashing 
for half a beast leaze 
(There are several such entries; probably a beast vsras 
charged so much for grazing a certain time, and in this 
case he was only kept half the time. Leaze is also used in 
some places to signify a piece of land.) 

bought of Mr. Eyres 4 bushells of rye at 3s. 4d. 

of John Hughes one sack at 
payd Tho. Webb for ripping 3^ dayes 

to Abell Lye the same 
to John Webb for binding 3 dayes & a halfe 
for carrying of five loads of rye & one of hay 
To Roger Townsend 4 dayes & a halfe 
for wintring of 10 she(ep) 
John Ansty Oct : the begin : 61. 

1 duzen and a halfe of read (for thatching ?) 

lent to Wm. Pead 4q. of oyle 

for chimneyes 

Wm. had 5 tadde of hey 
Feb. 11th, 1661, a peck of peaze 

five days thrashing 

for halfe a beast leaz 

for halfe a yeares tithing 

for lords rent 

due from my Uncle Robert to mee for wintring 11 sheep 

A noat of what is due to my Uncle Robert for rint for the 
chase lanes (lands ?) (may be chase or hunting ground) 
for Stockams tresspass 

May the 8th, 1661. 
Then given Elizabeth Bay ton and Elioner Collier 4 distressed 

people bound for Ireland 
And also to Elizabeth Martin and Margaret Pollard 3 more 
in the same condition 

June the 9th payd for the carrying of Joane Bridg a creepled 
woman and 6d. for them to drink 
To Tho : Roise when he went to the Assizes 
To Catherine Hulbert 
for the hire of a horse 2 dayes to carry them 

Oct. 18th, for rates for armes and souldiers charg 
more for making of them all new 

Oct. 13th, 1661. Then gave to Tho : Wilson his wife and five 
children ; Andrew Gibson his wife and five children which 
had received great loss in goods by fire and also much 



& s. d. 

1 8 

4 2 

4 



13 4 
12s. 

5 3 

5 3 
4 4 

6 
6 6 

1 



4 



3 





2 


6 





7 


4 


2 


2 





9 





3 


3 


2 





7 


6 


2 





1 








9 


5 


S 


3 





3 


a 


2 





2 


Q 



2 



1 


6 





8 


2 


8 


1 


6 








3 


6 


1 






340 William Gaby, His Boohe. 1656. II, 



wonded in their bodyes so that they could not work and had 

layne in St. Tho : hospital 6 months the summe of 19 

his Majesty gave them a horse to carry some of the(m) about 

Oct. the 15th to a poore Irish woman and too children which 
had a pass to go to Ireland 6 

Nov. 5th to Jo : Andrews and his wife with a pass from Lon- 
don to Devonshire 4 

March the 22nd to Tho : Browne his wife and four children 
and to his sister being great with child wch came out of the 
Isle of Ames wch was destroyed by ye Biskyneres belonging 
to the Spaniard 
payd for an act for the hearths 

It for riding to Marlborough about accounts 

And another time for goeing to the Devizes about the same 
business twice 

It for going to the Assizes 

It for goeing to Wootton Basset about the troopers 

It for goeing to the Vize about weights and measures 

Janu : the 16th then given to John Bennet his wife and four 
children which came from the He of Cotton who lost £700 
& 50 by fire 6 

Payd for Keeping of Rich : Slade at Essingtons beere dyet 
fire and candle for the watchman 
And to the watchman 

And for having him to the gaole and delivery of him 
for carrying of one creeple at last 
for goeing to the Assizes at lent 

Aprill 23rd bought of Mr, Nath Webb 1 bargain of straw 

1 bargain more 

2 load of earth 
Upon the reckoning when shee brought home her bundle 

Hrenty Webb oweth for corse wheat 

and for half a bushell and half a peck of great wheat 

seven load of stones carried to the highway in the yeare 1 660 

Phillip Wayman 
for crying the horse 
A noate of what Tho. Pead doth owe mee in 1661 
lent him (various items of oyle) wch is in the whole 6 gallons 

& 3 quarts of oyle at 3s9 9d. ye gallon is in all 15 4 

carryed for Mr. Richards 2 load of wheat out of the clay 1 
of wheat from Sinderbarrow 1 of oates out of the Hoock 
3 of barley oates & peaz from Knights clay 
July 10th, 1672, then accounted with Wm. Bruer and I owed 

him 8 

Aprill 1670 charges about tithingmanship 
for a creeple yt was carried towards Melksham 8 



7 


4 


4 





11 


4 


1 





10 





1 


6 





6 


2 





1 


8 


2 


5 


14 








2 



By Edward Coward. 



May the 13th 1664 a noate of what I did lay out about church- 
wardenship 

for warning to the visitation 
spent at the visitation 
gave to Wm. Barret his wife — (a line of shorthand) 
2 (means "to ") Wm. Pawmer a wif— children being 11 of 

them 
2 Georg Smith and his company being seven 
2 John Taylor for a boy for the lower door 
2 John Tomkins a poore man 
2 Anne Pitman & her family 
2 James Conary & Tho : their family 
2 John Hobbs for his quarter 
2 a widow wooman — 2 c — 
2 Cornelius Murphy & 9 
2 John Hobbs at Michell for bread «& wine 
for a warrant for Jo : Mills 
for the booke of articles 
for being warned to the visitation 
spent at the Vize 
to deliverjour noat 
for Penticost money 
payd to Wm. Withers for jayle and marsh all (marshall) for 

halfe a year 
to ye ringers on ye Kings holyday 
to six travellers 
for bread and wine 
Jo : Hobbs his quartridge 
Dec. 25th, more payd to Georg Harris & too other travellers 
to Wm. Withers for mayned souldiers 
for mending the windows 
for a greys head 

to Hugh Hillman for a book for the staft 
for wine at Easter for too communions 
for washing of the linning 
payd Wm. Withers for mayned souldiers 
to the plummer 
to Prudence Taylor for bread and oyle for the bells 
Tho : Widdowes his heyfer came in the Tuesday fortnight 
before All Saints Day 
1673, 1 paire of little wheels 18 

for a set of new staves and putting in of one new rave 
Several pages follow almost entirely of items connected with 
the hill, but " beasts " are not mentioned again, it is " 6 up " 
or " 6 downe " for so and so, and there are a number of entries 
of " 1 coach up hill " for which the charge is 4s. 6d., a little 
later it was 5s. 





341 


£^ s. 


d. 





8 


10 








6 





6 





6 


1 


• 





2 





6 





6 


6 


6 





6 




6 


5 


4 




6 


1 


4 


1 





9 


8 


3 


6 


1 


5 


14 


9 


7 








10 


5 


4 


6 


6 





4 


9 


5 




4 









6 


11 







6 


9 


3 


10 






3i2 



William Gaby, His Booke, 1666, II. 



£ s. d. 



2 horses to ye ditch for Smith 
and a hitch for Potter 

a hitch for Tobyah 
(hitch probably means help with a team) 
three little leazes for farm 
2 coaches in one day 
A noat of what the house doth cost the building 
Imprime 30 bushells of lime 

Ifto ye sawer 
It to Ed: Lad for 11 days 
to Robert Line for digging stones 
for 2000 of nayles 

4 days to Ed : to reare 
100 of lasts 

payd to ye masons 
more to ye masons 
to Samuell Webb to elme 
to Samuell more 
100 of lasts 

5 dayes Overtun and his boy 
5 dayes more for Lad 

to Harris for binding rods 

500 of bricks 7/6, 700 more of bricks 10/6 

3 halfe dayes for young lad 

3 dayes more for Overtun 

3 dayes more for Lad and his boy 

2 payres of hooks & twists and 200 of nayles 

for Wm. Smith 

more for lime 

more to Powell & Mark 

more to Powell 

for tyles in all 

for tyleing 

more to Ed : Lad for work nayles & tyles 

Tho : Tyler for work & ha— 

for glasse 

to Ed : Ladde at last for laying the lofts and other things 

Strattons house cost 

besides boards and my plow work (hauling) 

1 load of rush for Jo : Ansty out of Adams 

3 dayes for Mr. Erbury to carry plocks to Vize 

2 loads of fatches (vetches ?) out of cley 
1 load of fearne for Tho : Tayt 

1 day to twyvallow ye hook (twyvallow probably means to 

twice cultivate) 
1 dayes work to carry stones for Jo : Ansty from Bagdon hill 



1 


6 


2 





3 


6 


1 6 





9 





15 





15 





1 7 


6 


10 


6 


4 





10 





1 


10 


17 


6 


14 





4 





2 





1 


10 


10 





12 


6 


2 





17 


6 


1 


6 


6 





7 


6 


4 





4 





9 





1 3 





10 




1 2 


8 


1 7 





1 5 





15 


6 


1 6 


7 


15 


6 


17 18 


1 


1 





1 1 





3 





3 


a 



By Edward Coward. 


34S 




£ s. d. 


A noate of what my Father in- law doth owe mee 




for a knuckle of feale 


11 


one surloin of beeflf 


4 


to ye apothecary 


6 


for half a pound of tobacco 


1 


for 30 sheep leaze 


7 6 


for 1 quarter of 1 00 of oysters 


3 



14 2 



John Lye of Rowdeford 3 bushells of barley 

It Wra. Webb of ye farme for 3 quarters 6 bushells and half a 

peck of white oats at I6s. 6d. ye quarter 
And 3/- for pound charges for 9 beasts in ye common 
due to Ed : Lad and his too sonns for 4 dayes wages apiece 

and Darius one for tyle 
payd ye tyler in part 

Nov. 18—8 I carried too load of^broome for'Ferdi : Fead 
June 18th, 74 rec : of Mr. Will Ganby constable of Bromyan ye 

sume of nine pounds in payment of his Majesty's half yeares 

duty of hearth money due from the said parish at Lady day 

last per me Vincent Snooke ^ 
Nov. 1684 Mary Webb wid : 100 fagets 

Henry Paed 40 fagets & longs (poles) 

Samuell & Rich : Mitchell came to table July the 10th, 1686 
and untill Lady(day) was 33 weeks and I have received 
of Rich : Mitchell their father at too payments 

Also from that time on till Michaelmas is 24 wek all of 
which at 6s. 6d. a week cometh to 

Work done for Robins 1690 for carrying 40 bushells of bar- 
ley to Chippenham 

for fetching in ye oates 4 men 2 wagons 
1692 wee sowed for Tho : Robins his pound leaz with wheat 

4 acors & a half 

Also his crooked oake leaz with oates eight acors & a half 

he had 2 horses to Chipingham 
Payd by John Potter to Sir Walter Ernley for lords.rent 
It for too rates for the King's pay in yt yeare 
It for armes and souldiers charges in that yeare 
It for four pullets for custom rent 
It that mony that he payd at the Courts in that yeare 



10 



3 


2 


1 





3 





2 


9 







7 







5 








13 







7 


e 


12 








18 


10 







6 


8 




10 





1 


9 





2 


11 

1 



6 


2 










12 







5 


10 




2 







3 






^ This item is in a different hand writing from rest of the book and the 
words were clipped and shortened. Mr. Cunnington kindly interpreted it 
for me. 



s. 


d. 


5 





5 





5 





5 





2 


8 


2 


8 


1 




3 


8 


2 


6 


6 


6 


11 


I 



344 William Gaby. His Booke. 1656. II, 



April the 2nd 1694 for helping Oliver up hill with his coach 
the 9th day for helping him up again 
the 16th day for helping him up again 
* Sept. the 24th for helping up Robert Grayes coach 
A noat of what I have paid for cutting the corn in the wasfield 
to Tho : Fryer for 2 dayes 
Tho : Webb for 2 dayes 
James Gaby 1 daye 
Aug. 25th 1658 payd for seaven load of oates 
for a new stille 

for three days work for thatcher at 2s. 2d. a day 
sowed 7 peckes of wheat at 6s. 4d. a bushell 
sowed 13 bushell & half of rye at 4s. 2d. a bushell 

9 dayes work a cutting up the young hedg at 9d. a day 6 9 

I doe owe Mary Kinton for 3 bushells of oates at 2/- a bushell 

& for 3 bushelles of oates at Is. lOd. 
I doe owe Christopher Pullin of the Devizes for 12 bushells of 

peaz at 3s. 6d. a bushell 
4 load of stones and half a day more we carried stones for Lad 

and a potf ull of horse dung out of ye strowd 
Aug. nth 1661 payd to Roger Townsend cutting peaz 1 day 
payd to Rich Chandler for one day and his boy for too days 
Tho : Webb for 2 dayes work 

May for 1 daye 
Tho : Webb for threshing 2 dayes and a 
halfe 

Mark 1 day 
Nov. 1661 a hue and cry after too men one on a grey horse, the 
other on a browne bay with his tayle tyed up with tape, 
these men had wounded James Bennet of Dunhead in the 
county of Wilts nere Wyly very dangerously Nov. 21 
March the 5th, 1661 a hue and cry after 3 horsemen one on a 
bay horse the 2 a white the 3 a downe (dun ?) one man had 
fleexen haire who one (on) the 4th of this instant did robbe 
James Perry on the highway of a bay balld nag too whit feet 
behind 14 hands high a whit bridle a black saddlexmeer 
(saddlecloth ?) 20/- a hanger a paire of buckskin gloves 



' This is the last entry on one side of the book and is of peculiar interest 
to the writer as the Gray family is connected with his own. The Grays 
were wine merchants in London. Three successive Robert Grays were 
Masters of the Vintners Co. In addition to the wine business they ran 
coaches to Bath and Bristol, but their earliest coaching record only goes 
back to 1740, so this entry carries their family history back nearly fifty 
years. There are 22 entries of helping coaches up the hill. The coaches 
were owned by Burford, Sute, Oliver and Graye. 



1 





2 


4 


2 


8 


1 


4 


2 


6 


2 






By Edward Coward. 



March the 10th 1661 a hue and cry for a short man about 40 
yeares old wth whit grey cloathes a black hat brown hair 
his hand tide up with a string who is suspected to have 
stolen seven silver spoons and a gold ring fro— Roger 
Hawkins of Wilsford 
A noate of the mony that I have layd out for the souldiers for 

their pay 
Imprimes at the Devizes to Ed : Bayly and Jo : Morris 
It at Chipin : too dayes pay to them all four 
It myself and my hors 
It Novem : to Wm. Web 
It to Jo : Morris 
It to Ed : Bayly 

Nov. 19th for 2lb. of shot and 21b. of powder 
to the 4 souldiers at Vize 6/- apiece 

It at Chipenham to the four souldiers for 3 dayes pay 6/- apiece 
for a belt 
for lib. of powder 
for myself 
for Wm. Webb, John Ansty and myself a Saturday for going 

to Chippenham about the souldiers 
A noat of what last trees cost filling and squaring 
I payd Tho : Web and Mark for filling (felling) 
It to Ben Web for 3 days squaring 
It to the sawers in all 
It to the carpenter 
It for filling of more trees 
It for making the groundpin 

for haleing of the timber 
and for stones 
for thatching 
for lasts 
for straw 



(1670) I had three bushelles of lamas wheat 
5 pecks of dugbill wheat 
two bushelles more of great wheat 
2 quarters of oats at 23d. a bushel! 
a bushell of peas ^ 



345 

je s. d. 






5 





1 










2 







2 







2 







2 







3 


2 


1 


4 





1 


4 


3 




1 


6 




1 


4 




1 


6 



4 



3 


6 


1 11 


6 


1 2 


6 


2 


6 


3 





9 





3 





10 






5 8 6 

£ s. d. 

12 

5 

9 4 

1 10 8 

3 4 



^ It is interesting to see the name of lamas wheat. It is still one of our 
best sorts. Daring the period covered by this book the price of wheat 
Taried from 6/4 to 3/8 a bushell ; rye from 3/10 to 3/0 ; oats from 2/6 to 1/- ; 
peas from 3/6 to 2/6 ; barley from 2/- to 1/5. Apples were mentioned once 
at 2/- a bushell. 



346 William Gahj. His Booke. 1656. II. 



£ s. d. 



Widow Seager 


2d. 


Wm. Webb carrier 


2d. 


Paul Chandler 


2d. 


Wm. Gaby (the author 1) 4d. 


Wm. Webb 


1/2 


Joane Hobbs 


1/2 


John Minty 


1/2 



A noat of the names of those that doe pay head silver 
1661 Netherstreet 

Widow Knight 4d. 

Wid : Gaby 2d. 

Gabrielle Still 2d. 

Joane Webb 2d. 

Robert Gaby 4d. 

Wid: Bayley 1/2 

John Hughes 2d. 

Two dayes work out of the hopyards (suggests that hops 
were grown in those parts, and there is one entry of " making 
and grinding mault.") 

A noat of what was layd out about the rates for the royal ayde 
& supply 1666 

Imprime about going to the Vize 3 times 3 6 

It at Effingtons for too meetings 3 

It for a survey of the whole hundred 1 

May 1st 1666 a hue and cry for a bay mare about 14 hands & 
a star in the forehead & a whit snip in her left nostrill lost 
fro : Poulshot to goe north 
July 28th a hue and cry for whit mare a little flay bitten about 
13 hands and a halfe high lost from Bradfords ligh she being 
the goods of one John Grettenham gent 
Aprill 67 a hue and cry for Tho : Webb a short man about 30 

of Quenford that ran away from the oflScer 
1667 All Saints sold to Adra : Webb 14 sheep leeze at 6d. 
It for fallowing of his ground by Kintons 7 aeors at 6s. 3d. 

ye acor 2 3 9 

A noate of ye ripping & other work about my wheat 

1 667 (discloses the fact that harvest pay was at the rate of 
about 1/6 a day) 
Dorset a hue and cry for one John Kimbery of Winterburn 
Whitchurch who stole a black mare & a grey nagge from 
Henry Salter of Abbottcourt he run away from ye tithing- 
man. And Rich : G. Cook of Whitchurch who was guilty 
of ye same and fled before examination a short thick man 
browne hair pock tretten (pock marked) grey cloathes and 
grey hat ye other short and thick black curled haire round 
and pale favoured 
Nov. 27th, 1667. Benjamin Webb hath one bushell of peas 

Sold to Wm. Webb. of Scole 100 of kiddes 
A noate of what I doe lay out being tithingman 1670 
for carrying of a creeple up to towne 
one carried to Chittoe 
payd at Englishes when we strained (distrained ?) 
payd at Edington 
payd at Essingtons 



3 


4 


12 





8 


8 


1 





2 


6 


2 





1 


6 



By Edward Coward, 



347 



payd at Inges when we made ye certificate 

and for being twice at Edington 

and for being at Edington ye 4 times 

and for being at ye Vize Sessions too dayes 

for a creeple carried to Heddington 
and a creeple carried to Chittoe 



£ s. 


d. 


1 





1 


6 


1 


10 


2 







6 




6 


14 






Accounted with Wm. Bruer and he oweth for cheese 1671 
since yt he hath done 2 dayes since he hath staved one side 
of the wagon and put in a foreshut luckes and found staves 
and shutluckes since he hath amended ye old wagon put in 
one rathe and amend one of ye fore wheels for making a 
hinder wheel for ye stock and spoakes for putting in of 2 
braces for one dayes work and a half to set up pales and he 
had one cheese of 18 Jibs, and when he set up the dung pott 
(a cart made for dung, wheels are fixed to axles which 
revolve). 

Then accounted with Ladd <fe I oweth him 

he k his boy 2 dayes to make the buttry and the ladders 

he had of me a horse leaz 

he & his boy to make ye staves he & his boy one day more at 

more house to make ye wale plates and one new gate in the 

barne he & his boy to pull down the house 

300 of bricks fetcht 

6 days he & his boy about framing the house but Ed : Ladd 
went away part of 3 dayes Ed Ladd is to pay for filling <fc 
curving of the 3 trees and for it he must have the butts and 
the topps and the chipps for the squaring 

A noate of the charges of Constableship 1674 

Imprimes for expenses at the Devizes when we went about 

the Kings money 
When we searcht after Natha :^Webb about towne 
Spent at petty sessions 
for a stook — to booke 

to Rob : Ings for lodgings & dyet for 3 travellers 
for goeing to ye Assize 
Spent at petty sessions at Lavington 

At ye last Assizes 
oyle of lumren, oyle of permanick, oyle of cammamill mixt 
together is good for an old squat 

8 lb. of milk buter 

3 of whey butter 



10 



9 
3 

1 6 



1 


6 


1 








6 


2 


6 


LO 





2 


6 








3 


4 


1 






348 



William Gaby, His Booke, 1656, II, 



6 

10 

1 

3 9 

1 16 

1 8 



I quarter of feale (veal) 
1 of lous berryes ^ 
Work about Bromham Coapse & ramslade in ye ye : 78 
And for putting up of the hazle boughes after ye nutters in 77 
Michaelmas Eve 1683 delivered to John Vazey 
payd at Weigh hill 
payd at Marleborough 
for a hors to Weigh hill 
for a hors three times to Potterne 
for a hors to Malborow 
seven load of wood carred for Dn Wyat 
from Prickmore 
for sowing of too barley closes 
and 6 acors of oates for him at 6/8 ye acor 
1 day wee carryed corne for Daniell Hiscock 
1 day we carryed dung k grass for Daniell 
for sowing of Baylys leaze for Daniell Hiscock 
Georg Paradice for 12 hundred of chees at 20d. ye hundred 

wch is 
May, 1683, Paull Chandler oweth for one bushell of wheat 
and for six quarters of coale 
and half a bushell of peaz 
A hue and cry from Rodstock for a bay mare 7 yeares old wth 
an J & A in ye near buttock a star in ye forehead and a 
sorrell mare 5 yeares old a B & C in ye near buttock a star 
in ye forehead ye under lip white a ring eye on ye right side 
2 whit feet ye goods of Cor : Read & John Cumbe of 
Midsummer-Norton 
Paull Chandler one dayes work to carry dung 

one to carry wood 
Charges about ye souldiers June ye 14th, 1685 
Imprimis ye four souldiers at Hillmans for 2 days 
for powder & bullets spent that day 
spent that day 
June ye 16th four dayes 

for powder & bullets 
A payre of shues for Natt Parsons 

* Muster Master 
To Stephen Hillman to furnish ye armes 
for eight dayes more 
for powder & bullets 
* Louseberries were fruit of the spindle-tree — Euonymus etiropaeus. 
The powdered berries were reputed to destroy lice in children's heads. 
Hence the name. See Century Dictionary and Cyclopcedia and Prior's 
Popular Names of British Plants. 

^The Muster Master was the official appointed to train those who were 
summoned to carry arms. 



6 





5 





I 





4 


6 


2 


6 


2 





6 





3 


6 


2 





11 





4 





12 






19 





6 





8 


3 


5 





13 


2 


3 






By Edward Cowards 34^ 

£ s. d. 
payd for harnum bridge (pont money) 12 8 

for summer Assizes 10 

about takeing and keeping the bond 5 

Willie Townsend his expenses Tho : Gerrish to jayle 6 

for a load of Quakers to jayle 3 

(In some records of Bromham an account is given of a meet- 
ing of Friends. " Gilbert Talbot and Sherrington Talbot 
justices and Thomas Wyatt Priest of Bromham (Vicar 1668 — 
1717) came to the meeting and tendered them the oath and for 
refusing to swear committed them to prison where they re- 
mained five weeks." The exact date of this meeting is not 
given but the term of the Vicar marks it as of this period. It 
looks as though they were the " load of Quakers " referred to 
by Gaby. He seems to have been paid very well for the job.) 
1686/7. Henry Paed Senr. for 80 of alder fagetts 
for 40 oak fagetts 
Ilobt. Webb for 1 2 bushelles of coal 
half a load of straw 
Mansfield for thatching spicks rods & elming 

Cooksey for haleing the tree 
Tho : Robins sawing of ye timber for gate posts and pales 

13dayes&ahalf 1 13 9 

Jonathan Jennings for hooks twists & 

staples 5 7 • 

four load of thornes 4 

To Tho : Webb John Bollen John May for scouring of 

Gobbetts ditch five dayes & a half apiece 113 9 

May 1689 payd Joseph Ansty the Kings first pay 5 J 

the Kings second pay 5 J 

hearth 3 

John Gaby for 30 bushelles of oates 1 10 

John Hickman 7 quarters & a half of barley at 13s, ye 

quarter 4 17 6 

[There are many transactions recorded as to buying, selling, 
andlending "oyle" the price of which ranged from lOd. to 3s. 8d. 
a gallon. One item reads " oyle for the bells," otherwise the 
use is not specified, but probably it was used — as it is to-day — 
in some of the processes of weaving cloth. 

Several items concerning the trade of a wheelwright would be interesting^ 
but it is very difficult to interpret them accurately or to express them in 
terms which would be understood to-day, so they have been omitted. 

No attempt has been made to print the shorthand of which there is a 
considerable amount. Those who are interested in very early systems 
would find it well worth their while to consult the book itself. 
A manuscript copy may be seen in the library of the Museum at Devizes. J 



VOL. XLVI. — NO. CLIX 2 A 



350 



EVIDENCE OF CLIMATE DERIVED FEOM SNAIL SHELLS 
AND ITS BEARING ON THE DATE OF STONEHENGE. 

By Mrs. M. E. Cunnington, Hon. F.S.A., Scot. 



In the following list of 27 sites the climatic conditions of the period to 
which the sites belong, as indicated by the contemporary species of snail 
shells found in the excavations, is given, where possible, in the actual words 
of the reports. 

It will be seen from the tabulated list that the 16 sites, which on 
archaeological grounds have been attributed to the pre-Bronze or early 
Bronze Age (Beaker period) have without exception, yielded snail species 
indicating a heavier rainfall and damper conditions than those of to-day. 

Of the three sites attributed to the middle Bronze Age the evidence 
suggests climatic conditions less damp than the earlier sites, but not so dry 
as at present. 

Of the six Iron Age sites, in two, the snail evidence suggests a climate 
comparatively dry and approximating to that of the present day ; while in 
four (Nos. 20, 22, 23, 24) the climate seems to have been rather damper 
than to-day, but one of these (site 22) is of doubtful value. 

The interesting point thus emerges that damp conditions seem to have 
been invariable on the sites known on archaeological grounds to be of early 
date, while at Stonehenge the date of which is uncertain, the snail evidence 
agrees with that of the later and not with that of the early sites. 



Uvidence of Climate derived from Snail Shells and its 
bearing on the Date of Stonehenge. 



351 



1 




' Blackpatch ^ 




3 

4 
5 
6 

7 


Late Neolithic over- 
lapping Early 
Bronze Age 


Easton Down 

Grimes's Graves 

Harrow Hill 

Trundle -y 

Whitehawk 

Windmill Hill 


i2 « 

..aS 


8 




^ Blashenwell 




9 
10 
11 
12 


a 

1 ■ 


^Alvediston ^ 
Cuxton 
Easton Down 
Ebbesbourne Wake 


09 

cq 


13 


Marley combe ^ 




14 




Easton Down 




15 


W 


Trundle 




16 




wThe Sanctuary 




17 

18 
19 


Middle 

Bronze 

Age 


f Amesbury 
Easton Down 
.Woodhenge 




50 
21 


(D 


"Chiselbury 
Meon Hill 




52 


o 


Trundle 




23 


Swallowcliflfe 




24 


f— 1 


Wuduburgh 




25 




wYarnbury 




26 


Saxon 


Broadchalke 




57 


? 


Stonehenge 





+ 


09 


Dry, i.e.t present 
day conditions 


+ 






+ 






+ 






4- ^ 






+ 






+ 






+ 






+ 






+ 






+ 






+ 






+ 






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2 A 2 



852 Evidence of Climate derived from Snail Shells and its 
hearing on the Date of Stonehenge. 

List of Sites with References. 

1. Blackpatch (Patching), feussex. Decidedly damper than the present 

day. Sussex Arch. Coll., vol. Ixv., p. 27 ; W.A.M,, vol. xlv., p. 364. 

2. Easton Down, Wilts. For flint mines as well as beaker dwelling pits 

evidence of a much greater rainfall than that of to-day. " The whole 
series indicates a scrub growth and certainly damper conditions 
than now exist, but not so pronounced as Windmill Hill." W.A.M.^ 
vol. xlv., p. .364. 

3. Grimes's Graves, Norfolk. " We can conclude that when the flint mining 

was being carried on at Grime's Graves the climate was decidedly 
wetter than it is to-day." Report of Excavations^ Pre-hist. Socty. 
ofE.Anglia, 1914,220. 

4. Harrow Hill, Sussex. Damper than to-day. " We have thus ad- 

ditional evidence that these flint mines, whether Grime's Graves or 
in Sussex were excavated during a damp period." Sussex Arch, 
Coll., vol. Ixvii., p. 26. 

5. The Trundle, Sussex. Neolithic levels damp loving woodland fauna ; 

conditions much damper than those of the present day. Sussex 
Arch. Coll., vol. Ixx., p. 69. 

6. Whitehawk Camp, Sussex. " Much damper conditions than the 

present. The evidence thus obtained from Whitekawk Camp is in 
strict accordance with the facts furnished by Blackpatch, Harrow 
Hill, and The Trundle (Sussex), Grime's Graves (Norfolk), Cuxton 
(Kent), and Blashenwell (Dorset). All these sites prove that much 
damper conditions prevailed during Neolithic times." Sussex Arch. 
Coll., vol. Ixxi., p. 84. 

7. Windmill Hill, Avebury, Wilts. " A much greater rainfall is indicated." 

Not published but referred to several times by Mr. Kennard as io 
Woodhenge, p. 75. 

8. Blashenwell, near Corfe, Dorset. Described as " An early Neolithic 

Kitchen-Midden." Froc. Dorset Field Club, vol. xvii., p, 69, 1896. 
Site quoted by Mr. Kennard as aflfording evidence of damp con- 
ditions. See under Whitehawk Camp No. 6, above. 

9. Alvediston, Wilts. Barrow I. Early Bronze Age ? " Damp conditions 

and scrub growth." W.A.M., vol. xliii., p. 434. The barrow had 
been previously disturbed, but the excavators believed it to be of 
early Bronze Age date. The snail samples were taken from the 
bottom of the ditch. 

10. Cuxton (Kent). This burial was originally described as "early 

Neolithic" but it is perhaps of the Beaker period. 

The site is quoted in reference to Whitehawk Camp which see 
No. 6, above. 

11. Easton Down, Wilts, Barrow, Area A. Beaker period. It is claimed 

that the evidence from this barrow proves that the passing of the 
wet period *' must be subsequent to the Beaker period." W.A.M., 
vol. xlvi., p. 241. 



By Mrs. M. E. Cunnington, Hon. F.S.A. Scot. 353 

12. Ebbesbourne Wake, Wilts. Barrow. Early Bronze Age ? (the barrow 

had been previously disturbed but the excavator thought it was of 
this period). " Damp conditions and scrub growth." W.A.M.t 
vol. xliii., p. 325. 

13. Marleycombe Hill, Wilts. Barrow. Early Bronze Age ? (beaker frag- 

ments but no very definite evidence of date). " The few specimens 
indicate a damp climate." W.A.M.t vol. xliii., p. 556, 

14. Easton Down, Wilts. Beaker dwelling pits, see under flint mines 

No. 2, above. 

15. Trundle, Sussex. Early Bronze Age. Damp coTiditions though not 

so pronounced as the Neolithic series. Sussex Arch Coll. vol. Ixx., 
p. 70. 

16. The Sanctuary, near Avebury. Early Bronze Age. Circles of timber 

and of stone. " Conditions much damper than present day." 
W.A.M., vol. xlv., p. 334. 

17. Amesbury, Wilts. Barrow 85. Middle Bronze Age. By this time 

the wet era seems to have passed, the snails indicating " downland 
conditions very similar to those of the present day, though slightly 
damper." W.A.M., vol. xlv., p. 443. 

18. Easton Down, Wilts. Urn-field. Late middle Bronze Age. The damp 

" molluscan age " had passed away when these burials took place. 
W.AJL, vol. xlvi., p. 241. 

19. Woodhenge, Wilts. The excavators believe it to be of early middle 

Bronze Age date. " The conditions during the construction of 
Woodhenge were slightly damper as to rainfall than at present. 
Area open downland though at some earlier period covered with 
scrub." Woodhenge, p. 71. 

20. Covered way or Cattle way, From the lowest level of silting in cattle 

way leading into Chiselbury Camp, Wilts. Iron Age. " This is a 
downland faunule, not of the arid type but indicating slightly damp 
conditions." Antiquity, March, 1927, p. 65. 

21. Meon Hill, Stockbridge, Hants. Iron Age. Samples from seven 

different parts of the excavations were used, including some found 
with skeletons believed to be Anglo-Saxon. " There is considerable 
resemblance between the three series and all indicate a climate 
similar to that of to-day. There is a total absence of the damp con- 
ditions of the Beaker period." Mr. Kennard's report printed in 
Proc. Hampshire Field Club, vol. xii., p. 158, 1933. 

■22. Trundle, Sussex. Early Iron Age. Slightly damp conditions. There 
seems to have been some uncertainty about the contemporaneity of 
some of the specimens. Sussex Arch. Coll., vol. Ixx., p. 70. 

^3. Swallowcliflfe, Wilts. Iron Age "shells indicate a scrub growth or 
coarse herbage." W.A.M. vol. xliii., p. 547. 

24. Wuduburgh, Broadchalke, Wilts. A cattle enclosure ? Iron Age and 
Romano- British. Iron Age level from floor of ditch indicates 
*' rather damp conditions." 



354 Evidence of Climate derived from Snail Shells and its 
hearing on the Date of Stonehenge. 

Romano-British. " So far as they go, this series indicates rather 
damper conditions than that of the Early Iron Age level." Wessea^ 
from the Air, Crawford and Keiller, 1928, p. 136. 

25. Yarnbury, Wilts. Iron Age A. Snails scarce, and species indicating 

" climatic conditions similar to those now existing " ; downland 
species prevailing with indications of earlier scrub growth. W.A.M. 
vol. xlvi., p. 208. 

26. Broadchalke, Wilts. Saxon cemetery. Indications of conditions 

similar to the present day. W.A.M. vol. xliii., p. 100. 

27. Stonehenge. Archseological evidence of date uncertain. Unpublished* 

" The mollusca both from the post holes and the ditch indicate 
downland conditions similar to those of to-day." 

Extract from Mr. Kennard's Report on Non- Marine Mollusca 
FROM The Ditch at Stonehenge, dated August, 1926. (Unpublished.) 
Samples taken at four levels, viz. : — 
" Top of brown earth just under the soil and turf." 
" Bottom of the brown earth filling the middle of the ditch." 
" Small earthy layer immediately above loose chalk on bottom." 
" Earthy layer under loose chalk on bottom." (Five species found.) 
*' The close identity of these three (four ?) faunules would indicate that the^ 
same conditions prevailed throughout the accumulation of the infilling and 
identical with those of the present day, that is " open downland " with an 
absence of scrub growth. There is a total absence of damp loving species 
so characteristic of the deposits — at Cissbury, Black Batch, and Grimes 
Graves." 

Second Report dated Nov., 1926. (Unpublished.) 

" All the evidence is conclusive, i.e., a climate similar to that of to-day."" 

The samples in this second report were taken from — 

" Hard silt generally filling the middle of the ditch " 

*' From OxskuU at bottom of ditch." 

*• From post hole 20in. deep in front of No. 49 stone." 

" From post hole 22in. deep." 

" From post hole 15in. deep." 

" From post hole 13in. deep on the chalk in front of No. 46 stone." 

" The mollusca both from the post holes and the ditch indicate downland 
conditions similar to those of to-day. The climate was similar to the 
present, and there is no indication of the damp conditions exhibited by sa 
many neolithic deposits." 



The post-glacial climate of north-western Europe has been divided as^ 
follows : — 

Boreal =dry and mainly cool circa 6500—5200 B.C. 

Atlantic=moist and warm „ 5200 — 3000 „ 

Sub-Boreal=dry and warm „ 3000—850 „ 

Sub-Atlantic=wet and cool ,, 850— -300 „ 



By Mrs. M, E. Gunnington, Hon. F.S.A., Scot, 355 

Our late Neolithic and the whole of the Bronze Age, except for its latest 
or transitional phase, would fall within the dates assigned to the dry sub- 
Boreal period, thus appearing to be in direct conflict with the evidence de- 
duced from the snails that show wet conditions throughout the late Neolithic 
and early Bronze Age (Beaker period) in southern Britain. 

The indications of climate, however, for north-western Europe as given 
by the text books are based on geological data, and evidence from peat bogs, 
etc., chiefly on observations in Scandinavia, and the rainfall for southern 
Britain may have been affected by local conditions, for it is well-known 
that a dry season in one region may mean a wet one elsewhere. 

There is indeed evidence suggesting that this was actually the case in 
the sub-Boreal period. It is not necessary to enter into detail here, but it 
may be found in a paper on " The Climate of Prehistoric Britain," by 
C. E. P. Brooks {Antiquity, Dec. 1927). It is there shown that at this time 
the western coasts of Ireland, Scotland, and Scandinavia, were exceptionally 
dry, and favourable to the growth of trees as opposed to that of peat, with 
an absence of strong westerly winds. " Under these conditions the pre- 
vailing winds over the British Isles would be easterly or north-easterly ; 
the track of depressions would lie mainly along the Channel or across the 
Bay of Biscay, and the rainfall would be heaviest over southern England 
and the eastern slopes of the English hills " {op. cit , p. 414). 

It has been observed, also, that the base of the Pennine peat apparently 
coincides with the beginning of the Scandinavian sub-Boreal period 
(Neolithic), so that while the Scandinavian climate was becoming drier the 
climate of southern Britain was not only relatively moist, but actually wet 
enough to favour the growth of peat in the region of the Pennines. 

Thus evidence from other sources is not lacking to support that afforded 
by the snails, and the snail evidence for a wet period here in the late 
Neolithic and early Bronze Age, as far as it is known at present, is so 
unanimous that it cannot be regarded as otherwise than important. 

From this the interesting conclusion emerges that the snail evidence 
gathered from the silt of the ditch at Stonehenge is incompatible with a 
late Neolithic or early Bronze Age date, and shows that the silting is not 
likely to have taken place earlier than the middle Bronze Age, and may 
well be later. 

It may be of interest to those unacquainted with the methods of excava- 
tion to know how snail shells are used as an aid to dating. Samples of soil, 
from ditch or pit, as the case may be, are taken (a 2lb. or 3lb. biscuit tin is 
a convenient receptacle) ; eventually the shells, many of them minute, are 
washed out of the soil, and according to the species, identified as lovers of 
wet, dry, wooded or scrub environment, the conditions on the site at the 
time the shells were buried may be deduced ; the shells, indeed, are used as 
indicators as fossils are by the geologist. 



I should like to thank Mr. A. S. Kennard for information on several 
points, and Mr. R. S. Newall for permission to publish an extract of Mr. 
.Kennard's unpublished report on the snail samples taken from Stonehenge. 



356 



A SUBSCKIPTION BOOK OF THE DEANS OF SARUM 

(1662—1706). 

By Uanon F. H. Manley. 

The interesting little book discovered among the documents preserved in 
the Salisbury Diocesan Registry, some account of which, with a transcript 
of its contents, has been contributed to this Magazine^ Vol. xlv., pp. 477 — 
482, deserves a somewhat fuller description than has been given of it by 
Mr. C. R. Everett, and this all the more because he failed to perceive its 
real nature. There must at one time have been in the Diocesan Registry a 
large number of similar books but larger and more substantial. It is curious 
that this little book in its fragile condition should have survived to the 
present time and Mr. Everett is to be congratulated on recognizing that its 
contents were of sufficient value to be transcribed. 

We have in this little book the signatures of some 250 clergy and others 
by which they expressed their assent to the new Book of Common Prayer 
of 1662, abjured the Solemn League and Covenant and bound themselves 
not to take up arms against the King. Such a declaration was under the 
Act of Uniformity made obligatory upon all clergy of the Church of 
England, Schoolmasters, and some others. The clergy as a condition of re- 
taining their benefices or discharging their ministerial functions were 
required before the 24th August, 1662, to make this declaration and after 
that date all clergy at their ordination and when being instituted to benefices 
had to do the same. The number who refused to make this declaration 
and were ejected from benefices or denied the right to minister in the 
Church of England in 1662 is said to be about 2,000. There is, however, 
no evidence that there were more clergy in the Diocese of Salisbury un- 
willing to sign the declaration than in other parts of England. 

This little book would be of more value to us now if in each case the 
signature had been followed by the name of the benefice held or to which 
institution was made. As it is, about a quarter of those who sign mention 
the name of the benefice with which they were connected, and this is sufficient 
for us to determine the true nature of the document with which we are 
dealing. 

Some of those who sign hold benefices in the county of Wilts, some in 
the county of Berks, and some in the county of Dorset. This fact at first 
presents a difficulty because in 1662 the Diocese of Sarum did not contain 
the county of Dorset, which had in 1542 been transferred by Henry VIII. 
to form part of the newly-constituted bishoprick of Bristol. Mow is it 
then that we find clergy in the county of Dorset signing as if they were in 
the Diocese of Sarum ? 

A careful examination of the Wiltshire parishes mentioned shows that 
not one of them occurs in the list of parishes included in Phillipp's Wilts 
Institutions, and that they must be what are called " peculiars," that is to 
say parishes in which episcopal jurisdiction was not exercised by the Bishop 
himself. The ancient Diocese of Sarum covered the counties of Wilts, 



A Subscription Book of the Deans of Sarum (166 2 — 17 06). 357 

Dorset, and Berks, and in all these counties there were a considerable num- 
ber of parishes in which episcopal jurisdiction, including institution to 
benefices, was exercised by the Dean of Sarum. When the diocese of 
Bristol was formed the jurisdiction of the Dean of Sarum in Dorset was 
not interfered with and we thus have the singular arrangement of a con- 
siderable number of parishes in the diocese of Bristol being under the 
episcopal jurisdiction of the Dean of Sarum. 

(Janon Jones in his Fasti. Eccl. Saris., p. 218, gives us the following in- 
formation on this point. " The Dean of Sarum was possessed of episcopal 
jurisdiction, as ordinary, over the various prebendal parishes and their 
dependent churches and chapels and also of Wantage, Hungerford and 
Farringdon and the various Prebendaries had archidiaconal jurisdiction 
under the Dean. . . Even as lately as 1845 he was accustomed to exer- 
cise this authority. In addition to this ordinary, he had also peculiar 
jurisdiction in many places as for instance in Bere Kegis and Sherborne 
with their dependencies, &c." 

The following is a list,i taken from Bacon's /.iber Regis, of the Sarum 
Peculiars in the counties of Dorset, Berks, and Wilts, the parishes mentioned 
in the document under our consideration being printed in italics. 

Diocese of Bristol, co. Dorset. 
Anderston, \\. ; Beere Hackett, H. ; Beere Regis, V. with chapel 
Winterbourne Kingston ; Bloxworth, li. ; Burton als Long Burton^ . with 
chapel Hollnest ; Castleton, Cu. ; Caundell Merse, \i. : Chardstock, V. 
Oharminster, Cu. with chapel Stratton ; Folke, U. ; Fordington and Wrid 
lington, V. ; Hermitage, V. with Ryme, R. ; Haydon, V. ; Lillington, R. 
Lyme Regis, V. with chapel Hahtock ; Netherby, V. with chapel Bemister 
Nether Compton, R. ; North Wootton, Cu. ; Oburne als Woburn, \. 
Preston, V. with chapel Sutton Points ; Sherborne, V. ; Stokewood, R. 
Stour Payne, V. ; Thorneford, R. ; Tomeston als Thomson ; Turner spondell, 
K. ; WambroTce, R. ; Yatminster, V. with chapels Leigh and Chetnotl. 

Diocese of Sarum, co. Berks. 
Arborfield, R. ; Alton Paneras, V. ; Blewberry, V. with chapels Upton 
and Auston Upthorp ; Farringdon, V. with chapel Goxwell; Hungerford, 
v.; Shalbourne, V.; Sunning, V. with chapels Hurst, Rugscomb, and 
Sandhurst ; Wantage, V. 

Diocese of Sarum, co. Wilts. 
Close of Salisbury ; Bedwin Magna, V. ; Bedwin joarva, V. ; Bishopston, 
v.; Blackland, R. ; Bremshaw, V.; Broad Blunsdon, Cu. ; Burbage, V. ; 
Burtjord als Britford, V. ; Calne, V. with chapel Cherill ; Combe Bissett, V. 
with chapel West Uarnham. ; Chute, V. ; Durnford Magna, V. ; Heytesbury, 
V. als perp. Cu. with chapel Knook and with its four prebends Hill 
Deverelly Horningsham, Swallowcli^e, and Tidrington \ Highworth, V. 

' See also Wilts Arch. Mag., vol. xxv., p. 410. The list there given was 
made out by Rev. John Ward, Vicar of Great Bedwyn, though it appears 
under the name of Canon J. E. Jackson. 



358 A Subscription Booh of the Deans of Sarum (1662—1706). 

with chapels Sevenhampton and South Marston ; Hummington, Cu. ; 
Mere, V. ; Netherhaveiiy V. ; Ogbourne St. Andrew, V. ; Ogbourne St. 
George, V. ; Ramsbury, V. ; Southbroom. Cu. ; Westbury, V. i Wilsford 
with Lake, V. ; Woodford, V. 

In Bremshaw, Hummington, and Burtford the Dean shared with the 
Chapter the episcopal jurisdiction, while at Fighelden it was exercised by 
the Treasurer of Salisbury and at Westbury by the oflScial. 

Apart from the parishes indicated above we do not find any in the 
document which we are examining and it is therefore plain that we have 
before us the book used by the Dean of Sarum in connection with incum- 
bents of the parishes for whose institution and episcopal jurisdiction he was 
responsible. 

It is, however, very incomplete and there must have been others used as 
well. We can see how incomplete it is by observing the number of incum- 
bents who signed before 24th August, 1662. There must at that time have 
been some 80 clergy at least in these parishes and we should expect to find 
about 60 signatures allowing for a few who refused to sign and were there- 
fore ejected but as a matter of fact we have only 32 signatures here recorded. 
Again there are no dated signatures at all after 1662 until 1675, after which it 
is possible that the record is complete. Most unfortunately from May, 1682^ 
until the last entry July, 1706, only on three occasions is the name of 
the benefice attached to the signatures. An examination of the Deans' 
Institution Registers should enable us to make up this deficiency but I 
believe these volumes too are defective. 

Our little subscription book itself consists of a considerble number of 
sheets of paper 1 l|in. by 8in., all blank except the first eight and the original 
wrapper or fly leaves were left blank on both pages. As to the eight leaves 
which constitute the little register itself two are left blank on the reverse 
side, viz., the second and fourth pages. The first page is headed with the 
Declaration forbidding taking up arms against the King followed by eight 
signatures concluding with " Hen. Hartweil, Vicar of Long Burton cum cap. 
de Holnest, August I8th, 1662." The second page is blank. The third page 
is again headed with the Declaration (fifteen lines) followed by signature* 
in two columns both of which were used on Aug. 18th, 1662, and other 
days of that month, concluding with "John Wilson, Curate of Broad 
Blunsdon, Aug.SOth, I662,"inthe lefthand column and "Richard Buckeridge, 
schoolmaster, of Great Faringdon," presumablyof the same date, in the right. 
The next page is blank. The fifth page is again headed with the Declaration 
followed by signatures in double column ranging from Aug. 19th to Aug. 
22nd, 1662, ending with " Arthur Squibb." The sixth page commences with 
the signature*' William West,curate of West Harnham," and the last signature 
is that of " Nicholas Pickard, admissus vicariusde Holnest, 14th May, 1676 "; 
all the signatures are apparently of 1675 or 1676. On page seven the head- 
ing has been struck out but seems to be " Persons instituted and licensed to 
preach this year beginning July 3, 1668 " the entry following being " Mr. 
Randall instituted to Bedwin Magna and licensed to preach." No date can 
DOW be deciphered for this entry or for the five which follow until we get to 
" Joannes Wilcocke 10 Jan. 1676 {i e. 1676—7)" but Mr. Everett dates them 



By Canm F. H. Manley. 359 

all 1676 so the writing may have faded out. The entry with regard to Mr. 
Ilandeli seems to be a stray one made in connection with the erased heading 
when the book may have been intended to be used for a record of institutions. 
From the Institution Book at P.R.O. we know that Mr. Randall was in- 
stituted to Bedwin Magna on 14th April, 1668. Page eight commences with 
the signature "J. Ouchterlony, Jan., 1678—9," and includes eighteen 
signatures of years 1678, 1679, 1680. Page nine commences with signature 
" Guil. Highmore, 2 May, 1681," and includes eighteen signatures of years 
1681, 1682. Page ten commences with signature " John Henchman, 27 May» 
1682," and includes seventeen signatures of years 1682, 1683, 1684. Page 
eleven commences with signature "John Bryant, 4 May, 1685," and in- 
cludes nineteen signatures of years 1685 andl686. Page twelve commences 
with signature '* Richard Wine, 26 April, 1687," and includes twenty sig- 
natures of years 1687, 1688, 1689. Page thirteen commences with signature 
*'Gulielmus Etwall, 16 Feb., 1689— 90 "and includes twenty-two signatures 
of years 1690 to 169